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ill 




Dewey Decimal Classification 




EDITION 20 




2 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://archive.org/details/deweydecimalcla02dewe 



Dewey Decimal Classification 
and Relative Index 



Dewey Decimal Classification 
and Relative Index 

Devised by Melvil Dewey 



EDITION 20 

Edited by 

John P. Comaromi, Editor 

Julianne Beall, Assistant Editor 

Winton E. Matthews, Jr., Assistant Editor 

Gregory R. New, Assistant Editor 



VOLUME 2 
Schedules 000-599 



FOREST PRESS 

A Division of 

OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 

ALBANY, NEW YORK 

1989 



Copyright 1876, 1885, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1919 

by Melvil Dewey 

Copyright 1888, 1891, 1894, 1899 

by Library Bureau 

Copyright 1922, 1927, 1932, 1942, 1952, © 1958 

by Lake Placid Club Education Foundation 

Copyright 1951, ©1965, 1971 

by Forest Press, Inc. 

Vol. 2 © 1967 by Forest Press, Inc. 

© 1979 by Forest Press 

A Division of the Lake Placid Education Foundation 

© 1989 

OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval 
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, 
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 

DDC, FOREST PRESS, DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION, and DEWEY DECIMAL 
CLASSIFICATION, ADDITIONS, NOTES AND DECISIONS are registered trademarks of 
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Dewey, Melvil, 1851-1931. 

Dewey decimal classification and relative index / devised by 
Melvil Dewey. — Ed. 20 / edited by John P. Comaromi, Julianne 
Beall, Winton E. Matthews, Jr., Gregory R. New. 

Contents: v. 1. Introduction. Tables ~ v. 2-3. Schedules - v.4. Relative 
index. Manual. 

1. Classification, Dewey decimal. I. Comaromi, John P. (John Phillip), 
1937- . II. Beall, Julianne, 1946- . III. Matthews, Winton E. IV. New, 
Gregory R. V. Forest Press. VI. Title. 
Z696.D519 1989 025.4'31~dcl9 88-24629 



(OO) 

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements 
of American National Standard for Information Science - Permanence 
of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-1984. 



ISBN: (set) 0-910608-37-7; v. 1 0-910608-38-5; v. 2 0-910608-39-3; 
v. 3 0-910608-40-7; v. 4 0-910608-41-5 



Contents 



Volume 1 



Publisher's Foreword xi 

Preface by the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee xiii 

Acknowledgments xvii 

New Features in Edition 20 xix 

Introduction to the Dewey Decimal Classification xxv 

About the Introduction xxv 

Classification: What It Is and What It Does xxv 

History and Current Use of the Dewey Decimal Classification xxvi 

Overview of the Dewey Decimal Classification xxvi 

Conceptual Framework xxvi 

Notation xxvii 

Principle of Hierarchy xxviii 

Classifying with the DDC xxix 

Determining the Subject of a Work xxix 

Determining the Discipline for a Work xxx 

More Than One Subject xxxi 

More Than One Discipline xxxi 

When All Else Fails xxxii 

How DDC 20 Is Arranged xxxiii 

Key Features of the Schedules and Tables xxxiii 

Summaries xxxiii 

Entries xxxiv 

Notes xxxv 

Number Building xl 

Number Building: Citation and Precedence Order xliii 

Citation Order xliii 

Precedence Order xliii 

The Relative Index xliv 

How to Use the Relative Index xlv 

Format and Arrangement of the Relative Index xlv 

Order in Which Numbers Are Displayed xlvi 

Interdisciplinary Numbers xlvi 

Terms Included in the Relative Index xlvii 

Terms Not Included in the Relative Index xlviii 



Dewey Decimal Classification 



Options xlviii 

Close and Broad Classification xlix 

Book Numbers xlix 

Selected Bibliography 1 

Glossary li 

Index to the Introduction and Glossary lix 

Publishing History of the Dewey Decimal Classification lxi 

Tables 1 

Use of the Tables 2 

Table 1 . Standard Subdivisions 3 

Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons 25 

Table 3. Subdivisions for Individual Literatures, 

for Specific Literary Forms 389 

Table 3-A. Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors 389 

Table 3-B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author 394 
Table 3-C. Notation to Be Added Where Instructed in Table 3-B 

and in 808-809 409 

Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual Languages 415 

Table 5. Racial, Ethnic, National Groups 421 

Table 6. Languages 438 

Table 7. Groups of Persons 457 

Relocations and Reductions 479 

Comparative Tables 496 

Music 496 

British Columbia 505 

Equivalence Tables 506 

Music 506 

British Columbia 514 



17 



Contents 



Volume 2 




Summaries 


ix 


Schedules 


1 


Use of the Schedules 


2 


000 Generalities 


3 


100 Philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, psychology 


77 


200 Religion 


127 


300 Social Sciences 


237 


400 Language 


692 


500 Natural sciences and mathematics 


718 


Volume 3 




Schedules 


1 


Use of the Schedules 


2 


600 Technology (Applied sciences) 


3 


700 The arts Fine and decorative arts 


446 


800 Literature (Belles-lettres) and rhetoric 


643 


900 Geography, history, and auxiliary disciplines 


693 


Volume 4 




Relative Index 


1 


Use of the Relative Index 


2 


Abbreviations Used in the Index 


3 


A-Z 


5 


Manual 


731 


Use of the Manual 


732 


Notes on Table Numbers 


733 


Notes on Schedule Numbers 


791 


Appendix: Policies and Procedures of the Library of Congress 




Decimal Classification Division 


959 



Vll 



Summaries 

First Summary* 
The Ten Main Classes 



000 


Generalities 


100 


Philosophy & psychology 


200 


Religion 


300 


Social sciences 


400 


Language 


500 


Natural sciences & mathematics 


600 


Technology (Applied sciences) 


700 


The arts 


800 


Literature & rhetoric 


900 


Geography & history 



♦Consult schedules for complete and exact headings 



IX 



Second Summary* 
The Hundred Divisions 



000 


Generalities 


500 


010 


Bibliography 


510 


020 


Library & information sciences 


520 


030 


General encyclopedic works 


530 


040 




540 


050 


General serials & their indexes 


550 


060 


General organizations & muscology 


560 


070 


News media, journalism, publishing 


570 


080 


General collections 


580 


090 


Manuscripts & rare books 


590 


100 


Philosophy & psychology 


600 


110 


Metaphysics 


610 


120 


Epistemology, causation, humankind 


620 


130 


Paranormal phenomena 


630 


140 


Specific philosophical schools 


640 


150 


Psychology 


650 


160 


Logic 


660 


170 


Ethics (Moral philosophy) 


670 


180 


Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 


680 


190 


Modern Western philosophy 


690 


200 


Religion 


700 


210 


Natural theology 


710 


220 


Bible 


720 


230 


Christian theology 


730 


240 


Christian moral & devotional theology 


740 


250 


Christian orders & local church 


750 


260 


Christian social theology 


760 


270 


Christian church history 


770 


280 


Christian denominations & sects 


780 


290 


Other & comparative religions 


790 


300 


Social sciences 


800 


310 


General statistics 


810 


320 


Political science 


820 


330 


Economics 


830 


340 


Law 


840 


350 


Public administration 


850 


360 


Social services; association 


860 


370 


Education 


870 


380 


Commerce, communications, transport 


880 


390 


Customs, etiquette, folklore 


890 


400 


Language 


900 


410 


Linguistics 


910 


420 


English & Old English 


920 


430 


Germanic languages German 


930 


440 


Romance languages French 


940 


450 


Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 


950 


460 


Spanish & Portuguese languages 


960 


470 


Italic languages Latin 


970 


480 


Hellenic languages Classical Greek 


980 


490 


Other languages 


990 



Natural sciences & mathematics 
Mathematics 

Astronomy & allied sciences 
Physics 

Chemistry & allied sciences 
Earth sciences 

Paleontology Paleozoology 
Life sciences 
Botanical sciences 
Zoological sciences 

Technology (Applied sciences) 
Medical sciences Medicine 
Engineering & allied operations 
Agriculture 

Home economics & family living 
Management & auxiliary services 
Chemical engineering 
Manufacturing 
Manufacture for specific uses 
Buildings 

The arts 

Civic & landscape art 

Architecture 

Plastic arts Sculpture 

Drawing & decorative arts 

Painting & paintings 

Graphic arts Printmaking & prints 

Photography & photographs 

Music 

Recreational & performing arts 

Literature & rhetoric 
American literature in English 
English & Old English literatures 
Literatures of Germanic languages 
Literatures of Romance languages 
Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 
Spanish & Portuguese literatures 
Italic literatures Latin 
Hellenic literatures Classical Greek 
Literatures of other languages 

Geography & history 
Geography & travel 
Biography, genealogy, insignia 
History of ancient world 
General history of Europe 
General history of Asia Far East 
General history of Africa 
General history of North America 
General history of South America 
General history of other areas 



*Consult schedules for complete and exact headings 



Third Summary* 
The Thousand Sections 





Generalities 


000 


Generalities 


050 


001 


Knowledge 


051 


002 


The book 


052 


003 


Systems 


053 


004 


Data processing Computer science 


054 


005 


Computer programming, programs, data 


055 


006 


Special computer methods 


056 


007 




057 


008 




058 


009 




059 


010 


Bibliography 


060 


on 


Bibliographies 


061 


012 


Of individuals 


062 


013 


Of works by specific classes of authors 


063 


014 


Of anonymous and pseudonymous works 


064 


015 


Of works from specific places 


065 


016 


Of works on specific subjects 


066 


017 


General subject catalogs 


067 


018 


Catalogs arranged by author & date 


068 


019 


Dictionary catalogs 


069 


020 


Library & information sciences 


070 


021 


Library relationships 


071 


022 


Administration of the physical plant 


072 


023 


Personnel administration 


073 


024 




074 


025 


Library operations 


075 


026 


Libraries for specific subjects 


076 


027 


General libraries 


077 


028 


Reading, use of other information media 


078 


029 




079 


030 


General encyclopedic works 


080 


031 


American 


081 


032 


In English 


082 


033 


In other Germanic languages 


083 


034 


In French, Provencal, Catalan 


084 


035 


In Italian, Romanian, Rhae to-Romanic 


085 


036 


In Spanish & Portuguese 


086 


037 


In Slavic languages 


087 


038 


In Scandinavian languages 


088 


039 


In other languages 


089 


040 




090 


041 




091 


042 




092 


043 




093 


044 




094 


045 




095 


046 




096 


047 




097 


048 




098 


049 




099 



General serials & their indexes 

American 

In English 

In other Germanic languages 

In French, Provencal, Catalan 

In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

In Spanish & Portuguese 

In Slavic languages 

In Scandinanvian languages 

In other languages 

General organizations & museology 

In North America 

In British Isles In England 

In central Europe In Germany 

In France & Monaco 

In Italy & adjacent territories 

In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands 

In eastern Europe In Soviet Union 

In other areas 

Museology (Museum science) 

News media, journalism, publishing 

In North America 

In British Isles In England 

In central Europe In Germany 

In France & Monaco 

In Italy & adjacent territories 

In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands 

In eastern Europe In Soviet Union 

In Scandinavia 

In other areas 

General collections 

American 

In English 

In other Germanic languages 

In French, Provencal, Catalan 

In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

In Spanish & Portuguese 

In Slavic languages 

In Scandinavian languages 

In other languages 

Manuscripts & rare books 

Manuscripts 

Block books 

Incunabula 

Printed books 

Books notable for bindings 

Books notable for illustrations 

Books notable for ownership or origin 

Prohibited works, forgeries, hoaxes 

Books notable for format 



♦Consult schedules for complete and exact headings 



XI 



Dewey Decimal Classification 



Philosophy and psychology 



100 Philosophy & psychology 

1 1 Theory of philosophy 

1 02 Miscellany of philosophy 

1 03 Dictionaries of philosophy 
104 

105 Serial publications of philosophy 

1 06 Organizations of philosophy 

107 Education, research in philosophy 

1 08 Kinds of persons in philosophy 

1 09 Historical treatment of philosophy 

110 Metaphysics 

1 1 1 Ontology 
112 

113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 



120 

121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 

130 

131 

132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 

140 

141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 



Cosmology (Philosophy of nature) 

Space 

Time 

Change 

Structure 

Force & energy 

Number & quantity 

Epistemology, causation, humankind 

Epistemology (Theory of knowledge) 

Causation 

Determinism & indeterminism 

Teleology 

The self 

The unconscious & the subconscious 

Humankind 

Origin & destiny of individual souls 

Paranormal phenomena 

Occult methods for achieving well-being 

Parapsychology & occultism 

Dreams & mysteries 

Divinatory graphology 

Physiognomy 

Phrenology 

Specific philosophical schools 

Idealism & related systems 
Critical philosophy 
Intuitionism & Bergsonism 
Humanism & related systems 
Sensationalism 
Naturalism & related systems 
Pantheism & related systems 
Liberalism, eclecticism, traditionalism 
Other philosophical systems 



150 

151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 



Psychology 

Perception, movement, emotions, drives 
Mental processes & intelligence 
Subconscious & altered states 
Differential & developmental psychology 
Comparative psychology 

Applied psychology 



160 Logic 

161 Induction 

162 Deduction 
163 

164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 



Fallacies & sources of error 

Syllogisms 

Hypotheses 

Argument & persuasion 

Analogy 



170 Ethics (Moral philosophy) 

1 7 1 Systems & doctrines 

172 Political ethics 

173 Ethics of family relationships 

174 Economic & professional ethics 

1 75 Ethics of recreation & leisure 

176 Ethics of sex & reproduction 

177 Ethics of social relations 

1 78 Ethics of consumption 

1 79 Other ethical norms 

180 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 

1 8 1 Oriental philosophy 

1 82 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies 

183 Sophistic & Socratic philosophies 

1 84 Platonic philosophy 

1 85 Aristotelian philosophy 

1 86 Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophies 

187 Epicurean philosophy 

188 Stoic philosophy 

1 89 Medieval Western philosophy 

190 Modern Western philosophy 

191 United States & Canada 

192 British Isles 

193 Germany & Austria 

194 France 

195 Italy 

196 Spain & Portugal 

197 Soviet Union 

198 Scandinavia 

199 Other geographical areas 



Xll 



Summaries 



Religion 



200 


Religion 


250 


Christian orders & local church 


201 


Philosophy of Christianity 


251 


Preaching (Homiletics) 


202 


Miscellany of Christianity 


252 


Texts of sermons 


203 


Dictionaries of Christianity 


253 


Pastoral office (Pastoral theology) 


204 


Special topics 


254 


Parish government & administration 


205 


Serial publications of Christianity 


255 


Religious congregations & orders 


206 


Organizations of Christianity 


256 




207 


Education, research in Christianity 


257 




208 


Kinds of persons in Christianity 


258 




209 


History & geography of Christianity 


259 


Activities of the local church 


210 


Natural theology 


260 


Christian social theology 


211 


Concepts of God 


261 


Social theology 


212 


Existence, attributes of God 


262 


Ecclesiology 


213 


Creation 


263 


Times, places of religious observance 


214 


Theodicy 


264 


Public worship 


215 


Science & religion 


265 


Sacraments, other rites & acts 


216 


Good & evil 


266 


Missions 


217 




267 


Associations for religious work 


218 


Humankind 


268 


Religious education 


219 




269 


Spiritual renewal 


220 


Bible 


270 


Christian church history 


221 


Old Testament 


271 


Religious orders in church history 


222 


Historical books of Old Testament 


272 


Persecutions in church history 


223 


Poetic books of Old Testament 


273 


Heresies in church history 


224 


Prophetic books of Old Testament 


274 


Christian church in Europe 


225 


New Testament 


275 


Christian church in Asia 


226 


Gospels & Acts 


276 


Christian church in Africa 


227 


Epistles 


277 


Christian church in North America 


228 


Revelation (Apocalypse) 


278 


Christian church in South America 


229 


Apocrypha & pseudepigrapha 


279 


Christian church in other areas 


230 


Christian theology 


280 


Christian denominations & sects 


231 


God 


281 


Early church & Eastern churches 


232 


Jesus Christ & his family 


282 


Roman Catholic Church 


233 


Humankind 


283 


Anglican churches 


234 


Salvation (Soteriology) & grace 


284 


Protestants of Continental origin 


235 


Spiritual beings 


285 


Presbyterian, Reformed, Congregations 


236 


Eschatology 


286 


Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist 


237 




287 


Methodist & related churches 


238 


Creeds & catechisms 


288 




239 


Apologetics & polemics 


289 


Other denominations & sects 


240 


Christian moral & devotional theology 


290 


Other & comparative religions 


241 


Moral theology 


291 


Comparative religion 


242 


Devotional literature 


292 


Classical (Greek & Roman) religion 


243 


Evangelistic writings for individuals 


293 


Germanic religion 


244 




294 


Religions of Indie origin 


245 


Texts of hymns 


295 


Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism) 


246 


Use of art in Christianity 


296 


Judaism 


247 


Church furnishings & articles 


297 


Islam & religions originating in it 


248 


Christian experience, practice, life 


298 




249 


Christian observances in family life 


299 


Other religions 



Xlll 



Dewey Decimal Classification 





Social 


sciences 


300 


Social sciences 


350 


301 


Sociology & anthropology 


351 


302 


Social interaction 


352 


303 


Social processes 


353 


304 


Factors affecting social behavior 


354 


305 


Social groups 


355 


306 


Culture & institutions 


356 


307 


Communities 


357 


308 




358 


309 




359 


310 


General statistics 


360 


311 




361 


312 




362 


313 




363 


314 


Of Europe 


364 


315 


Of Asia 


365 


316 


Of Africa 


366 


317 


Of North America 


367 


318 


Of South America 


368 


319 


Of other parts of the world 


369 


320 


Political science 


370 


321 


Systems of governments & states 


371 


322 


Relation of state to organized groups 


372 


323 


Civil & political rights 


373 


324 


The political process 


374 


325 


International migration & colonization 


375 


326 


Slavery & emancipation 


376 


327 


International relations 


377 


328 


The legislative process 


378 


329 




379 


330 


Economics 


380 


331 


Labor economics 


381 


332 


Financial economics 


382 


333 


Land economics 


383 


334 


Cooperatives 


384 


335 


Socialism & related systems 


385 


336 


Public finance 


386 


337 


International economics 


387 


338 


Production 


388 


339 


Macroeconomics & related topics 


389 


340 


Law 


390 


341 


International law 


391 


342 


Constitutional & administrative law 


392 


343 


Military, tax, trade, industrial law 


393 


344 


Social, labor, welfare, & related law 


394 


345 


Criminal law 


395 


346 


Private law 


396 


347 


Civil procedure & courts 


397 


348 


Law (Statutes), regulations, cases 


398 


349 


Law of specific jurisdictions & areas 


399 



Public administration 

Of central governments 

Of local governments 

Of U.S. federal & state governments 

Of specific central governments 

Military science 

Foot forces & warfare 

Mounted forces & warfare 

Other specialized forces & services 

Sea (Naval) forces & warfare 

Social services; association 

General social problems & welfare 

Social welfare problems & services 

Other social problems & services 

Criminology 

Penal & related institutions 

Association 

General clubs 

Insurance 

Miscellaneous kinds of associations 

Education 

School management; special education 

Elementary education 

Secondary education 

Adult education 

Curriculums 

Education of women 

Schools & religion 

Higher education 

Government regulation, control, support 

Commerce, communications, transport 

Internal commerce (Domestic trade) 
International commerce (Foreign trade) 
Postal communication 
Communications Telecommunication 
Railroad transportation 
Inland waterway & ferry transportation 
Water, air, space transportation 
Transportation Ground transportation 
Metrology & standardization 

Customs, etiquette, folklore 

Costume & personal appearance 
Customs of life cycle & domestic life 
Death customs 
General customs 
Etiquette (Manners) 



Folklore 

Customs of war & diplomacy 



XIV 



Summaries 



Language 



400 

401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 

410 

411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 
418 
419 

420 

421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 

430 

431 
432 
433 
434 
435 
436 
437 
438 
439 

440 

441 
442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 



Language 

Philosophy & theory 
Miscellany 

Dictionaries & encyclopedias 
Special topics 
Serial publications 
Organizations & management 
Education, research, related topics 
With respect to kinds of persons 
Geographical & persons treatment 

Linguistics 

Writing systems 

Etymology 

Dictionaries 

Phonology 

Structural systems (Grammar) 

Dialectology & historical linguistics 
Standard usage Applied linguistics 
Verbal language not spoken or written 

English & Old English 

English writing system & phonology 
English etymology 
English dictionaries 

English grammar 

English language variations 
Standard English usage 
Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

Germanic languages German 

German writing system & phonology 
German etymology 
German dictionaries 

German grammar 

German language variations 
Standard German usage 
Other Germanic languages 

Romance languages French 

French writing system & phonology 
French etymology 
French dictionaries 

French grammar 

French language variations 
Standard French usage 
Provencal & Catalan 



450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

45 1 Italian writing system & phonology 
Italian etymology 
Italian dictionaries 



452 
453 
454 
455 
456 
457 
458 
459 

460 

461 
462 
463 
464 
465 
466 
467 
468 
469 

470 

471 

472 
473 
474 
475 
476 
477 
478 
479 

480 

481 
482 
483 
484 
485 
486 
487 
488 
489 

490 

491 
492 
493 
494 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 



Italian grammar 

Italian language variations 
Standard Italian usage 
Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic 

Spanish & Portuguese languages 

Spanish writing system & phonology 
Spanish etymology 
Spanish dictionaries 

Spanish grammar 

Spanish language variations 
Standard Spanish usage 
Portuguese 

Italic languages Latin 

Classical Latin writing & phonology 
Classical Latin etymology 
Classical Latin dictionaries 

Classical Latin grammar 

Old, Postclassical, Vulgar Latin 
Classical Latin usage 
Other Italic languages 

Hellenic languages Classical Greek 

Classical Greek writing & phonology 
Classical Greek etymology 
Classical Greek dictionaries 

Classical Greek grammar 

Preclassical & postclassical Greek 
Classical Greek usage 
Other Hellenic languages 

Other languages 

East Indo-European & Celtic languages 
Afro-Asiatic languages Semitic 
Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages 
Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian 
Languages of East & Southeast Asia 
African languages 
North American native languages 
South American native languages 
Miscellaneous languages 



XV 



Dewey Decimal Classification 



Natural sciences and mathematics 



500 Natural sciences & mathematics 

501 Philosophy & theory 

502 Miscellany 

503 Dictionaries & encyclopedias 
504 

505 Serial publications 

506 Organizations & management 

507 Education, research, related topics 

508 Natural history 

509 Historical, areas, persons treatment 



510 Mathematics 

5 1 1 General principles 

Algebra & number theory 

Arithmetic 

Topology 

Analysis 

Geometry 



512 
513 
514 
515 
516 
517 
518 
519 

520 

521 
522 
523 
524 
525 
526 
527 
528 
529 

530 

531 
532 
533 
534 
535 
536 
537 
538 
539 

540 

541 
542 
543 
544 
545 
546 
547 
548 
549 



Probabilities & applied mathematics 

Astronomy & allied sciences 

Celestial mechanics 
Techniques, equipment, materials 
Specific celestial bodies & phenomena 

Earth (Astronomical geography) 
Mathematical geography 
Celestial navigation 
Ephemerides 
Chronology 

Physics 

Classical mechanics Solid mechanics 

Fluid mechanics Liquid mechanics 

Gas mechanics 

Sound & related vibrations 

Light & paraphotic phenomena 

Heat 

Electricity & electronics 

Magnetism 

Modem physics 

Chemistry & allied sciences 

Physical & theoretical chemistry 
Techniques, equipment, materials 
Analytical chemistry 
Qualitative analysis 
Quantitative analysis 
Inorganic chemistry 
Organic chemistry 
Crystallography 
Mineralogy 



550 Earth sciences 

551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology 

552 Petrology 

553 Economic geology 

554 Earth sciences of Europe 

555 Earth sciences of Asia 

556 Earth sciences of Africa 

557 Earth sciences of North America 

558 Earth sciences of South America 

559 Earth sciences of other areas 

560 Paleontology Paleozoology 

561 Paleobotany 

562 Fossil invertebrates 

563 Fossil primitive phyla 

564 Fossil Mollusca & Molluscoidea 

565 Other fossil invertebrates 

566 Fossil Vertebrata (Fossil Craniata) 

567 Fossil cold-blooded vertebrates 

568 Fossil Aves (Fossil birds) 

569 Fossil Mammalia 

570 Life sciences 

571 

572 Human races 

573 Physical anthropology 

574 Biology 

575 Evolution & genetics 

576 Microbiology 

577 General nature of life 

578 Microscopy in biology 

579 Collection and preservation 

580 Botanical sciences 

581 Botany 

582 Spermatophyta (Seed-bearing plants) 

583 Dicotyledones 

584 Monocotyledones 

585 Gymnospermae (Pinophyta) 

586 Cryptogamia (Seedless plants) 

587 Pteridophyta (Vascular cryptogams) 

588 Bryophyta 

589 Thallobionta & Prokaryotae 

590 Zoological sciences 

59 1 Zoology 

592 Invertebrates 

593 Protozoa, Echinodermata, related phyh 

594 Mollusca & Molluscoidea 

595 Other invertebrates 

596 Vertebrata (Craniata, Vertebrates) 

597 Cold-blooded vertebrates Fishes 

598 Aves (Birds) 

599 Mammalia (Mammals) 



XVI 



Summaries 



Technology (Applied sciences) 



600 


Technology (Applied sciences) 


650 


601 


Philosophy & theory 


651 


602 


Miscellany 


652 


603 


Dictionaries & encyclopedias 


653 


604 


Special topics 


654 


605 


Serial publications 


655 


606 


Organizations 


656 


607 


Education, research, related topics 


657 


608 


Invention & patents 


658 


609 


Historical, areas, persons treatment 


659 


610 


Medical sciences Medicine 


660 


611 


Human anatomy, cytology, histology 


661 


612 


Human physiology 


662 


613 


Promotion of health 


663 


614 


Incidence & prevention of disease 


664 


615 


Pharmacology & therapeutics 


665 


616 


Diseases 


666 


617 


Surgery & related medical specialties 


667 


618 


Gynecology & other medical specialties 


668 


619 


Experimental medicine 


669 


620 


Engineering & allied operations 


670 


621 


Applied physics 


671 


622 


Mining & related operations 


672 


623 


Military & nautical engineering 


673 


624 


Civil engineering 


674 


625 


Engineering of railroads, roads 


675 


626 




676 


627 


Hydraulic engineering 


677 


628 


Sanitary & municipal engineering 


678 


629 


Other branches of engineering 


679 


630 


Agriculture 


680 


631 


Techniques, equipment, materials 


681 


632 


Plant injuries, diseases, pests 


682 


633 


Field & plantation crops 


683 


634 


Orchards, fruits, forestry 


684 


635 


Garden crops (Horticulture) 


685 


636 


Animal husbandry 


686 


637 


Processing dairy & related products 


687 


638 


Insect culture 


688 


639 


Hunting, fishing, conservation 


689 


640 


Home economics & family living 


690 


641 


Food & drink 


691 


642 


Meals & table service 


692 


643 


Housing & household equipment 


693 


644 


Household utilities 


694 


645 


Household furnishings 


695 


646 


Sewing, clothing, personal living 


696 


647 


Management of public households 


697 


648 


Housekeeping 


698 


649 


Child rearing & home care of sick 


699 



Management & auxiliary services 

Office services 

Processes of written communication 

Shorthand 



Accounting 
General management 
Advertising & public relations 

Chemical engineering 

Industrial chemicals technology 
Explosives, fuels technology 
Beverage technology 
Food technology 
Industrial oils, fats, waxes, gases 
Ceramic & allied technologies 
Cleaning, color, related technologies 
Technology of other organic products 
Metallurgy 

670 Manufacturing 

Metalworking & metal products 

Iron, steel, other iron alloys 

Nonferrous metals 

Lumber processing, wood products, cork 

Leather & fur processing 

Pulp & paper technology 

Textiles 

Elastomers & elastomer products 

Other products of specific materials 

Manufacture for specific uses 

Precision instruments & other devices 
Small forge work (Blacksmithing) 
Hardware & household appliances 
Furnishings & home workshops 
Leather, fur, related products 
Printing & related activities 
Clothing 
Other final products & packaging 



Buildings 

Building materials 

Auxiliary construction practices 

Specific materials & purposes 

Wood construction Carpentry 

Roof covering 

Utilities 

Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning 

Detail finishing 



XVII 



Dewey Decimal Classification 



The arts 



700 


The arts 


750 


Painting & paintings 


701 


Philosophy & theory 


751 


Techniques, equipment, forms 


702 


Miscellany 


752 


Color 


703 


Dictionaries & encyclopedias 


753 


Symbolism, allegory, mythology, legend 


704 


Special topics 


754 


Genre paintings 


705 


Serial publications 


755 


Religion & religious symbolism 


706 


Organizations & management 


756 




707 


Education, research, related topics 


757 


Human figures & their parts 


708 


Galleries, museums, private collections 


758 


Other subjects 


709 


Historical, areas, persons treatment 


759 


Historical, areas, persons treatment 


710 


Civic & landscape art 


760 


Graphic arts Printmaking & prints 


711 


Area planning (Civic art) 


761 


Relief processes (Block printing) 


712 


Landscape architecture 


762 




713 


Landscape architecture of trafficways 


763 


Lithographic (Planographic) processes 


714 


Water features 


764 


Chromolithography & serigraphy 


715 


Woody plants 


765 


Metal engraving 


716 


Herbaceous plants 


766 


Mezzotinting & related processes 


717 


Structures 


767 


Etching & drypoint 


718 


Landscape design of cemeteries 


768 




719 


Natural landscapes 


769 


Prints 


720 


Architecture 


770 


Photography & photographs 


721 


Architectural structure 


771 


Techniques, equipment, materials 


722 


Architecture to ca. 300 


772 


Metallic salt processes 


723 


Architecture from ca. 300 to 1399 


773 


Pigment processes of printing 


724 


Architecture from 1400 


774 


Holography 


725 


Public structures 


775 




726 


Buildings for religious purposes 


776 




727 


Buildings for education & research 


777 




728 


Residential & related buildings 


778 


Fields & kinds of photography 


729 


Design & decoration 


779 


Photographs 


730 


Plastic arts Sculpture 


780 


Music 


731 


Processes, forms, subjects of sculpture 


781 


General principles & musical forms 


732 


Sculpture to ca. 500 


782 


Vocal music 


733 


Greek, Etruscan, Roman sculpture 


783 


Music for single voices The voice 


734 


Sculpture from ca. 500 to 1399 


784 


Instruments & instrumental ensembles 


735 


Sculpture from 1400 


785 


Chamber music 


736 


Carving & carvings 


786 


Keyboard & other instruments 


737 


Numismatics & sigillography 


787 


Stringed instruments (Chordophones) 


738 


Ceramic arts 


788 


Wind instruments (Aerophones) 


739 


Art metalwork 


789 




740 


Drawing & decorative arts 


790 


Recreational & performing arts 


741 


Drawing & drawings 


791 


Public performances 


742 


Perspective 


792 


Stage presentations 


743 


Drawing & drawings by subject 


793 


Indoor games & amusements 


744 




794 


Indoor games of skill 


745 


Decorative arts 


795 


Games of chance 


746 


Textile arts 


796 


Athletic & outdoor sports & games 


747 


Interior decoration 


797 


Aquatic & air sports 


748 


Glass 


798 


Equestrian sports & animal racing 


749 


Furniture & accessories 


799 


Fishing, hunting, shooting 



XVlll 



Summaries 



Literature and rhetoric 



800 Literature & rhetoric 

801 Philosophy & theory 

802 Miscellany 

803 Dictionaries & encyclopedias 
804 

805 Serial publications 

806 Organizations 

807 Education, research, related topics 

808 Rhetoric & collections of literature 

809 Literary history & criticism 

810 American literature in English 

811 Poetry 

812 Drama 

813 Fiction 

814 Essays 

815 Speeches 

816 Letters 

817 Satire & humor 

8 1 8 Miscellaneous writings 
819 

820 English & Old English literatures 

821 English poetry 

822 English drama 

823 English fiction 

824 English essays 

825 English speeches 

826 English letters 

827 English satire & humor 

828 English miscellaneous writings 

829 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

830 Literatures of Germanic languages 

83 1 German poetry 

832 German drama 

833 German fiction 

834 German essays 

835 German speeches 

836 German letters 

837 German satire & humor 

838 German miscellaneous writings 

839 Other Germanic literatures 

840 Literatures of Romance languages 

841 French poetry 

842 French drama 

843 French fiction 

844 French essays 

845 French speeches 

846 French letters 

847 French satire & humor 

848 French miscellaneous writings 

849 Provencal & Catalan 



850 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

85 1 Italian poetry 

852 Italian drama 

853 Italian fiction 

854 Italian essays 

855 Italian speeches 

856 Italian letters 

857 Italian satire & humor 

858 Italian miscellaneous writings 

859 Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic 

860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures 

861 Spanish poetry 

862 Spanish drama 

863 Spanish fiction 

864 Spanish essays 

865 Spanish speeches 

866 Spanish letters 

867 Spanish satire & humor 

868 Spanish miscellaneous writings 

869 Portuguese 

870 Italic literatures Latin 

871 Latin poetry 

872 Latin dramatic poetry & drama 

873 Latin epic poetry & fiction 

874 Latin lyric poetry 

875 Latin speeches 

876 Latin letters 

877 Latin satire & humor 

878 Latin miscellaneous writings 

879 Literatures of other Italic languages 

880 Hellenic literatures Classical Greek 

88 1 Classical Greek poetry 

882 Classical Greek drama 

883 Classical Greek epic poetry & fiction 

884 Classical Greek lyric poetry 

885 Classical Greek speeches 

886 Classical Greek letters 

887 Classical Greek satire & humor 

888 Classical Greek miscellaneous writings 

889 Modern Greek 

890 Literatures of other languages 

89 1 East Indo-European & Celtic 

892 Afro-Asiatic literatures Semitic 

893 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic literatures 

894 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian 

895 Literatures of East & Southeast Asia 

896 African literatures 

897 North American native literatures 

898 South American native literatures 

899 Other literatures 



XIX 



Dewey Decimal Classification 



Geography and history 



900 


Geography & history 


950 


General history of Asia Far East 


901 


Philosophy & theory 


951 


China & adjacent areas 


902 


Miscellany 


952 


Japan 


903 


Dictionaries & encyclopedias 


953 


Arabian Peninsula & adjacent areas 


904 


Collected accounts of events 


954 


South Asia India 


905 


Serial publications 


955 


Iran 


906 


Organizations & management 


956 


Middle East (Near East) 


907 


Education, research, related topics 


957 


Siberia (Asiatic Russia) 


908 


With respect to kinds of persons 


958 


Central Asia 


909 


World history 


959 


Southeast Asia 


910 


Geography & travel 


960 


General history of Africa 


911 


Historical geography 


961 


Tunisia & Libya 


912 


Graphic representations of earth 


962 


Egypt & Sudan 


913 


Ancient world 


963 


Ethiopia 


914 


Europe 


964 


Morocco & Canary Islands 


915 


Asia 


965 


Algeria 


916 


Africa 


966 


West Africa & offshore islands 


917 


North America 


967 


Central Africa & offshore islands 


918 


South America 


968 


Southern Africa 


919 


Other areas 


969 


South Indian Ocean islands 


920 


Biography, genealogy, insignia 


970 


General history of North America 


921 




971 


Canada 


922 




972 


Middle America Mexico 


923 




973 


United States 


924 




974 


Northeastern United States 


925 




975 


Southeastern United States 


926 




976 


South central United States 


927 




977 


North central United States 


928 




978 


Western United States 


929 


Genealogy, names, insignia 


979 


Great Basin & Pacific Slope 


930 


History of ancient world 


980 


General history of South America 


931 


China 


981 


Brazil 


932 


Egypt 


982 


Argentina 


933 


Palestine 


983 


Chile 


934 


India 


984 


Bolivia 


935 


Mesopotamia & Iranian Plateau 


985 


Peru 


936 


Europe north & west of Italy 


986 


Colombia & Ecuador 


937 


Italy & adjacent territories 


987 


Venezuela 


938 


Greece 


988 


Guiana 


939 


Other parts of ancient world 


989 


Paraguay & Uruguay 


940 


General history of Europe 


990 


General history of other areas 


941 


British Isles 


991 




942 


England & Wales 


992 




943 


Central Europe Germany 


993 


New Zealand 


944 


France & Monaco 


994 


Australia 


945 


Italian Peninsula & adjacent islands 


995 


Melanesia New Guinea 


946 


Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands 


996 


Other parts of Pacific Polynesia 


947 


Eastern Europe Soviet Union 


997 


Atlantic Ocean islands 


948 


Northern Europe Scandinavia 


998 


Arctic islands & Antarctica 


949 


Other parts of Europe 


999 


Extraterrestrial worlds 



XX 



Schedules 









Use of the Schedules 



Full instructions on the use of the Schedules are found in the 
Introduction to the Dewey Decimal Classification in Volume 1 . 

The first three digits of a DDC number are normally found at the top of 
the page. 

A number in square brackets [ ] is not currently in use. 

A number in parentheses ( ) is an option to standard usage. 



000 



000 Generalities 

See Manual at 000 



SUMMARY 

001 Knowledge 

002 The book 

003 Systems 

004 Data processing Computer science 

005 Computer programming, programs, data 

006 Special computer methods 



001 Knowledge 



General aspects: history, description, critical appraisal of intellectual activity in 
general; increase, modification, dissemination of information and understanding 

Class here discussion of ideas from many fields 

Class epistemology in 121; a compilation of knowledge in a specific form with the 
form, e.g., encyclopedias 030 

See Manual at 500 vs. 001 







SUMMARY 


.01- 

.1 

.2 
.3 
.4 
.9 


.09 


Standard subdivisions 
Intellectual life 
Scholarship and learning 
Humanities 
Research 
Controversial knowledge 



.0 1 Theory of knowledge 

Class philosophy of knowledge, philosophical works on the theory of 
knowledge in 121 

.1 Intellectual life 

Nature and value 

For scholarship and learning, see 001.2 

See also 900 for broad description of intellectual situation and condition 
[.14] Intellectual cooperation 

Number discontinued; class in 001.1 



001 Dewey Decimal Classification 001 

.2 Scholarship and learning 

Intellectual activity directed toward increase of knowledge 

Class methods of study and teaching in 371.3; scholarship and learning in a 
specific discipline or subject with the discipline or subject, e.g., in the 
humanities 001.3, in history 900 

For research, see 001.4 

See Manual at 500 vs. 001 

.3 Humanities 

Including relative value of science versus the humanities 

.4 Research 

Class here evaluation research, works discussing what research is 

Class research in a specific discipline or subject with the discipline or subject, 
using notation 072 from Table 1, e.g., research in linguistics 410.72; works 
embodying the results of research with the subject of the research, but not using 
notation 072 from Table 1, e.g., results of research in linguistics 410 (not 
410.72) 

See Manual at 500 vs. 001 

.42 Research methods 

Class here research methods not otherwise provided for [formerly 001.43], 
scientific method 

Class computer modeling and simulation in 003.3 

For historical, descriptive, experimental methods, see 001.43 

.422 Statistical methods 

See also 310 for collections of general statistical data, notation 021 
from Table 1 for statistics on a specific discipline or subject 

See Manual at 519.5, Tl -01 5 195 vs. 001.422, Tl-072 

All 1 Collection of data 

Including statistical aspects of field work and questionnaires 

Class here sampling techniques 

See also 001 .433 for field work, questionnaires in descriptive 
research 

All 4 Tabulation of data 

General aspects: arrangement, layout, construction of tables and series 
Class tabulation of data for presentation in 001.4226 

.422 5 Analysis of data 

See Manual at 519.5, 71-015195 vs. 001.422, Tl-072 



001 Generalities 001 

.422 6 Presentation of data 

Examples: charts, graphs, nomograms 

Class tabulation of data for analysis and comprehensive works on 
tabulation and presentation of data in 001 .4224 

[.424] Operations research 

Relocated to 003 

.43 Historical, descriptive, experimental methods 

Research methods not otherwise provided for relocated to 001.42 

.432 Historical method 

Example: case studies 

.433 Descriptive method 

Including collecting, field work, questionnaires, surveys 

See also 001.422 for statistical methods, 310. 723 for methods of 
collecting general social statistical data 

.434 Experimental method 

.44 Support of and incentives for research 

Examples: awards, certificates, honors, medals, prizes, endowments, 
fellowships, financial patronage, grants, scholarships 

Class student finance in higher education in 378.3; awards granted in a 
specific discipline with the discipline, using notation 079 from Table 1, e.g., 
awards in fine and decorative arts 707.9 

See also 929. 81 for awards for general achievements 

[.5] Communication 

Relocated to 302.2 

[.53] Cybernetics 

Relocated to 003.5 

[.533] Self-organizing systems 

Relocated to 003.7 

[.534] Perception theory 

Perception theory relocated to 003.52, computer pattern recognition to 
006.4 

[.535] Artificial intelligence 

Artificial intelligence relocated to 006.3, automata theory to 51 1.3 

[.539] Information theory 

Information theory relocated to 003.54; recall, precision, relevance, 
irrelevance to 025.04 



001 Dewey Decimal Classification 001 

[.543 6] Cryptography 

Relocated to 652.8 

[.6] Data processing Computer science 

Relocated to 004 

.9 Controversial knowledge 

Example: well established phenomena for which explanations are controversial 

Including the end of the world 

Class here interdisciplinary works on controversial knowledge and paranormal 
phenomena 

Class controversial knowledge concerning a specific discipline or subject with 
the discipline or subject, e.g., the paranormal and legendary as subjects of 
folklore 398.4, Piltdown man hoax 573.3, controversial medical remedies 
615.856, an alleged conspiracy to assassinate John F. Kennedy 973.922 

For paranormal phenomena, see 130 

See Manual at 001 . 9 and 130 

[.93] Curiosities 

Relocated to 030 

.94 Mysteries 

Reported phenomena not explained, not fully verified 

Examples: Atlantis, Bermuda Triangle, pyramid power 

Class here nonastronomical extraterrestrial influences on earth 

See also 900 for Atlantis as a subject of archaeology 

.942 Unidentified flying objects (UFOs, Flying saucers) 

.944 Monsters and related phenomena 

Examples: abominable snowman, Loch Ness monster 

See also 590 for animals whose reality is not controversial 

.95 Deceptions and hoaxes 

Piltdown man hoax relocated to 573.3 

Class hoaxes that influenced history in 900, e.g., Pseudo-Demetrius 947.045 

.96 Errors, delusions, superstitions 



002 Generalities 002 

002 The book 

General aspects: history, description, critical appraisal 

Class here historical bibliography, interdisciplinary works on the book 

Class comprehensive works on historical and analytical bibliography in 010.42, 
book publishing in 070.5, social aspects of the book in 302.232, book arts in 686 

For rare books, see 090 

[.021 6] Lists, inventories, catalogs 

Do not use; class in 010 

[.029 4] Trade catalogs and directories 

Do not use; class in 010 

.074 Museums, collections, exhibits 

Class catalogs and lists in 010 

003 Systems 

Class here operations research [formerly 001.424]; systems theory, analysis, 
design, optimization; models (simulation) applied to real-world systems 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or 
more subdivisions of 003 in the one coming last, e.g., control of discrete-time 
linear systems 003.83 (not 003.5 or 003.74) 

Class simulation in education in 371.397; systems in a specific subject or discipline 
with the subject or discipline, using notation 01 1 from Table 1, e.g., systems theory 
in the social sciences 300. 1 1 

See also 511 .8 for mathematical models not applied to real-world systems, 
519. 7 for mathematical programming not applied to real-world systems 

See Manual at 003; 003, Tl—011 vs. 510, T 1—0151; 004.21 vs. 003 

[.028 5] Data processing Computer applications 

Do not use; class in 003.3 

.1 System identification 

Determining a mathematical model for a system by observing its input-output 
relationships 

.2 Forecasting and forecasts 

Class here interdisciplinary works on forecasting 

Class forecasting by parapsychological and occult means in 133.3 

See Manual at 003.2 

.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of forecasting as a 

discipline 

Class forecasting and forecasts for specific areas in 303.491-303.499 



003 Dewey Decimal Classification 003 

.3 Computer modeling and simulation 

Class here interdisciplinary works on computer modeling and simulation, data 
processing and computer science applied to systems, computer implementation 
of mathematical models of systems 

Add to base number 003.3 the numbers following 00 in 004-006, e.g., 
computer simulation languages 003.3513 

.5 Theory of communication and control 

In living and nonliving systems 

Including bionics 

Class here cybernetics [formerly 001.53], interdisciplinary works on the control 
and stability of systems 

Class social aspects of and interdisciplinary works on communication in 
systems in 302.2 

For artificial intelligence, see 006.3 

See Manual at 003. 5 vs. 629. 8 

.52 Perception theory [formerly 00 1 .534] 

Class computer vision in 006.37, psychology of human perception in 153.7, 
perception in animals in 59 1 . 1 82 

See also 006.4 for computer pattern recognition 

.54 Information theory [formerly 001 .539] 

Theory concerning measurement of quantities of information; accuracy in 
transmission of messages subject to noise (unwanted, usually random, 
signals), distortion, and transmission failure; and methods of coding for 
efficient, accurate transmission 

Class here coding theory [formerly 5 1 9.4] 

Class coding for the purpose of limiting access to information in 652.8 

See Manual at 621.3822 vs. 003. 54 

,56 Decision theory 

See also 153.83 for decision theory in psychology, 511.65 for decision 
theory in combinatorial analysis, 658.40301 for decision theory in 
management 

.7 Kinds of systems 

Examples: self-organizing systems {formerly 001.533], deterministic systems, 
hierarchical systems, lumped-parameter systems, small-scale systems 

For systems distinguished in relation to time, see 003.8 

See Manual at 003 .7 

.7 1 Large-scale systems 

Many general works on systems treat predominately large-scale systems. 
Class here only works emphasizing that the systems are large 



003 Generalities 003 

.74 Linear systems 

.75 Nonlinear systems 

.76 Stochastic systems 

.78 Distributed-parameter systems 

.8 Systems distinguished in relation to time 

Examples: continuous-time systems, instantaneous (zero-memory) systems, 
time-invariant systems, time-varying systems 

.83 Discrete-time systems 

.85 Dynamic systems 

Systems in which response depends upon past values of excitation as well as 
current excitation 

004 Data processing Computer science [formerly 001.6] 

This schedule (004-006) was separately published in 1985 

Class here selection and use of computer hardware; comprehensive works on 
hardware and programs in electronic data processing; electronic computers; 
electronic digital computers; computer systems (computers, their peripheral 
devices, their operating systems); central processing units; computer reliability; 
general computer performance evaluation 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or 
more subdivisions of 004 in the one coming last, e.g., external storage for 
microcomputers 004.56 (not 004.16) 

Class computer modeling and simulation in 003.3; engineering of computers in 
621.39; data processing and computer science applied to a specific subject or 
discipline with the subject or discipline, using notation 0285 from Table 1, e.g., 
data processing in banking 332.10285 

For computer programming, programs, data, see 005; special computer 
methods, 006 

See also 025.04 for automated information storage and retrieval; 343.0999 for 
computer law; 364. 168 for financial and business computer crimes; 371.334 
for computer-assisted instruction (CAI); 652.5 for word processing; 658.05 for 
data processing in management; 794.8 for computer games 

See Manual at 004-006 vs. 621.39; 004 vs. 005; 510, Tl—0151 vs. 004-006, 
Tl-0285 





SUMMARY 


004.01-. 09 


Standard subdivisions 


.1 


General works on specific types of computers 


.2 


Systems analysis and design, computer architecture, performance 




evaluation 


.3 


Processing modes 


.5 


Storage 


.6 


Interfacing and communications 


.7 


Peripherals 


.9 


Nonelectronic data processing 



004 Dewey Decimal Classification 004 

.015 1 Mathematical principles 

Class here computer mathematics {formerly 519.4] 

.019 Human-computer interaction 

Class here psychological principles and human factors in data processing 
and computer science 

Apply notation 019 from Table 1 as modified here throughout 004-006, 
e.g., human factors in interactive systems 004.33019 

Class ergonomic engineering of computer peripherals in 621.3984 

.028 Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, 

materials 

[.028 7] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 004.24 

.1 General works on specific types of computers 

Class here specific types of processors, computer systems based on specific 
types of computers 

Class programmable calculators in 510.28541; specific types of computers, 
processors, computer systems distinguished by their processing modes in 004.3 

See Manual at 004.1 



004.1 1-004.16 Digital computers 
Class comprehensive works in 004 
See Manual at 004. 1 1-004. 16 
. 1 1 Digital supercomputers 

See Manual at 004.11-004. 16 
. 1 2 Digital mainframe computers 

Class here large-scale digital computers 
For supercomputers, see 004. 11 
See Manual at 004. 11-004. 16 
. 1 25 Specific digital mainframe computers 



Arrange alphabetically by name of computer or processor, e.g., IBM 
360® 

.14 Digital minicomputers 

Class comprehensive works on digital minicomputers and microcomputers 
in 004.16 

See Manual at 004.11-004. 16 

.145 Specific digital minicomputers 

Arrange alphabetically by name of minicomputer or processor, e.g., 
HP/1000® 

10 



004 Generalities 004 



. 1 6 Digital microcomputers 

Including pocket computers capable of manipulating alphabetic as well as 
numeric data 

Class here personal computers, comprehensive works on minicomputers and 
microcomputers 

See Manual at 004. 11-004. 16 

.165 Specific digital microcomputers 

Arrange alphabetically by name of microcomputer or microprocessor, 
e.g., Apple II® 

. 1 9 Hybrid and analog computers 

For nonelectronic analog computers, see 004.9 

.2 Systems analysis and design, computer architecture, performance 

evaluation 

.21 Systems analysis and design 

Class here analysis of a user's problem preparatory to developing a 
computer system to solve it 

Class communications network design and architecture in 004.65 

For database design and architecture, see 005. 74 

See also 003 for interdisciplinary works on systems analysis and design, 
658.4032 for management use of systems analysis 

See Manual at 004. 21 vs. 003; 004. 21 vs. 004. 22, 621.392 
.22 Computer architecture 

See Manual at 004. 21 vs. 004. 22, 621.392 

.24 Performance evaluation 

Class here performance measurement and evaluation to aid in designing or 
improving the performance of a computer system 

Class performance evaluation as a consideration in purchasing in 004, using 
notation 0297 from Table 1, e.g., evaluating microcomputers for purchase 
004.160297 

See also 004.0685 for management techniques to ensure quality control 
in data processing 

See Manual at 004.24 

.25 Systems analysis and design, computer architecture, performance 

evaluation of specific types of electronic computers 

Add to base number 004.25 the numbers following 004.1 in 004.1 1-004.19, 
e.g., architecture of digital microcomputers 004.256 



// 



004 Dewey Decimal Classification 004 

.3 Processing modes 

Examples: batch, offline, pipeline processing 

Class here computers, processors, computer systems distinguished by their 
processing modes; centralized processing 

.32 Multiprogramming 

Class here time-sharing 
.33 Real-time processing 

Class here online and interactive processing 

Class interactive processing in databases in 005.74, in special computer 
methods in 006 

.35 Multiprocessing 

Examples: array processing, associative processing, dataflow computation 

Class here parallel processing 

Class comprehensive works on associative processing and memory in 004.5 

.36 Distributed processing 

See also 004.6 for computer communications networks, 005. 758 for 
distributed databases 

.5 Storage 

Including comprehensive works on associative (content-addressable) memory 
and associative processing 

Class associative processing in 004.35 

.53 Internal storage (Main memory) 

Examples: magnetic -core, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), 
semiconductor bipolar, thin-film memory; random-access memory (RAM); 
read-only memory (ROM) 

Class CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory) in 004.56 

See also 005. 6 for microprogramming and microprograms 

.54 Virtual memory 

.56 External (Auxiliary) storage 

Examples: hard and floppy disks; CD-ROM (compact disk read-only 
memory); magnetic tapes, e.g., cartridges, cassettes, reel-to-reel tapes; tape 
and disk drives; magnetic bubble memory; optical storage devices; punch 
cards 



12 



004 Generalities 004 

.6 Interfacing and communications 

Equipment and techniques linking computers to peripheral devices or to other 
computers 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

Class here interdisciplinary works on computer communications, on 
telecommunications 

Class data, programs, programming in interfacing and communications in 
005.7; social aspects of computer communications in 302.23; economic and 
related aspects of providing computer communications to the public in 384.3 

See also 004.36 for distributed processing 

See Manual at 004. 6; 004. 6 vs. 005. 71 ; 384. 3 vs. 004. 6; 621 . 382 vs. 
621.3981.004.6 

[.602 18] Standards 

Do not use; class in 004.62 

.6 1 For specific types of electronic computers 

Add to base number 004.61 the numbers following 004.1 in 004.1 1-004.19, 
e.g., interfacing and communications for microcomputers 004.616 

.62 Interfacing and communications protocols (standards) 

Class protocols for specific aspects of interfacing and communications with 
the aspect, e.g., protocols for error-correcting codes 005.72 

[.620 218] Standards 

Do not use; class in 004.62 

.64 Kinds of hardware 

Examples: baseband and broadband equipment, modems, optical-fiber cable, 
peripheral control units 

Class peripheral control units controlling a specific kind of peripheral with 
the peripheral, e.g., printer controllers 004.77 






004.65-004.68 Computer communications networks 

Class comprehensive works in 004.6 

.65 Communications network architecture 

Class here systems analysis, design, topology (configuration) of computer 
communications networks 

.66 Data transmission modes and data switching methods 

Examples: circuit and packet switching, multiplexing 

.67 Wide-area networks 



13 



004 Dewey Decimal Classification 004 

.68 Local-area networks 

Examples: baseband and broadband local-area networks, high-speed local 
networks 

.69 Specific kinds of computer communications 

.692 Electronic mail 

.693 Electronic bulletin boards 

.7 Peripherals 

Input, output, storage devices that work with a computer but are not part of its 
central processing unit or internal storage 

Class peripheral storage in 004.56 

See also 004.64 for communications devices 

.7 1 For specific types of electronic computers 

Add to base number 004.71 the numbers following 004.1 in 004.1 1-004.19, 
e.g., peripherals for microcomputers 004.716 

.75 Peripherals combining input and output functions 

Class here computer terminals 

Class tape and disk devices in 004.56 
.76 Input peripherals 

Examples: card readers, keyboards 

Class input devices that utilize pattern recognition methods in 006.4; 
special -purpose input devices with the purpose, e.g., graphics input devices 
006.62, game paddles 688.748 

See also 005. 72 for data entry 

.11 Output peripherals 

Examples: computer output microform (COM) devices, monitors (video 
display screens), printers 

Class output peripherals that utilize computer sound synthesis in 006.5, 
computer graphics output devices in 006.62 

See also 005.43 for monitors in the sense of software control programs, 
005.6 for monitors in the sense of firmware control programs 

.9 Nonelectronic data processing 

General aspects: automatic and nonautomatic 

Example: nonelectronic punch-card data processing, e.g., pre-computer use of 
Hollerith cards 

Including nonelectronic analog computers 

Class comprehensive works on analog computers in 004.19 



14 



005 Generalities 005 

005 Computer programming, programs, data 

Class here text processing; software reliability, compatibility, portability 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or 
more subdivisions of 005 in the one coming last, e.g., designing structured 
FORTRAN programs 005.133 (not 005.1 13 or 005.12) 

Class computer programming, programs, data for special computer methods in 006 

See also 652.5 for word processing 

See Manual at 004 vs. 005: 005 





SUMMARY 


005.1 


Programming 


.2 


Programming for specific types of computers 


.3 


Programs 


.4 


Systems programming and programs 


.6 


Microprogramming and microprograms 


.7 


Data in computer systems 


.8 


Data security 



005.1-005.6 Computer programming and programs 

Class comprehensive works in 005 
.1 Programming 

Class here application programming, software engineering 

Class a specific application of programming within computer science with the 
application in 005.4-006.6 

For programming for specific types of computers, see 005.2 

See Manual at 005. 1 vs. 005.3; 005. 1 vs. 510 

.101 Philosophy and theory 

Do not use notation 01 from Table 1 here or with subdivisions of 005.1 
for general discussions of logic in programming 

See also 005. 131 for the symbolic (mathematical) logic of 
programming languages 

See Manual at 005. 101 

.102 8 Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, materials 

Class special techniques in 005.1 1 

[. 1 02 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 005.14 

[.102 88] Maintenance and repair 

Do not use; class in 005.16 



15 



005 Dewey Decimal Classification 005 

. 1 1 Special programming techniques 

See Manual at 005. 11 

.112 Modular programming 

.113 Structured programming 

. 1 2 Program design 

.120 28 Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, materials 

Example: use of flow-charting and flow charts as aids in program 
design 

See also 005. 1 5028 for preparation of flow charts as program 
documentation 

. 1 3 Programming languages 

Example: nonprocedural languages 

Including application generators 

Class here coding of programs 

See also 005 .43 for job-control languages 

[. 1 30 151] Mathematical principles 

Do not use; class in 005.131 

.131 Symbolic (Mathematical) logic 

Class here mathematical principles of programming languages, e.g., 
automata, formal languages, grammars, recursive functions applied to 
programming languages 

Class the mathematical principles of programming languages applied to 
the development of programming-language translators in 005.45, e.g., 
formal-language theory applied to development of compilers 
005.453015113 

See also 005. 1 for general works about logic in programming 

.133 Specific programming languages 

Class here comprehensive works on programming with specific 
programming languages 

Arrange alphabetically by name of programming language, e.g., COBOL 

Class specific machine and assembly languages in 005.136, specific 
microprogramming languages in 005.6 

See also 005.45 for programming-language translators for specific 
programming languages 

. 1 36 Machine and assembly languages 

See Manual at 005. 136 

.14 Verification, testing, measurement, debugging 



16 



005 Generalities 005 

. 1 5 Preparation of program documentation 

Class here preparation of software documentation 

See also 005. 1 2 for preparation of program design specifications and 
other technical documentation as an aid in program design, 005.3 for 
program documentation itself, 808.066005 for technical writing in 
preparation of program documentation 

See Manual at 005. 15 vs. 808. 066005 

. 1 6 Program maintenance 

Class here software maintenance 

.2 Programming for specific types of computers 

See Manual at 005.136 

.21 For digital supercomputers 

.22 For digital mainframe computers 

Add to base number 005.22 the numbers following 005.26 in 
005.262-005.265, e.g., programming for the DECsystem-10® 005.225 

.24 For digital minicomputers 

Add to base number 005.24 the numbers following 005.26 in 
005.262-005.265, e.g., programming for the IBM System 38® 005.245 



.26 For digital microcomputers 

Including programming for pocket computers capable of manipulating 
alphabetic as well as numeric data 

Class here programming for personal computers, comprehensive works on 
programming for minicomputers and microcomputers 

.262 In specific programming languages 

Arrange alphabetically by name of programming language, e.g., 
FORTRAN 

.265 For specific computers 

Class here programming for specific processors, for computer systems 
based on specific computers 

Arrange alphabetically by name of computer, e.g., Kaypro II® 

.29 For hybrid computers 



17 



005 Dewey Decimal Classification 005 

.3 Programs 

Software and firmware 

Collections of programs, systems of interrelated programs, individual programs 
having interdisciplinary applications 

General aspects: history, description, critical appraisal, selection, use 

Class here application programs, electronic spreadsheets, integrated programs, 
software documentation, comprehensive works on software and firmware 

Class programs for a specific application in computer science with the 
application in 005-006 

For firmware, see 005.6 

See also 005. 1 5 for preparation of program documentation 

See Manual at 005. 1 vs. 005. 3; 005. 3 

.302 18 Standards 

See also 005. 10218 for standards for programming, 
005. 150218 for standards for preparation of software 
documentation 

See Manual at 005. 1 vs. 005. 3 

.302 87 Testing and measurement 

See also 005. 14 for testing and measurement in programming 

See Manual at 005. 1 vs. 005. 3 

[.302 88] Maintenance and repair 

Do not use; class in 005.16 

.302 96 Buyers' guides and consumer reports 

See Manual at 011.3 vs. Oil. 77, 005.30296 



005.31-005.36 For digital computers 

Class comprehensive works in 005.3 

.31 For digital supercomputers 

.32 For digital mainframe computers 

Add to base number 005.32 the numbers following 005.36 in 
005.362-005.369, e.g., programs for the Burroughs B6700® 005.325 

.34 For digital minicomputers 

Add to base number 005.34 the numbers following 005.36 in 
005.362-005.369, e.g., programs for the PDP-1 1® 005.345 



18 






005 Generalities 005 

.36 For digital microcomputers 

.362 In specific programming languages 

Arrange alphabetically by name of programming language, e.g., BASIC 

See Manual at 005.362 

.365 For specific computers 

Class here programs for specific processors, programs for computer 
systems based on specific computers 

Arrange alphabetically by name of computer or processor, e.g., AT&T 
PC 6300®' 

.369 Specific programs 

Class here specific computer software systems (organized sets of 
programs that work together) 

Arrange alphabetically by name of program or software system, e.g., 
Symphony® 

See Manual at 005.369 

.39 For hybrid and analog computers 

.4 Systems programming and programs 

Class programming and programs for interfacing and data communications in 
005.71, for management of files and databases in 005.74 

.42 Systems programming 

Class here programming for operating systems 

Class programming for specific aspects of operating systems with the aspect, 
e.g., programming for communications 005.71 1; programming for other 
specific kinds of systems programs with the kind, e.g., programming for 
compilers 005.453 

.43 Systems programs Operating systems 

Examples: programs for multiprogramming and virtual memory, utility 
programs 

Including job-control languages 

Class programming for operating systems in 005.42; a specific application of 
systems programs with the application, e.g., programs that aid in debugging 
other programs 005.14, programming-language translators 005.45 

For operating systems for specific types of computers, see 005.44 

See Manual at 005.43 

.44 Operating systems for specific types of computers 

Add to base number 005.44 the numbers following 005.3 in 005.31-005.39, 
e.g., operating systems for digital microcomputers 005.446 



19 



005 Dewey Decimal Classification 005 

.45 Programming-language translators 

Class here code generators, macro processors, parsers, translators for 
specific programming languages 

Class translators for microprogramming languages in 005.6 

See also 418.02 for programs to translate natural languages into other 
natural languages 

.452 Interpreters 

.453 Compilers 

.456 Assemblers 

.6 Microprogramming and microprograms 

Including firmware viewed as microprograms, firmware development, 
microassembly languages, microcode 

Class firmware viewed as hardware in 004 

See Manual at 005.6 

.7 Data in computer systems 

For data security, see 005.8 

SUMMARY 

005.71 Data communications 

.72 Data preparation and representation, record formats 

.73 Data structures 

.74 Data files and databases 

.75 Specific types of data files and databases 

.7 1 Data communications 

Class here interfacing 

See also 004.6 for hardware for interfacing and data communications 

See Manual at 004 vs. 005; 004. 6; 004. 6 vs. 005. 71 

.7 1 1 Programming 

For programming for specific types of computers, see 005. 712 

.7 1 2 Programming for specific types of computers 

Add to base number 005.712 the numbers following 005.2 in 
005.21-005.29, e.g., programming digital microcomputers for data 
communications 005.7126 

.713 Programs 



Add to base number 005.713 the numbers following 005.3 in 
005.31-005.39, e.g., communications programs for digital 
microcomputers 005.7136 

See Manual at 005. 713 



20 



005 Generalities 005 

.72 Data preparation and representation, record formats 

Examples: conversion to machine-readable form, data entry and validation 

Including digital codes, e.g., ASCII; error-correcting codes 

Class data validation in file processing in 005.74, computer input devices in 
004.76 

For data encryption and ciphers, see 005.82 

.73 Data structures 

.74 Data files and databases 

Including data validation in file processing 

Class here file structures (file organizations), file processing, file and 
database management systems, database design and architecture 

Class interdisciplinary works on computer science and information science 
aspects of databases in 025.04; comprehensive works on data validation in 
005.72; data files and databases with regard to their subject content with the 
subject, e.g., encyclopedic databases 030, nonbibliographic medical 
databases 610 

For specific types of data files and databases, see 005. 75 

See Manual at 005. 74 

.740 1-.740 5 Standard subdivisions of data files, of databases 

.740 6 Organizations and management of data files, of databases 

.740 68 Management of data files, of databases 

Class here management of organizations concerned with 
databases, e.g., firms that create them 

Do not use notation 068 from Table 1 for file management or 
database management in the sense of computer programs that 
enable operation of files or databases; class these programs in 
005.74 

.740 7-. 740 9 Standard subdivisions of data files, of databases 

.742 Data dictionaries/directories 

.746 Data compression (File compression, Data compaction) 

.748 Sorting 

Class here merging 

.75 Specific types of data files and databases 

Example: centralized files and databases 

.754 Network databases 

Including database management systems that conform to the standards 
developed by CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) 

.755 Hierarchical databases 



21 



005 Dewey Decimal Classification 005 

.756 Relational databases 

.756 5 Specific relational database management systems 

Arrange alphabetically by name of database management system, 
e.g., dBASE III® 

.758 Distributed data files and databases 

See also 004.36 for distributed processing 

.8 Data security 

Class here access control 

See also 658.478 for data security in management 

.82 Data encryption 

Class here ciphers 

Class in 652.8 comprehensive works on cryptographic techniques used to 
limit access to information both in and out of computer systems 

006 Special computer methods 

Not otherwise provided for 

Example: automatic data collection 

Class here programs, programming, selection and use of hardware in relation to 
special computer methods 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or 
more subdivisions of 006 in the one coming last, e.g., natural language processing 
in expert systems 006.35 (not 006.33) 

See also 004.6 for computer communications; 005. 74 for file and database 
management; 005.8 for data security; 629.89 for special methods in automatic 
control engineering; 003.3 for computer modeling and simulation; notation 
011 3 from Table 1 for computer modeling and simulation in a specific 
discipline or subject 

.3 Artificial intelligence [formerly 001.535] 

Class here question-answering systems 

See also 006.4 for pattern recognition not used as a tool of artificial 
intelligence 

.31 Machine learning 

.33 Knowledge-based systems 

Class here expert systems 

.35 Natural language processing 

Computer processing of natural language used to allow people to 
communicate with computers in natural language instead of through 
formalized commands 

See also 402.85 for computer processing of natural language as a tool in 
linguistics 

22 



006 Generalities 006 

.37 Computer vision 

See also 006.42 for optical pattern recognition 

See Manual at 006.37 vs. 006.42, 621.367, 621.391, 621.399 

.4 Computer pattern recognition {formerly also 001.534] 

Class pattern recognition as a tool of artificial intelligence in 006.3 

.42 Optical pattern recognition 

Example: bar-code scanning 

Including perceptrons 

Class here comprehensive works on optical pattern recognition and 
computer graphics 

Class optical engineering aspects of optical pattern recognition in 621.367 

For computer graphics, see 006. 6 

See also 006.37 for computer vision 

See Manual at 006.37 vs. 006.42, 621.367, 621.391, 621.399 
.424 Optical character recognition (OCR) 

.45 Acoustical pattern recognition 

.454 Speech recognition 

Including speaker recognition 

Class here comprehensive works on speech recognition and speech 
synthesis 

For speech synthesis, see 006.54 

.5 Computer sound synthesis 

See also 786. 76 for computer music 

.54 Speech synthesis 

.6 Computer graphics 

Class here comprehensive works on computer graphics and computer sound 
synthesis 

For computer sound synthesis, see 006.5 

See also 760 for computer graphic art 

.62 Hardware 

Examples: digitizer tablets, graphics terminals, plotters 

Class here equipment specifically designed for computer graphics and works 
treating use of equipment for computer graphics even if the equipment was 
not specifically designed for that purpose 

Class works that treat equally the use of equipment for graphics and 
nongraphics tasks in 004 



23 



006 Dewey Decimal Classification 006 

.66 Programming 

Including graphics programming languages 

For programming for specific types of computers, see 006.67 

.67 Programming for specific types of computers 

Add to base number 006.67 the numbers following 005.2 in 005.21-005.29, 
e.g., graphics programming for digital microcomputers 006.676 

.68 Programs 

Add to base number 006.68 the numbers following 005.3 in 005.31-005.39, 
e.g., graphics programs for digital microcomputers 006.686 

[007] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[008] [Never assigned] 

[009] [Never assigned] 

010 Bibliography 

History, identification, description of printed, written, audiovisual, 
machine-readable records 

Class catalogs and lists of art works with the subject, using notation 074 from 
Table 1 , e.g., a catalog of the prints in the Library of Congress 769.074753 

See also 028. 1 for reviews 

SUMMARY 

010.4 Special topics 

011 Bibliographies 

012 Bibliographies and catalogs of individuals 

013 Bibliographies and catalogs of works by specific classes of authors 

014 Bibliographies and catalogs of anonymous and pseudonymous works 

015 Bibliographies and catalogs of works from specific places 

016 Bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific subjects or in specific 

disciplines 

017 General subject catalogs 

018 Catalogs arranged by author, main entry, date, or register number 

019 Dictionary catalogs 

[.28] Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, materials 

Do not use; class in 010.44 



24 






010 Bibliography 010 

.4 Special topics 

.42 Analytical (Descriptive) bibliography 

Analysis of the structure of books and their bibliographic description 

Class here comprehensive works on historical and analytical bibliography 

Class descriptive cataloging in 025.32 

For historical bibliography, see 002 

See also 070.5 for book publishing 

.44 Systematic bibliography 

Preparation and compilation of bibliographies 

Systematic bibliography applied to a specific kind of bibliography is classed 
with the kind, using notation 028 from Table 1 for basic as well as auxiliary 
techniques, e.g., preparation and compilation of biobibliographies 012.028 

[.74] Collections, guidebooks, catalogs of exhibits 

Do not use; class in 01 1-019 

011 *Bibliographies 

Class here general bibliographies (in any form) in which the items are books or 
other written or printed works 

Bibliographies of visual and audiovisual media are classed in 01 1.37 

Catalogs are classed in 012-019 (except for catalogs of works published in specific 
historical periods, which are classed in 01 1.09) 

For bibliographies of individuals, of works by specific classes of authors, of 
anonymous and pseudonymous works, of works from specific places, of works 
on specific subjects or in specific disciplines, see 012-016 

SUMMARY 

011.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

.02- .09 [Reference works, free materials, works published in specific historical 

periods] 
.1 Universal bibliographies 

.2 General bibliographies of works published in specific languages 

.3 General bibliographies of works published in specific forms 

.4 General bibliographies of works exhibiting specific bibliographic 

characteristics other than form 
.5 General bibliographies of works issued by specific kinds of publishers 

.6 General bibliographies of works for specific kinds of users and libraries 

.7 General bibliographies of works having specific kinds of content 

.001 -.007 Standard subdivisions 

.008 Bibliographies with respect to groups of persons 

Class bibliographies of works for specific kinds of users in 01 1.6 



*Do not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for bibliographies of works from specific places; class 
in 015 

25 



Oil Dewey Decimal Classification Oil 

.009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of bibliographies 

Class bibliographies of works published in specific historical periods in 
01 1.09, bibliographies of works from specific places in 015 

.02 *Of reference works 

Class bibliographies of general encyclopedic works in 016.03, of general 
collected biographies in 016.92 

.03 *Of free materials 

.09 General bibliographies and catalogs of works published in specific 

historical periods 

Add to base number 01 1.09 the numbers following —090 in notation 
0903-0905 from Table 1, e.g., 16th century publications 01 1.0931 

Class bibliographies of incunabula in 01 1.42, bibliographies of works from 
specific places in 015 



> 011.1-011.7 General bibliographies 

Lists of works not held in a specific collection or group of collections; not 
offered for sale by specific organizations or at auction; not restricted to specific 
subjects, to individuals or specific types of authorship, or to specific places of 
publication 

No matter how arranged 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two 
or more subdivisions of this schedule in the number coming last in the schedule, 
e.g., Russian-language newspapers on microfilm 01 1.36 (not 01 1.29171 or 
011.35) 

Class comprehensive works in 01 1; general bibliographies and catalogs of 
works published in specific historical periods, but without other specific 
restriction, in 01 1.09 

See also 011.02 for bibliographies of reference works, 011.03 for 
bibliographies of free materials, 017-019 for general catalogs 

.1 *Universal bibliographies 

.2 ^General bibliographies of works published in specific languages 

Add to base number 01 1.2 notation 2-9 from Table 6, e.g., general 
bibliographies of Russian-language works 01 1.29171 

*Do not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for bibliographies of works from specific places; class 
in 015 



26 



Oil Bibliography Oil 

.3 *General bibliographies of works published in specific forms 

Examples: bibliographies of optical digital disks, of products of electronic 
publishing, of other works in machine-readable form 

Use of this number for general bibliographies of books, of works in written or 
printed form discontinued; class in 01 1 

Bibliographies of music scores are classed in 016.78026, of cartographic 
materials in 016.912 

See also 01 1 .4 for general bibliographies of works exhibiting specific 
bibliographic characteristics other than form, e.g., rare books 011.44; 011.7 
for bibliographies of works having specific kinds of content, e.g., directories, 
textbooks, theses, dissertations, computer programs 

See Manual at 011.3 vs. Oil. 77, 005.30296 



> 01 1.31-01 1.35 In written or printed form 

Class comprehensive works, general bibliographies of books in 01 1; microform 
versions of written or printed works in 01 1 .36 

.31 *Manuscripts 

Bibliographies of works about manuscripts relocated to 016.091 
.32 *Paperbound books 

.33 *Pamphlets 

.34 * Serial publications 

Class here general indexes to serial publications 

General bibliographies of works about serial publications relocated to 
016.05 

For newspapers, see 011.35 

See also 01 1.48 for works in series 

.35 *Newspapers 

.36 *Microforms 

Microreproductions of written and printed media 

.37 *Visual and audiovisual media 

Examples: filmslides, filmstrips, motion pictures, pictures, video disks, 
videotapes 

Bibliographies of dramatic and entertainment motion pictures and 
videotapes are classed in 016.79143 

Class microforms in 01 1.36 

For sound recordings, see 011.38 

See also 01 1 .3 for bibliographies of optical digital disks 

*Do not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for bibliographies of works from specific places; class 
in 015 

27 



1 1 Dewey Decimal Classification Oil 

.38 *Sound recordings 

Examples: cassettes, cylinders, disks, tapes, wires; talking books for blind 
users; recorded radio programs 

Class sound films in 01 1.37, sound recordings of music in 016.780266 

.4 ^General bibliographies of works exhibiting specific bibliographic 

characteristics other than form 

See also Oil .3 for works published in specific forms 

.42 *Incunabula 

Bibliographies of works about incunabula relocated to 016.093 

.44 *Rare books 

Bibliographies of works about rare books relocated to 016.094 

For incunabula, see 011.42 

Al *Reprints 

.48 *Works in series 

See also 011.34 for serial publications 

.5 *General bibliographies of works issued by specific kinds of 

publishers 

.52 *Publications of international organizations 

Example: publications of UNESCO 
.53 *Government publications 

.532 *Issued by legislative bodies and their committees 

.534 *Issued by executive agencies 

.54 *Publications of university and college presses 

.55 *Publications of private presses 

Presses printing in limited quantities or for limited distribution 
.56 *Publications of underground presses 

Class here clandestinely published works 

.6 ^General bibliographies of works for specific kinds of users and 

libraries 

.62 *For children and young adults 

Class here bibliographies of works for children 

.624 *For specific sexes 

.624 1 *Boys and young men 

.624 2 *Girls and young women 

*Do not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for bibliographies of works from specific places; class 
in 015 

28 



Oil Bibliography Oil 

.625 *For young adults 

Class works for young men in 01 1.6241, for young women in 01 1.6242 

[.625 054] For children 

Use of this number discontinued; class in 01 1 .62 

[.625 055] For young adults 

Use of this number discontinued; class in 01 1.625 

.63 *For handicapped users 

Examples: braille, large-type publications 

Class talking and cassette books for blind users in 01 1.38 

.67 *For specific types of libraries 

Example: bibliographies of books for public libraries 

.7 *General bibliographies of works having specific kinds of content 

Examples: directories, textbooks, translations 

Class reference works in 01 1.02, general encyclopedic works in 016.03 

.73 *Best books 

Class best books for specific kinds of users and libraries in 01 1.6 

.75 *Theses and dissertations 

General collections of abstracts of theses and dissertations are usually 
classed here (or in 015), but those giving substantive information are classed 
in 080 

.77 *Computer programs 

Add to base number 01 1.77 the numbers following 005.3 in 005.31-005.39, 
e.g., bibliographies of programs for digital microcomputers 01 1.776 

See Manual at 011.3 vs. 011.7, 005.30296 

*Do not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for bibliographies of works from specific places; class 
in 015 



29 



012 Dewey Decimal Classification 012 



> 012-016 Bibliographies and catalogs of individuals, of 

works by specific classes of authors, of anonymous and 
pseudonymous works, of works from specific places, of 
works on specific subjects or in specific disciplines 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., scientific works published in 
France by Roman Catholic authors 016.5 {not 013.22 or 015.44) 

Bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific 

subjects or in specific disciplines 016 

Bibliographies and catalogs of individuals 012 

Bibliographies and catalogs of anonymous and 

pseudonymous works 014 

Bibliographies and catalogs of works by specific 

classes of authors 1 3 

Bibliographies and catalogs of works from specific 

places 015 

Class comprehensive works in 01 1 

012 Bibliographies and catalogs of individuals 

Works by or about persons not clearly associated with a specific subject 

Class here biobibliographies 

Biobibliographies of persons associated with a specific subject are classed with 
biographies of the subject, e.g., biobibliographies of psychologists 150.92 

013 Bibliographies and catalogs of works by specific classes of 
authors 

Works not dealing with a specific subject 

For bibliographies and catalogs of individuals , see 012 

.03-. 87 Authors with common characteristics other than residence 

Add to base number 013 notation 03-87 from Table 7, e.g., women authors 
013.042 

For authors occupied with geography, history, related disciplines, see 
013.89 

See also 011. 75 for dissertations and theses 

.89 Authors occupied with geography, history, related disciplines 

Add to base number 013.89 the numbers following —9 in —91-99 from 
Table 7, e.g., archaeologists 013.893 

.9 Authors resident in specific regions, continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 013.9 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., authors resident in 
Ireland 013.9415 

Class authors resident in specific regions, continents, countries, localities, but 
having other characteristics in common in 013.03-013.89 



30 



014 Bibliography 014 

014 Bibliographies and catalogs of anonymous and 
pseudonymous works 

Add to base number 014 the numbers following 03 in 031-039 (but not the 02 for 
books of miscellaneous facts), e.g., bibliographies and catalogs of anonymous and 
pseudonymous works in French 014.41 

015 Bibliographies and catalogs of works from specific places 

Works issued in specific regions, continents, countries, localities, or by specific 
publishers 

Class here sales catalogs of specific college and university presses [formerly also 
017-019], publishers' catalogs {formerly also 070.50294], bibliographies and 
catalogs of theses and dissertations for degrees awarded at specific institutions and 
at institutions in specific places 

Add to base number 015 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., works issued in Hong 
Kong 015.5125; then add 0* and to the result add the numbers following 01 1 in 
01 1.1-01 1.7 e.g., bibliographies of theses for higher degrees at the university of 
Hong Kong 015.5125075 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



31 



016 Dewey Decimal Classification 016 

016 Bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific subjects or 
in specific disciplines 

In list or essay form 

Including indexes [formerly also with the subject with use of notation 016 from 
Table 1] 

Class here annotated subject bibliographies with descriptive annotations that do not 
give substantive information about the subject 

(Option: Class with the specific discipline or subject, using notation 016 from 
Table 1, e.g., bibliographies of medicine 610.16) 

Add to base number 016 notation 001-999, e.g., bibliographies of works about 
serial publications 016.05 [formerly 01 1.34], catalogs of works about serial 
publications 016.05 [formerly 017-019], bibliographies of works about 
manuscripts 016.091 [formerly 01 1.31], bibliographies of works about incunabula 
016.093 [formerly 01 1.42], bibliographies of works about rare books 016.094 
[formerly 01 1.44], bibliographies of philosophy 016.1 

Bibliographies and catalogs of belles-lettres in more than one language are classed 
in 016.8088, e.g., novels 016.80883 

Add to the various subdivisions of 016 notation 01-09 from Table 1 as required for 
works listed in the bibliographies and catalogs, but not for the bibliographies and 
catalogs being classed, e.g., bibliographies of serial publications on philosophy 
016.105, but serially published bibliographies on philosophy that include 
monographs 016.1 {not 016.105) 

Class biobibliographies of persons associated with a specific subject with 
biographies of the subject, e.g., biobibliographies of psychologists 150.92; 
bibliographies with abstracts giving substantive information about the subject with 
the subject, e.g., bibliographies with substantive abstracts about chemistry 540 

See also 011 for general bibliographies arranged by subject, 011.31 for 
bibliographies of manuscripts, 011.34 for general bibliographies of serial 
publications, 01 1 .35 for bibliographies of newspapers, 011 .37 for 
bibliographies of visual and audiovisual media, Oil .38 for bibliographies of 
recorded radio programs, 011.42 for bibliographies of incunabula, 011.44 for 
bibliographies of rare books, 017-019 for general subject catalogs and general 
catalogs of serial publications, 050 for general indexes of specific serial 
publications not limited by subject 

See Manual at Tl—07 vs. 016, 026 



32 



017 Bibliography 017 



> 017-019 General catalogs 

Lists of works held in a specific collection or group of collections, or offered for 
sale by specific organizations other than publishers or at auction, and not 
restricted to specific subjects, to individuals or specific types of authorship, or 
to specific places of publication 

Class here general catalogs of serial publications and their indexes, union 
catalogs 

Add to the notation for each term identified by * the numbers following 01 1 in 
011.1-011.7 e.g., classified sales catalogs of periodicals 017.434 

Sales catalogs of specific college and university presses relocated to 015, 
catalogs of works about serial publications relocated to 016.05 

Class comprehensive works in 017, general catalogs of works published in 
specific historical periods in 01 1.09, catalogs of individuals, of works by 
specific classes of authors, of anonymous and pseudonymous works, of works 
from specific places, of works on specific subjects or in specific disciplines in 
012-016 

See also 011.1-011.7 for general bibliographies 

017 f General subject catalogs 

Class here comprehensive works on catalogs 

Class catalogs on specific subjects in 016; a specific kind of nonsubject catalog 
with the kind of catalog, e.g., catalogs of works by specific classes of authors 013 



017.1-017.4 Classified catalogs 

Class comprehensive works in 017 
.1 *tClassified catalogs of nonprivate libraries 

.2 *tClassified catalogs of private and family libraries 

.3 *t Classified auction catalogs 

.4 *f Classified sales catalogs 

For classified auction catalogs, see 017.3 



> 017.5-017.8 Alphabetic catalogs 

Class comprehensive works in 017 

k.5 *t Alphabetic subject catalogs of nonprivate libraries 

.6 *t Alphabetic subject catalogs of private and family libraries 

.7 *tAlphabetic subject auction catalogs 

*Add as instructed under 017-019 

tDo not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for catalogs of works from specific places; class in 015 

33 



017 Dewey Decimal Classification 017 

.8 *tAIphabetic subject sales catalogs 

For alphabetic subject auction catalogs, see 017. 7 

018 tCatalogs arranged by author, main entry, date, or register 

number 

Add to base number 018 the numbers following 017 in 017.1-017.4, e.g., author 
catalogs of private and family libraries 018.2 

See also 012 for catalogs of individuals 

019 tDictionary catalogs 

Add to base number 019 the numbers following 017 in 017.1-017.4, e.g., 
dictionary auction catalogs 019.3 

020 Library and information sciences 

The science and art utilized in the identification, collection, organization, 
dissemination, and use of books, other printed and written records, audiovisual and 
machine-readable materials, information 

Class here archives and archival techniques 

For bibliography, see 010 

See also 003.54 for information theory, 651 .5 for records management as a 
managerial service 

See Manual at 020 

SUMMARY 

020.1-.9 Standard subdivisions 

021 Relationships of libraries, archives, information centers 

022 Administration of the physical plant 

023 Personnel administration 

025 Operations of libraries, archives, information centers 

026 Libraries, archives, information centers devoted to specific disciplines and 

subjects 

027 General libraries, archives, information centers 

028 Reading and use of other information media 

.6 Organizations and management 

[.601] International organizations 

Do not use; class in 020.621 

[.603-.609] National, state, provincial, local organizations 

Do not use; class in 020.622-020.624 

.62 Permanent nongovernment organizations 

.621 International nongovernment organizations 

Example: International Federation of Library Associations and 
Institutions 

*Add as instructed under 017-019 

tDo not add notation 091-099 from Table 1 for catalogs of works from specific places; class in 015 

34 



020 Library and information sciences 020 

.622 National nongovernment organizations 

Add to base number 020.622 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., Indian 
Library Association 020.62254, American Society for Information 
Science 020.62273 

.623 Regional, state, provincial nongovernment organizations 

.623 2 Regional nongovernment organizations 

Add to base number 020.6232 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
Southeastern Library Association 020.623275 

.623 4 State and provincial nongovernment organizations 

Add to base number 020.6234 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
Ontario Library Association 020.6234713 

.624 Local nongovernment organizations 

Add to base number 020.624 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., New York 
Library Club 020.6247471 

[.68] Management 

Do not use; class in 025.1 
[.75] Book collecting 

Do not use; class in 002.075 
.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here comparative librarianship, historical, geographical, persons treatment 
of librarianship (what librarians do, as distinct from the buildings and 
institutions within which they do it) 

Class historical and persons treatment of libraries in 027.009, geographical 
treatment of libraries in 027.01-027.09 

021 Relationships of libraries, archives, information centers 

Including role as storage centers 

Class here libraries, archives, information centers as social forces 

See also 025.56 for orientation and instructional manuals for users; 027 for 
comprehensive works on libraries, archives, information centers 

[.001-.009] Standard subdivisions 

Relocated to 021.01-021.09 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions {formerly 021.001-021.009] 

.2 Relationships with the community 

.24 Educational role 

For relationships with other educational institutions, see 021.3 
.26 Cultural role 

Example: sponsorship of community cultural programs 



35 



021 Dewey Decimal Classification 021 

.28 Informational role 

Example: clearinghouse for information on community action programs 
.3 Relationships with other educational institutions 

Example: relationships with museums 
.6 Cooperation and networks 

Example: centralization of systems 

[.62] Branches 

Number discontinued; class in 021.6 

.64 Cooperation 

Including bibliographical centers 

Class cooperation in a specific activity with the activity, e.g., cooperative 
cataloging 025.35 

For networks, see 021.65 

.642 Cooperation through union catalogs 

See also 017-019 for specific union catalogs 

.65 Networks, systems, consortia 

Class networks, systems, consortia for specific kinds of institutions in 
026-027; networks, systems, consortia for specific functions with the 
function, e.g., interlibrary loan networks 025.62 

.7 Promotion of libraries, archives, information centers 

Example: friends-of-the-library organizations 
Class here public relations 
Class advertising in 659.1902 
.8 Relationships with government 

Regardless of governmental level 

Examples: library-government aspects of exchanges, gifts, deposits; political 
pressures 

See also 025.26 for acquisition through exchange, gift, deposit 

.82 Commissions and governing boards 

.83 Financial support 

See also 025. 1 1 for financial administration 



36 



022 Library and information sciences 022 

022 Administration of the physical plant 

Including reading rooms and other special rooms, bookmobiles 

Class here library quarters in buildings devoted primarily to other activities, e.g., 
physical plant of school libraries; maintenance of physical plant 

See also 025.82 for physical security of collections 

.1 Location and site 

.3 Buildings 

Class here planning for buildings 

See also 727.8 for library architecture 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment [formerly 022.33] 

.3 1 For specific kinds of institutions 

Add to base number 022.31 the numbers following 027 in 027.1-027.8, e.g., 
college library buildings 022.317 

[.33] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Relocated to 022.309 
.4 Stacks and shelving 

See also 025.81 for closed versus open stacks 
.7 Lighting 

.8 Heating, ventilation, air conditioning 

.9 Equipment, furniture, furnishings 

For stacks and shelving, see 022.4 

Class comprehensive works on computers in libraries, archives, information 
centers in 025.00285 

See also 025.56 for signs 

023 Personnel administration 



023.2-023.4 Types of positions 

Class here titles and job descriptions for specific types of positions 
Class comprehensive works in 023 
Professional positions 

Examples: librarians, consultants, systems analysts 
Class administrative positions in 023.4 



37 



023 Dewey Decimal Classification 023 

.3 Technician positions 

Examples: library technicians and assistants, paraprofessionals, 
nonprofessionals, clerks, aides 

Class administrative positions in 023.4 

.4 Administrative positions 

.7 Titles and job descriptions 

Class titles and job descriptions for specific types of positions in 023.2-023.4 

[.700 1-.700 9] Standard subdivisions 

Relocated to 023.701-023.709 

.701-.709 Standard subdivisions {formerly 023.7001-023.7009] 

.8 In-service training 

Class here in-house courses and programs 

Class comprehensive works on courses and programs for practicing library 
personnel in 020.715, using notation 0715 from Table 1; in-service training for 
specific types of positions in 023.2-023.4 

.9 Elements of personnel administration 

Examples: recruitment, selection, supervision, employer-employee relations, 
performance evaluation, wage and salary administration 

Including staff manuals, rules, codes 

Class elements of personnel administration applied to specific types of positions 
in 023.2-023.4 

For in-service training, see 023.8 

[024] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 18 

025 Operations of libraries, archives, information centers 

Class here documentation (the systematic collection, organization, storage, 
retrieval, and dissemination of recorded information) 

Use 025.001-025.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class comprehensive works on operations in specific kinds of institutions in 
026-027 

SUMMARY 

025.02- .06 [Technical processes, information storage and retrieval systems! 

.1 Administration 

.2 Collection development and acquisitions 

.3 Bibliographic analysis and control 

.4 Subject analysis and control 

.5 Services to users 

.6 Circulation services 

.7 Physical preparation for storage and use 

.8 Maintenance and preservation of collections 

38 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.02 Technical processes 

Class here commercial and noncommercial processing centers 

Class a specific technical process with the process, e.g., acquisitions 025.2 

.04 Automated information storage and retrieval systems 

Including recall, precision, relevance, irrelevance [all formerly 001.539] 

Class here search and retrieval in automated information storage and 
retrieval systems; comprehensive works on automated storage, search, 
retrieval of information; interdisciplinary works on databases 

Class computer science aspects of automated information storage and 
retrieval systems, of databases in 005.74; information storage in 025.3; a 
specific kind of information storage and retrieval system with the kind, e.g., 
online catalogs 025.3132 

For information storage and retrieval systems devoted to specific 
disciplines and subjects, see 025.06 

See also 658.4038011 for management use of automated information 
storage and retrieval systems 

See Manual at 005. 74 

.06 Automated information storage and retrieval systems devoted to specific 

disciplines and subjects 

Class here documentation of specific disciplines and subjects 

Add to base number 025.06 notation 001-999, e.g., MEDLARS (Medical 
Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) 025.0661 

.1 Administration 

Class administration of a specific function with the function, using notation 068 
from Table 1, e.g., administration of cataloging 025.3068 

For administration of the physical plant, see 022 ; personnel administration, 
023 

. 1 1 Finance 

Including comprehensive works on user fees 

Class government financial support in 021.83; user fees for a specific service 
with the service, using notation 0681 from Table 1, e.g., fees for automated 
information search and retrieval 025.040681 



39 



025 Dewey Decimal Classification 025 

.12 Duplication services (Reprography) 

Including administrative problems arising from copyright legislation 

Class here photoduplication (photocopying) services, printing services 

Publishing by libraries, archives, information centers relocated to 070.594 

Class interdisciplinary works on photoduplication in 686.4 

See also 346.0482 for copyright law, 686.2 for technology of printing 

[ . 1 29] Duplication services (Reprography) 

Number discontinued; class in 025.12 

. 1 7 Administration of collections of special materials 

Class here nonbook materials, comprehensive works on treatment of special 
materials 

Add to base number 025.17 the numbers following 025.34 in 
025.341-025.349, e.g., administration of a map collection 025.176, 
comprehensive treatment of serials 025.1732 

Class a specific kind of treatment of special materials with the kind, e.g., 
collection development for and acquisition of materials in special forms 
025.28 

.19 Administration of specific types of institutions 

Add to base number 025.19 the numbers following 02 in 026-027, e.g., 
administration of secondary school libraries 025.1978223 

Class administration of a specific function in a specific type of institution 
with the function, e.g., administration of a map collection in a map library 
025.176 

.2 Collection development and acquisitions 

.21 Collection development 

Class here collection analysis, evaluation, management; cooperative 
collection development; selection policy and procedures 

Class collection development for specific types of material in 
025.27-025.29 

For approval plans, see 025.233 

.213 Censorship 

Class here comprehensive works on library policies and practices relating 
to intellectual freedom 

Class policies and practices relating to intellectual freedom in library 
operations other than collection development with the operation, e.g., 
circulation services 025.6 

See also 098. 1 for prohibited works, 306.376 for sociological studies 
of censorship, 323.44 for intellectual freedom as a civil right, 
344.0531 for laws of censorship, 342.0853 for laws on intellectual 
freedom, 363.31 for interdisciplinary works on censorship 



40 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.216 Weeding 

Including selection for transfer to storage 

.218 Collection development in specific types of institutions 

Add to base number 025.218 the numbers following 02 in 026-027, e.g., 
collection development in academic libraries 025.21877 

Class censorship in a specific type of institution in 025.213, weeding in a 
specific type of institution in 025.216 

.23 Acquisition through purchase 

Class acquisition of specific types of material through purchase in 
025.27-025.29 

.233 Relations with vendors 

Example: vendor selection 

Including approval plans, blanket orders 

.236 Clerical operations 

Examples: order preparation, claiming, invoice processing, record 
keeping 

Including forms used in clerical operations for acquisition through 
purchase 

.26 Acquisition through exchange, gift, deposit 

Example: copyright deposits 

Including exchange centers and organizations, e.g., Universal Serials and 
Book Exchange; forms used for processing exchanges, gifts, deposits 

Class acquisition of specific types of material through exchange, gift, 
deposit in 025.27-025.29 



025.27-025.29 Collection development for and acquisition of specific 
types of materials 

Class comprehensive works in 025.2 

.27 Collection development for and acquisition of materials on specific 

disciplines and subjects 

Add to base number 025.27 notation 001-999, e.g., acquisition of materials 
in the social sciences 025.273 

Class collection development for and acquisition of materials for area 
studies in 025.29 

.28 Collection development for and acquisition of materials in special forms 

Add to base number 025.28 the numbers following 025.34 in 
025.341-025.349, e.g., acquisition of maps 025.286 

Class collection development for and acquisition of materials in special 
forms on specific disciplines and subjects in 025.27 

41 



025 Dewey Decimal Classification 025 

.29 Collection development for and acquisition of materials from 

geographic areas 

Class here collection development for and acquisition of foreign 
publications, materials for area studies 

Add to base number 025.29 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., acquisition of 
materials from Latin America 025.298 

Class collection development for and acquisition of materials on specific 
disciplines and subjects from geographic areas in 025.27, of materials in 
special forms from geographic areas in 025.28 

.3 Bibliographic analysis and control 

Example: cataloging in publication 

Including International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) 

Class here comprehensive works on cataloging and classification, on indexing, 
on information storage 

Class information storage using a specific system with the system, e.g., 
information storage through coordinate indexing 025.484 

Information search and retrieval using multiple kinds of information sources is 
classed in 025.524, but information search and retrieval using a specific system 
[formerly 025.524] is classed with the system, e.g., searching an online catalog 
025.3132 

For subject analysis and control, see 025.4 

See also 025.04 for comprehensive works on information storage and 
retrieval systems 

See Manual at 025.3 

SUMMARY 

025.301-.309 Standard subdivisions 

.31 The catalog 

.32 Descriptive cataloging 

.34 Cataloging, classification, indexing of special materials 

.35 Cooperative cataloging, classification, indexing 

.39 Recataloging, reclassification, re-indexing 

[.302 18] Standards 

Do not use; class in 025.3 

Do not add notation 0218 from Table 1 to any subdivision of 
025.3 

See Manual at 025.3 

.302 855 72 Applications of computer data representation, record 

formats, preparation 

Class machine-readable catalog record formats in 
025.316, data entry, conversion to machine-readable 
form in 025.317 



42 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.302 855 74 Applications of computer data files and databases 

Class here comprehensive works on computer data files 
and databases used for cataloging and indexing 

Class computer data files and databases used for specific 
purposes with the purpose, e.g., online catalogs 
025.3132 

.302 855 748 Applications of computer sorting 

Class computer sorting of catalog records in 
025.3177 

.31 The catalog 

.313 Form 

Examples: book, card, microform catalogs 
.313 2 Online catalogs 

.315 Structure 

Examples: classified, divided, unified catalogs 
.316 Machine-readable catalog record formats 

Example: the Common Communication Format (CCF) 

Class here communication and internal formats for machine-readable 
cataloging records; Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC); 
comprehensive works on machine-readable formats for catalog records, 
on machine-readable formats for catalog and index records 

Class display formats for catalog records in 025.313; input formats for 
catalog records in 025.317; formats for specific kinds of catalog records 
with the kind in 025.32-025.49, using notation 0285572 from Table 1, 
e.g., name authority formats 025.32220285572, serials formats 
025.34320285572, subject authority formats 025.49000285572 

.3 1 7 Conversion and maintenance 

Examples: preparing, correcting, updating manual and machine-readable 
catalog records 

Class retrospective conversion combined with recataloging and 
reclassification in 025.39 

.317 3 Retrospective conversion 

.317 7 Filing 

Including computer sorting of cataloging records 

Class here filing rules 

.32 Descriptive cataloging 

Class here descriptive-cataloging codes, e.g., Anglo-American Cataloguing 
Rules 

Class descriptive cataloging of special materials in 025.34, cooperative 
descriptive cataloging in 025.35, recataloging in 025.393 



43 



025 Dewey Decimal Classification 025 

.322 Choice of entry and form of heading 

Examples: corporate headings, personal-name headings, uniform titles 

Class here author-title indexing 

.322 2 Name and title authority files 

Including reference structure 

.324 Bibliographic description 

Class here codes for bibliographic description, e.g., International 
Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) 

.34 Cataloging, classification, indexing of special materials 

Class here nonbook materials 

See also 025. 17 for comprehensive works on treatment of special 
materials 

SUMMARY 

025.341 Manuscripts, archival materials, rarities 

.342 Clippings, broadsides, pamphlets 

.343 Serials, government publications, report literature 

.344 Machine-readable materials 

.346 Maps, atlases, globes 

.347 Pictures and materials for projection 

.348 Sound recordings and music scores 

.349 Other special materials 

.341 Manuscripts, archival materials, rarities 

.341 2 Manuscripts 

.3414 Archival materials 

Class manuscripts in 025.3412 
.341 6 Rarities 

Class rare manuscripts in 025.3412, archival materials in 025.3414 

.342 Clippings, broadsides, pamphlets 

Class here contents of vertical files, printed ephemera 

.343 Serials, government publications, report literature 

.343 2 Serials 

Examples: CONSER (Cooperative Conversion of Serials) Project, 
International Serials Data Program (ISDP) 

Including International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSNs) 

.343 4 Government publications 

Class government serials in 025.3432 



44 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.343 6 Report literature 

Class serial report literature in 025.3432, government reports 
025.3434 

.344 Machine-readable materials [formerly 025.349] 

Class here computer software 
.346 Maps, atlases, globes 

.347 Pictures and materials for projection 

Class here comprehensive works on audiovisual materials 

For sound recordings and music scores, see 025.348; maps, atlases, 
globes, 025.346; other special materials, 025.349 

.347 1 Pictures and prints 

.347 3 Motion pictures, filmstrips, slides, videotapes 

.348 Sound recordings and music scores 

.348 2 Sound recordings 

Examples: cassettes, cylinders, disks, tapes, wires 

Class sound films and videotapes in 025.3473 

.348 8 Music scores 

.349 Other special materials 

Examples: large-type publications, realia 

Machine-readable materials relocated to 025.344 

.349 2 Publications in raised characters 

Example: braille 

.349 4 Microforms 

.349 6 Games, models, miniatures, media kits 

Including dioramas, flashcards 

.35 Cooperative cataloging, classification, indexing 

Example: cooperative development of name authority files 

Class cooperative cataloging, classification, indexing of special materials in 
025.34 

.39 Recataloging, reclassification, re-indexing 

Class recataloging, reclassification, re-indexing of special materials in 
025.34 

.393 Recataloging 

General aspects: descriptive and subject 

See also 025.396 for reclassification 



45 



025 Dewey Decimal Classification 025 

.396 Reclassification 

.4 Subject analysis and control 

[.402 18] Standards 

Do not use; class in 025.4 

Do not add notation 0218 from Table 1 to any subdivision of 
025.4 

See Manual at 025.3 

.402 8 Abstracting techniques; auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, 

equipment, materials 

Class composition of abstracts in 808.062 

.42 Classification and shelflisting 

Class classification of special materials in 025.34, cooperative classification 
in 025.35, reclassification in 025.396 

For general classification systems, see 025.43; classification of specific 
disciplines and subjects, 025.46 

.428 Shelflisting 

Assigning book numbers (the symbols in a call number that distinguish 
an item in a collection from all other items in the same class number) 

See also 025.3 for International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) 

.43 General classification systems 

Class parts of general classification systems applied to specific subjects and 
disciplines in 025.46, e.g., Library of Congress Classification Class L 
Education 025.4637 

.43 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 

.432 Universal Decimal Classification 

.433 Library of Congress Classification 

.434 Bliss's Bibliographic Classification 

.435 Ranganathan's Colon Classification 

.46 Classification of specific disciplines and subjects 

Class here thesaurofacets 

Add to base number 025.46 notation 001-999, e.g., classification of 
education 025.4637 

.47 Subject cataloging 

Subject authority files, reference structure relocated to 025.49 

Class subject cataloging of special materials in 025.34, cooperative subject 
cataloging in 025.35, recataloging in 025.393 

For controlled subject vocabularies, see 025.49 



46 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.48 Subject indexing 

Manual and mechanized indexing of individual, serial, collected records 

Including citation indexing 

Class indexing of special materials in 025.34, cooperative indexing in 
025.35, re-indexing in 025.39 

For controlled subject vocabularies, see 025.49 

.482 Precoordinate indexing 

Examples: chain indexing, PRECIS, relative indexing 

See also 025 .42 for precoordinate classification, 025.47 for 
precoordinate subject cataloging 

.484 Coordinate and postcoordinate indexing 

Examples: Uniterm indexing, optical coincidence card systems 

.486 Title manipulation 

Examples: catchword, KWIC (Key Word in Context), KWOC (Key 
Word Out of Context) indexing 

.49 Controlled subject vocabularies 

Class here subject authority files, reference structure [both formerly also 
025.47], descriptors, indexing terms, subject headings, thesauri 

Use 025.490001-025.490009 for standard subdivisions 

Class thesaurofacets in 025.46 

.490 01 -.499 99 Vocabularies of specific disciplines and subjects 

Add to base number 025.49 notation 001-999, e.g., subject 
headings in science 025.495 

.5 Services to users 

Class library services to special groups and organizations in 027.6, a specific 
service not provided for here with the subject, e.g., photocopying services 
025.12, circulation services 025.6, storytelling for children 027.6251 

.52 Reference and information services 

Class here information and referral services; services that involve the use or 
assistance in the use of information tools but not the creation of them 

Class comprehensive works on the creation and use of information storage 
and retrieval systems in 025.04, of specific tools for bibliographic control in 
025.3; the use of books and other media as sources of information in 028.7 



.523 Cooperative information services 



47 



025 Dewey Decimal Classification 025 

.524 Information search and retrieval 

Using multiple kinds of information sources, e.g., the library catalog, 
reference books, automated information storage and retrieval systems 

Class here search strategy 

Information search and retrieval using a specific system relocated to the 
system, e.g., searching an automated information storage and retrieval 
system devoted to medicine 025.0661, searching an online catalog 
025.3132, retrieval through coordinate indexing 025.484 

See also 025.04 for automated information storage and retrieval 
systems 

.525 Selective dissemination of information (SDI) 

Class here current awareness programs 

.527 Reference and information services in specific types of institutions 

Add to base number 025.527 the numbers following 02 in 026-027, e.g., 
reference and information services in college and university libraries 
025.52777; however, class reference and information services to special 
groups and organizations in 027.6 

Class specific aspects of reference and information service in specific 
types of institutions in 025.523-025.525 

.54 Reader advisory services to individuals and groups 

See also 028.8 for use of books and other media as sources of recreation 
and self-development 

.56 Orientation and bibliographic instruction for users 

Including signs, regulations for use, user manuals 

Add to base number 025.56 the numbers following 02 in 026-027, e.g., 
orientation to public libraries 025.5674; however, class orientation and 
bibliographic instruction for special groups and organizations in 027.6 

.58 Library use studies 

Add to base number 025.58 the numbers following 02 in 026-027, e.g., use 
of government libraries 025.5875; however, class use studies of libraries for 
special groups and organizations in 027.6 

Class studies of use of specific systems and services with the system or 
service, e.g., catalog use studies 025.313, studies of use of interlibrary loans 
025.62 

.6 Circulation services 

Lending and renting materials, keeping records of loans and rentals 
Class here document delivery 

Class circulation services for special groups and organizations in 027.6 
.62 Interlibrary loans 

Including regulations 



48 



025 Library and information sciences 025 

.7 Physical preparation for storage and use 

Examples: binding, labeling, pocketing 

Including repair and restoration 

Class conservation and preservation in 025.84 
.8 Maintenance and preservation of collections 

Class repair and restoration in 025.7 

.8 1 Physical arrangement and access to collections 

Examples: closed and open stacks, integrated shelving of materials in 
different formats 

.82 Security against theft and other hazards 

Including taking of inventory 
.84 Preservation 

Class here conservation 

For repair and restoration, see 025. 7 



> 026-027 Specific kinds of institutions 

Class here specific libraries, archives, information centers, and their collections; 
systems and networks for specific kinds of institutions; comprehensive works 
on operations in specific kinds of institutions 

Class comprehensive works in 027 

See Manual at 026-027 

026 Libraries, archives, information centers devoted to specific 
subjects and disciplines 

Class here information organizations and library departments and collections in 
specific disciplines and subjects; comprehensive works on archives, on special 
libraries 

Class special libraries not devoted to specific disciplines and subjects in 027.6, e.g., 
general museum libraries 027.68, general libraries in newspaper offices 027.69 



See Manual at Tl—07 vs. 016, 026 


.000 1-.000 5 


Standard subdivisions 


.000 6 


Organizations and management 


[.000 68] 


Management 




Do not use; class in 025.19 


.000 7-. 000 9 


Standard subdivisions 


.001 -.999 


Specific subjects and disciplines 



Add to base number 026 notation 001-999, e.g., medical libraries 
026.61 ; however, do not add notation 068 from Table 1 ; class in 025.19 



49 



026 Dewey Decimal Classification 026 

027 General libraries, archives, information centers 

In the subdivisions of this number, the term libraries is used as a short way of 
saying libraries, archives, information centers, media centers 

Class here comprehensive works on libraries, on information centers, on libraries 
and information centers devoted to special materials 

For libraries, archives, information centers devoted to specific disciplines and 
subjects, see 026 

See Manual at 027 

SUMMARY 

027.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .09 Geographical treatment 

.1 Private and family libraries 

.2 Proprietary libraries 

.3 Rental libraries 

.4 Public libraries 

.5 Government libraries 

.6 Libraries for special groups and organizations 

.7 College and university libraries 

.8 School libraries 

.001 -.005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations and management 

[.006 8] Management 

Do not use; class in 025.19 

.007-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 027.01-027.09 

.01-.09 *Geographical treatment 

Add to base number 027.0 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., libraries in 
France 027.044 

.1 *Private and family libraries 

Collections not open to general use 

Add to base number 027.1 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., family libraries in 
the United Kingdom 027.141 

*Do not add notation 068 from Table 1; class in 025.19 



50 



027 Library and information sciences 027 

.2 *Proprietary libraries 

Semiprivate libraries requiring subscription or membership fees for general use 

Add to base number 027.2 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., proprietary libraries 
in Leeds 027.242819 

.3 *Rental libraries 

Libraries whose materials are available for use on a commercial basis 

Add to base number 027.3 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., rental libraries in 
the United States 027.373 

.4 *Public libraries 

Institutions that provide free service to all residents of a community, district, 
region, usually supported in whole or in part from public funds 

Class here public library branches, the use of bookmobiles (mobile libraries) in 
public librarianship 

Class physical plant management of bookmobiles (mobile libraries) in 022, 
public library units devoted to specific disciplines and subjects in 026, public 
library units for special groups and organizations in 027.6 

.409 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
027.43-027.49 (not 027.4093-027.4099) 

.43- .49 *Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 027.4 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., public libraries 
in France 027.444 

.5 *Government libraries 

National, state, provincial, local 

For government libraries for special groups, see 027. 65 

See Manual at 027.5 

.509 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class specific institutions in 027.53-027.59 (not 027.5093-027.5099) 

.53-. 59 *Specific institutions 

Add to base number 027.5 notation 3-9 from Table 2 for area served, e.g.,' 
Library of Congress 027.573 

*Do not add notation 068 from Table 1; class in 025.19 



51 



027 Dewey Decimal Classification 027 

.6 ^Libraries for special groups and organizations 

Class here library and information services to special groups and organizations, 
to the socially disadvantaged 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two 
or more subdivisions of 027.6 in the one coming last, e.g., libraries for children 
with disabilities 027.663 (not 027.625) 

Class libraries for special groups and organizations devoted to specific 
disciplines and subjects in 026 

For libraries for educational institutions, see 027. 7-027.8 

.62 *Libraries for specific age groups 

.622 *For persons in late adulthood 

.625 *For children 

To age eleven 

Including toy lending services in a library context 
.625 1 Storytelling 

.626 *For young adults 

Ages twelve to twenty 

.63 *For minority groups 

.65 *Government libraries for special groups 

Examples: government information agencies for foreign populaces, 
legislative reference bureaus 

.66 *Welfare institution libraries 

.662 *Hospital libraries 

Class here comprehensive works on patients' and medical libraries 

Class medical libraries in 026.61 
.663 *Libraries for persons with disabilities 

Example: libraries for persons with visual impairment 

Class here mainstreaming (the provision of library and information 
services through regular channels to individuals with special needs) 

.665 *Prison libraries 

.67 *Libraries for religious organizations 

.68 *Libraries for nonprofit organizations 

Examples: libraries of learned societies, museum libraries, United Nations 
Library 

For welfare institution libraries, see 027.66; libraries for religious 
organizations, 027.67 

*Do not add notation 068 from Table 1; class in 025. 19 

52 



027 Library and information sciences 027 

.69 *Libraries for business and industrial organizations 

Example: reference collections in newspaper offices used in the writing or 
editing of articles 



> 027.7-027.8 Libraries for educational institutions 

Class here instructional media centers 

Class comprehensive works in 027.7; libraries for educational institutions but 
devoted to specific disciplines and subjects in 026, e.g., university law libraries 
026.34 

.7 *College and university libraries 

Class here comprehensive works on libraries for educational institutions, 
college and university library branches 

Class branches devoted to specific disciplines and subjects in 026, elementary 
and secondary school libraries in 027.8 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class specific institutions in 027.73-027.79 {not 027.7093-027.7099) 

.73-. 79 *Specific institutions 

Add to base number 027.7 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., Perkins Library 
of Duke University 027.7756563 

.8 *School libraries 

.809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class specific libraries in 027.823-027.829 {not 027.8093-027.8099) 

.82 Specific levels and specific libraries 

Class libraries in church-supported schools of specific levels, in specific 
church-supported schools in 027.83 

.822 Specific levels 

Class specific libraries of specific levels in 027.823-027.829 

.822 2 *Elementary level 

.822 3 *Secondary level 

.823-. 829 *Specific libraries 

Add to base number 027.82 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., Phillips 
Exeter Academy Library 027.827426 

.83 *Libraries in church-supported schools 

*Do not add notation 068 from Table 1; class in 025.19 



53 



028 Dewey Decimal Classification 028 

028 Reading and use of other information media 
.1 Reviews 

Class here general collections of book reviews 

Class reviews of computer programs in 005.30296; techniques of reviewing in 
808.066028; reviews of works on a specific subject or in a specific discipline 
with the subject or discipline, e.g., reviews of works on chemistry 540, reviews 
of entertainment films 791.43, critical appraisal of literature 800 

.12 Of reference works 

Class reviews of reference works published in specific forms in 028.13; 
reviews of reference works for specific kinds of users in 028.16; reviews of 
specific kinds of reference works with the kind, e.g., reviews of 
encyclopedias 030 

.13 Of works published in specific forms 

Add to base number 028.13 the numbers following 01 1.3 in 011.31-01 1.38, 
e.g., reviews of documentary, educational, and entertainment films 028.137 

Class reviews of works published in specific forms for specific kinds of 
users in 028.16 

General collections of books reviews are classed in 028.1 

.16 Of works for specific kinds of users 

Add to base number 028.16 the numbers following 01 1.6 in 01 1.62-01 1.67, 
e.g., reviews of works for children and young adults 028.162 

.5 Reading and use of other information media by children and young 

adults 

See also 028. 162 for reviews of materials for young children and adults 

.53 By specific age groups 

Add to base number 028.53 the numbers following —05 in notation 
054-055 from Table 7, e.g., reading and use of other information media by 
young adults 028.535 

.55 Reading interests and habits of children and young adults 

Class reading interests and habits of children and young adults of specific 
age groups in 028.53 

.7 Use of books and other media as sources of information 

Class here use of reference works 

For reading and use of other information media by children and young 
adults, see 028.5 

.8 Use of books and other media as sources of recreation and 

self-development 

For reading and use of other information media by children and young 
adults, see 028.5 

.9 Reading interests and habits 

For reading interests and habits of children and young adults, see 028.55 
54 



029 Library and information sciences 029 
[029] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 18 

030 General encyclopedic works 

Class here general works about curiosities [formerly also 001.93], books of 
miscellaneous facts (e.g., almanacs), encyclopedia yearbooks 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of encyclopedic works in 
specific languages and language families in 031-039 



> 031-039 In specific languages and language families 

By language in which originally written 

Class here specific encyclopedias and books of miscellaneous facts, works 
about them 

Books of unusual and curious facts are classed in the numbers for books of 
miscellaneous facts, e.g., American books of unusual and curious facts 031.02 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to encyclopedias in a 
specific language, place them first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., 
Arabic-language encyclopedias 03 A [preceding 031]. Option B is described 
under 031) 

Class comprehensive works in 030; encyclopedic works originally written in 
two or more languages or language families with the preponderant language or 
language family; if none is preponderant, class in 030 

031 American 

English-language encyclopedias and books of miscellaneous facts originating in 
Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 

(Option B: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to encyclopedias in a 
specific language other than English, class them in this number; in that case class 
American English-language encyclopedias in 032. Option A is described under 
031-039) 

.02 Books of miscellaneous facts 

Examples: almanacs with general information, believe-it-or-not books 

032 In English 

For American English-language encyclopedias, see 031 
.02 Books of miscellaneous facts 

Example: Whitaker's Almanack 



55 



033 Dewey Decimal Classification 033 

033 In other Germanic languages 

Class here comprehensive works on Germanic-language encyclopedias 

Add to base number 03 notation 31-394 from Table 6, e.g., Dutch-language 
encyclopedias 033.931; then, for books of miscellaneous facts, add 02, e.g., 
Dutch-language books of miscellaneous facts 033.93102 

Class English-language encyclopedias in 032, Scandinavian-language 
encyclopedias in 038 

034 In French, Proven9al, Catalan 

Add to base number 03 notation 41-49 from Table 6, e.g., French-language 
encyclopedias 034.1; then, for books of miscellaneous facts, add 02, e.g., 
French-language almanacs 034.102 

035 In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

Add to base number 03 notation 51-59 from Table 6, e.g., Italian-language 
encyclopedias 035.1; then, for books of miscellaneous facts, add 02, e.g., 
Italian-language books of miscellaneous facts 035.102 

036 In Spanish and Portuguese 

Add to base number 03 notation 61-69 from Table 6, e.g., Portuguese-language 
encyclopedias 036.9; then, for books of miscellaneous facts, add 02, e.g., 
Portuguese-language books of miscellaneous facts 036.902 

037 In Slavic languages 





Add to notation for each term identified by * as follows: 




02 Books of miscellaneous facts 


.1 


*Russian 


.8 


Other Slavic languages 




For Ukrainian- and Belorussian-language encyclopedias, see 037. 9 


.81 


Bulgarian and Macedonian 


.811 


*Bulgarian 


.819 


* Macedonian 


.82 


*Serbo-Croatian 


.84 


*Slovenian 


.85 


*Polish 


.86 


*Czech 


.87 


*Slovak 


.88 


*Wendish (Sorbian, Lusatian) 



*Add as instructed under 037 



56 



037 General encyclopedic works 037 

.9 Ukrainian and Belorussian 

.91 *Ukrainian 

.99 *Belorussian 

038 In Scandinavian languages 

Add to base number 038 the numbers following —39 in notation 396-398 from 
Table 6, e.g., Swedish-language encyclopedias 038.7; then, for books of 
miscellaneous facts, add 02, e.g., Swedish-language books of miscellaneous facts 
038.702 

039 In other languages 

[.29] In Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

Number discontinued because without use in context 

.7- .9 In Italic, Hellenic, other languages 

Add to base number 039 notation 7-9 from Table 6, e.g., Latin-language 
encyclopedias 039.71; then, for miscellaneous books of facts, add 02, e.g., 
Latin-language books of miscellaneous facts 039.7102 

[040] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[041] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[042] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[043] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[044] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[045] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[046] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[047] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[048] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 1 6 
*Add as instructed under 037 



57 



049 Dewey Decimal Classification 049 
[049] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

050 General serial publications and their indexes 

Class here periodicals 

Class indexes that focus on a specific subject or discipline in general serial 
publications in 016, e.g., an index to information on medicine in general serial 
publications 016.61; books of miscellaneous facts (even if published annually, e.g., 
almanacs), encyclopedia yearbooks, in 030; administrative reports and proceedings 
of general organizations in 060 

For newspapers, see 070 

See also 01 1 .34 for bibliographies of general serial publications, 01 1.7 for 
bibliographies of directories, 017-019 for catalogs of general serial 
publications 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of serial publications in 
specific languages and language families in 051-059 



> 051-059 In specific languages and language families 

By language in which originally written 

Class here specific serial publications and works about them 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to serial publications 
in a specific language, place them first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., 
Hindi-language serial publications 05H [preceding 051]. Option C is described 
under 051) 

(Option B: Arrange serial publications alphabetically under 050) 

Class comprehensive works in 050; serials originally written in two or more 
languages with the preponderant language or language family; if none is 
preponderant, class in 050 

051 American 

English-language serial publications of Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 

(Option C: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to serial publications in a 
specific language other than English, class them in this number; in that case class 
American English-language serial publications in 052. Options A and B are 
described under 05 1-059) 

052 In English 

For American English-language serial publications, see 051 



58 



053 General serial publications and their indexes 053 

053 In other Germanic languages 

Class here comprehensive works on general serial publications in Germanic 
languages 

Add to base number 05 notation 31-394 from Table 6, e.g., Dutch-language serial 
publications 053.931 

Class English-language serial publications in 052, Scandinavian-language serial 
publications in 058 

054 In French, Provencal, Catalan 

Add to base number 05 notation 41-49 from Table 6, e.g., French-language serial 
publications 054. 1 

055 In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

Add to base number 05 notation 51-59 from Table 6, e.g., Italian-language serial 
publications 055.1 

056 In Spanish and Portuguese 

Add to base number 05 notation 61-69 from Table 6, e.g., Portuguese-language 
serial publications 056.9 

057 In Slavic languages 

Add to base number 057 the numbers following 037 in 037.1-037.9 for language 
only, e.g., Polish-language serial publications 057.85 

058 In Scandinavian languages 

Add to base number 058 the numbers following —39 in notation 396-398 from 
Table 6, e.g., Swedish-language serial publications 058.7 

059 In other languages 

[.29] In Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

Number discontinued because without use in context 

.7- .9 In Italic, Hellenic, other languages 

Add to base number 059 notation 7-9 from Table 6, e.g., Chinese-language 
serial publications 059.95 1 



59 



060 Dewey Decimal Classification 060 

060 General organizations and museology 

General organizations: academies, associations, conferences, congresses, 
foundations, societies whose activity is not limited to a specific field 

General aspects: history, charters, regulations, membership lists, administrative 
reports and proceedings 

Class here interdisciplinary works on organizations; interdisciplinary works on 
licensing, certification, accreditation by nongovernmental organizations 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to organizations in a 
specific country, place them first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., 
organizations in Pakistan 06P [preceding 061]. Option B is described under 061) 

Class general organizations whose members are political states in 341, e.g., Arab 
League 341.2477; comprehensive works on licensing, certification, accreditation 
by governmental and nongovernmental bodies in 351.8; organizations devoted to a 
specific discipline or subject with the discipline or subject, using notation 06 from 
Table 1, e.g., organizations devoted to computer science 004.06 

.4 Special topics 

.42 General rules of order (Parliamentary procedure) 

Example: Robert's Rules of Order 

For rules and procedures of legislative bodies, see 328. J 
See also 658.4563 for conduct of meetings of business organizations 
.68 Management 

Class here conduct of congresses and conferences [formerly also 658.4562] 
.9 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment of general organizations in 061-068 



> 061-068 General organizations 

Class comprehensive works in 060 

061 General organizations in North America 

(Option B: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to organizations in a 
specific country other than the United States and Canada, class them in this 
number; in that case class organizations in North America in 068.7. Option A is 
described under 060) 

Class organizations in Middle America in 068.72 
.1 In Canada 

Add to base number 061.1 the numbers following —71 in notation 711-719 
from Table 2, e.g., organizations in British Columbia 061 .1 1 



60 



061 General organizations and museology 061 

.3- .9 In the United States 

Add to base number 061 the numbers following —7 in notation 73-79 from 
Table 2, e.g., general organizations in Ohio 061.71 

Class organizations in Hawaii in 068.969 

062 General organizations in British Isles In England 
.1-.8 In England 

Add to base number 062 the numbers following —42 in notation 421-428 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in London 062.1 

.9 In Scotland, Ireland, Wales 

Add to base number 062.9 the numbers following —4 in notation 41-42 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Scotland and Ireland 062.91 

063 General organizations in central Europe In Germany 

Add to base number 063 the numbers following —43 in notation 431-439 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Poland 063.8 

064 General organizations in France and Monaco 

Add to base number 064 the numbers following —44 in notation 441-449 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Paris 064.36 

065 General organizations in Italy and adjacent territories 

Add to base number 065 the numbers following —45 in notation 451-459 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Rome 065.632 

066 General organizations in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent 
islands In Spain 

Add to base number 066 the numbers following —46 in notation 461-469 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Portugal 066.9 

067 General organizations in eastern Europe In Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) 

Add to base number 067 the numbers following —47 in notation 472-479 from 
Table 2, e.g., organizations in Ukraine 067.71 

068 General organizations in other geographical areas 

Add to base number 068 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., comprehensive works on 
general organizations in Europe 068.4, in Middle America 068.72 



61 



069 Dewey Decimal Classification 069 

069 Museology (Museum science) 

Museum activities and services limited to specific subjects or disciplines relocated 
to the subject or discipline with use of notation 075 from Table 1, e.g., activities 
and services of a clock museum 68 1 . 1 1 3075 

SUMMARY 

069.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Museum services to patrons 

.2 Management and use of physical plant 

.3 Equipment, furniture, furnishings 

.4 Collecting and preparing museum objects 

.5 Collections and exhibits of museum objects 

.6 Personnel management, regulations for patrons, relationships with other 
organizations 

[.068 2] Plant management 

Do not use; class in 069.2 
[.068 3] Personnel management 

Do not use; class in 069.63 
[.068 5] Organization of production 

Do not use; class in 069. 1 
[.068 7] Management of materials 

Do not use; class in 069.5 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here specific museums not limited to a specific discipline or subject 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of museum buildings in 
069.209; museums devoted to specific disciplines and subjects with the 
discipline or subject, using notation 074 from Table 1, e.g., natural history 
museums 508.074 

.1 Museum services to patrons 

Class here organization of production 
. 1 3 Circulation services 

Lending and renting materials 

See also 069. 56 for lending and rental collections 
. 1 32 Museum objects 

. 1 34 Representations of museum objects and aids to their use 

Examples: pictures, slides, films, projectors 
.15 Instruction services 

Examples: lectures, classes, field trips 
.16 Recreational services 

Examples: musical programs, theatrical presentations 

62 



069 General organizations and museology 069 

. 1 7 Special services to handicapped patrons 

.2 Management and use of physical plant 

For equipment, furniture, furnishings, see 069.3 

.21 Location and site 

.22 Planning for buildings 

See also 727. 6 for museum architecture 

.24 Special rooms 

.29 Utilities and related facilities 

Examples: communication systems, lighting, plumbing, heating, ventilating, 
air-conditioning 

.3 Equipment, furniture, furnishings 

.31 Exhibit cases, screens, pedestals 

.32 Audiovisual apparatus 

.33 Furniture 

.4 Collecting and preparing museum objects 

General aspects: equipment, materials, methods 

Class here management of collecting and preparing museum objects 

Class comprehensive works on management of museum materials, on collecting 
or preparing museum objects and collections of museum objects in 069.5; 
collecting a specific kind of object or objects that pertain to a specific subject or 
discipline with the subject or discipline, using notation 075 from Table 1, e.g., 
collecting fossils 560.75 

.5 Collections and exhibits of museum objects 

Class here comprehensive works on management of museum materials, on 
collecting or preparing museum objects and collections of museum objects 

For collecting and preparing museum objects, see 069. 4 

[.502 88] Maintenance and repair 

Do not use; class in 069.53 

.502 89 Safety measures 

See also 069.54 for prevention of thefts and identification of 
forgeries 



069.51-069.54 General activities 

Class comprehensive works in 069.5, general activities applied to special 
collections in 069.55-069.57 

.51 Selection, acquisition, disposal 



63 



069 Dewey Decimal Classification 069 

.52 Registration, recording, indexing 

Class here museum documentation 

.53 Maintenance, conservation, preservation, restoration, display, 

arrangement, storage, transportation 

Including museum labels 

Class historic preservation in 363.69 

.54 Prevention of thefts and identification of forgeries 



069.55-069.57 Special collections 

General aspects: classification, arrangement, housing 

Class comprehensive works in 069.5 

.55 Study collections 

.56 Lending and rental collections 

See also 069. 13 for circulation services 

.57 Collections of secondary materials 

Examples: brochures, films, motion pictures, photographs, pictures, prints, 
slides representing museum objects 

.6 Personnel management, regulations for patrons, relations with other 

organizations 

.62 Regulations for patrons 

Examples: for members, for visitors 

.63 Personnel management 

Including in-service training, staff manuals 

.68 Relations with other organizations 

Class public relations for museums in 659.29069 

[.7] Publishing and printing 

Publishing by museums relocated to 070.594, printing by museums to 686.2 

[.9] Museums, collections, exhibits devoted to specific disciplines and 

subjects 

Relocated to the subject or discipline with use of notation 074 from Table 1, 
e.g., military museums 355.0074 



64 



070 News media; journalism; publishing 070 

070 Documentary media, educational media, news 
media; journalism; publishing 

SUMMARY 

070.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions of documentary media, educational media, news 

media; journalism; publishing 
.1-.9 Documentary media, educational media, news media; journalism; 

publishing 

071 Journalism and newspapers in North America 

072 Journalism and newspapers in British Isles In England 

073 Journalism and newspapers in Central Europe In Germany 

074 Journalism and newspapers in Erance and Monaco 

075 Journalism and newspapers in Italy and adjacent territories 

076 Journalism and newspapers in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands In 

Spain 

077 Journalism and newspapers in eastern Europe In Union of Soviet Socialist 

Republics (Soviet Union) 

078 Journalism and newspapers in Scandinavia 

079 Journalism and newspapers in other geographical areas 

.01-. 08 Standard subdivisions of documentary media, educational media, news 
media; journalism; publishing 

Standard subdivisions are also added for newspapers and journalism alone 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of documentary media, 

educational media, news media; journalism; publishing 

Class historical and persons treatment of journalism and newspapers in 
070.9, geographical treatment of journalism and newspapers in 071-079 

SUMMARY 

070.1 Documentary media, educational media, news media 

.4 Journalism 

.5 Publishing 

.9 Historical and persons treatment of journalism and newspapers 

.1 Documentary media, educational media, news media 

Class here comprehensive works on journalism and production of specific kinds 
of educational, expository, news media 

Class interdisciplinary works on mass media in 302.23; specific journalistic 
activities and types of journalism in 070.4; expository writing and editorial 
techniques in 808.066; documentary, educational, news works themselves and 
discussion of them with the kind of general work or with the subject, e.g., 
general periodicals 050, recorded television programs on investing 332.6 



65 



070 Dewey Decimal Classification 070 

.17 Print media 

Class the book in 002 

.172 Newspapers 

Class newspaper publishing in 070.5722, specific general newspapers in 
070-079 

See also 011.35 for bibliographies of newspapers 

[.172 09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class historical and persons treatment in 070.9, 
geographical treatment in 071-079 

.175 Periodicals 

Example: newsletters 

Class specific general periodicals in 050; periodicals on a specific 
discipline or subject with the discipline or subject, using notation 05 
from Table 1, e.g., science journals 505 

.18 Motion pictures 

Examples: educational films [formerly 791.4353]; documentary films, 
newsreels [both formerly also 791.4353] 

Class interdisciplinary works on motion pictures in 302.2343; works about 
motion pictures that are interdisciplinary but lack treatment of sociological 
aspects in 384.8; photography aspects in 778.53; comprehensive works 
about documentary, educational, news and dramatic or entertainment films 
in 791.43 

See also 371.33523 for use of motion pictures in teaching 

.19 Broadcast media 

.194 Radio 

Examples: news {formerly also 791.445]; educational, expository 
programs [both formerly 791.445] 

Class interdisciplinary works on radio in 302.2344; works on radio that 
are interdisciplinary but lack treatment of sociological aspects in 384.54; 
comprehensive works on documentary, educational, news and dramatic 
or entertainment radio programs in 79 1 .44 

See also 371.3331 for use of radio in teaching 

.195 Television 

Examples: news [formerly also 791.455]; educational, expository 
programs [both formerly 791.455] 

Class interdisciplinary works about television in 302.2345; works that are 
interdisciplinary but lack treatment of sociological aspects in 384.55; 
comprehensive works on documentary, educational, news and dramatic 
or entertainment television programs in 791.45; photographic aspects in 
778.59 

See also 371. 3358 for use of television in teaching 



66 



070 News media; journalism; publishing 070 

.4 Journalism 

Collecting, writing, editing information and opinion of current interest for 
presentation in newspapers, periodicals, films, radio, television 

Journalists whose careers span many activities are classed in 070.92. Persons in 
a specific type of journalism are classed with the type, e.g., editors 070.41092, 
foreign correspondents 070.4332092 

Class comprehensive works on journalism and information media in 070, 
journalism of specific kinds of news media in 070. 1 , journalistic composition 
and editorial mechanics in 808.06607 

See also 050 for general periodicals, 070.5722 for newspaper publishing, 
071-079 for specific newspapers, 174.9097 for ethics of journalism, 
notation 05 from Table 1 for journals on a specific discipline or subject 

SUMMARY 

070.401- .409 Standard subdivisions 

.41 Editing 

.43 News gathering and reporting 

.44 Features and special topics 

.48 Journalism directed to special groups 

.49 Pictorial journalism 

.401 -.407 Standard subdivisions 

.408 Journalism with respect to groups of persons 

Class journalism directed to special groups in 070.48 

[.409] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class historical and persons treatment in 070.9, geographical 
treatment in 071-079 

.41 Editing 

Including editorial crusades, policy on editorial cartoons 

Class here editorial policy (selection, presentation, display of news; 
advocacy of specific points of view) 

Class comprehensive works on editing and news gathering or reporting in 
070.4; editing with respect to features and special topics in 070.44; editorials 
in 070.442 

See also 808.06607 for editorial mechanics, e.g., copy editing, the UPI 
(United Press International) stylebook 

[.412] Editorial policy 

Number discontinued; class in 070.41 
[.415] Editorial mechanics in journalistic writing 

Relocated to 808.06607 



67 



070 Dewey Decimal Classification 070 

.43 News gathering and reporting 

Class comprehensive works on editorial policy and news gathering or 
reporting in 070.4; news gathering and reporting with respect to feature and 
special topics in 070.44 

.43 1 News sources 

.433 Reporting local, foreign, war news 

Broad descriptions of local, foreign, war reporting as types of reporting, 
not limited to a specific subject or geographical area; how to do the 
reporting 

Class reporting of specific subjects in 070.449, e.g., reporting on 
world-wide energy resources 070.44933379, reporting on the Vietnamese 
War 070.4499597043 

Use of this number for reporting other specific types of news 
discontinued; class in 070.43 

See Manual at 070.433 

.433 2 Foreign news 

Class here international news 

Class foreign war news in 070.4333 
.433 3 War news 

.435 Wire services 

Examples; Associated Press, Reuters 



070.44-070.49 Specific types of journalism 

Class comprehensive works in 070.4 

.44 Features and special topics 

General aspects; techniques and procedures for information-gathering, 
writing, editing for reports, criticisms, opinions 

Class here newspaper columns 

Class reports, criticism, opinions on specific subjects with the subject, e.g. 
criticisms of theatrical productions 792 

.442 Interpretation and opinion 

Examples: newspaper editorials, radio comment 

Class editorial policy in 070.41 



68 



070 News media; journalism; publishing 070 

.444 Miscellaneous information, advice, amusement 

Examples: humor, general personal advice columns 

Here are classed biographies of journalists specializing in these types of 
features, e.g., general personal advice columnists 070.444092; however, 
biographies of cartoonists are classed in 741.5092, of humorous writers 
in 800, e.g., a contemporary British writer of humorous essays 824.914 

Health columns relocated to 070.449613, recipes relocated to 
070.4496415 

Class journalistic handling of information, advice, humor on specific 
subjects in 070.449, e.g., advice on dating 070.44964677 

See also 741 .5 for artistic aspects of comics 

.449 Specific subjects 

Add to base number 070.449 notation 001-999, e.g., health columns 
070.449613, recipes 070.4496415 [both formerly 070.444], radio sports 
programs 070.449796 [formerly also 791.445], television sports 
programs 070.449796 [formerly also 791.455], television news coverage 
of inflation 070.44933241 

Here are classed journalists specializing in specific subjects, e.g., sports 
announcers 070.449796092 

Class features and reports themselves with the subject, e.g., health 
columns 613 

See also 070.433 for reporting of local, foreign, war news as general 
types of news; 070.444 for miscellaneous information, advice, 
amusements as types of journalism; 070.48 for general journalism 
directed to special groups 

.48 Journalism directed to special groups 

Class editing in journalism directed to specific groups in 070.41; news 
gathering and reporting in journalism directed to specific groups in 070.43; 
features and special topics directed to special groups in 070.44, e.g., news 
about religion 070.4492 {not 070.482); school journalism in 371.897 



.482 


Religious groups 


.483 


Groups by age and sex 


483 2 


Children 


483 26 


Boys 


.483 27 


Girls 


483 3 


Young adults 


.483 36 


Young men 


.483 37 


Young women 


.483 4 


Adults 


.483 46 


Men 


.483 47 


Women 



69 



070 Dewey Decimal Classification 070 

.484 Foreign-language and nondominant racial, ethnic, national groups 

.486 Occupational and employee groups 

General journalism for occupational and employee groups 

Example: house organs 

Class journalism on a specific subject directed to occupational and 
employee groups in 070.449 

.49 Pictorial journalism 

Class here photojournalism 

.5 Publishing 

Class here book publishing; publishers regardless of their field of activity; book 
clubs, e.g., Book-of-the-Month Club®; comprehensive works on publishing and 
printing 

Works on "desktop publishing" that emphasize typography are classed in 
686.22, e.g., microcomputer software for typesetting 686.2254436 

For printing, see 686.2 

.502 94 Trade catalogs and directories 

Publishers' catalogs relocated to 015 

.509 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here comprehensive works on specific publishers, using the area 
number for the publisher's main office, e.g., U.S. Government Printing 
Office 070.509753 [formerly also 070.595], University of California 
Press 070.50979467 

Class economic aspects of publishers as business organizations in 
338.7610705 

.5 1 Selection and editing of manuscripts 

Class editorial techniques in 808.02 
.52 Relations with authors 

Including literary agents 

See Manual at 808. 001-808. 7 vs. 070. 52 

.57 Kinds of publications 

Class specific publishers in 070.509, selection and editing of manuscripts for 
specific kinds of publications in 070.51, relations with authors of specific 
kinds of publications in 070.52 

.572 Serials 

Class comprehensive works on journalism and publishing of serials in 
070.17 



.572 2 Newspapers 



70 



070 News media; journalism; publishing 070 

.573 Specific kinds of books 

Examples: limited editions, paperbacks, subscription books 

Class serials in book form in 070.572 

.579 Special kinds of publications 

.579 2 Braille and other raised characters 

.579 3 Maps 

.579 4 Music 

.579 5 Microforms 

.59 Kinds of publishers 

Class specific publishers in 070.509, selection and editing of manuscripts by 
specific kinds of publishers in 070.5 1 , relations with authors of specific 
kinds of publishers in 070.52, specific kinds of publications of specific kinds 
of publishers in 070.57 

.592 Commercial publishers 

.593 Private publishers 

Class here self-publishing 

Works on "desktop publishing" that emphasize typography are classed 
in 686.22, e.g., microcomputer software for typesetting 686.2254436 

.594 Institutional publishers 

Examples: church, society, university publishers 

Including publishing by libraries, archives, information centers [formerly 
025.12], by museums {formerly 069.7] 

.595 Governmental and intergovernmental publishers 

U.S. Government Printing Office relocated to 070.509753 

.9 Historical and persons treatment of journalism and newspapers 

Class geographical treatment in 071-079 
.92 Persons regardless of area, region, place 



71 



07 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 07 1 



> 071-079 Geographical treatment of journalism and 

newspapers 

Class here specific general newspapers, indexes to them, other works about 
them 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to newspapers and 
journalism in a specific country, place them first by use of a letter or other 
symbol, e.g., newspapers and journalism in New Zealand 07N [preceding 071]) 

(Option B: Arrange newspapers alphabetically under 070) 

(Option C is described under 07 1 ) 

Class comprehensive works in 070 

071 Journalism and newspapers in North America 

(Option C: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to journalism and 
newspapers in a specific country other than the United States and Canada, class 
them in this number; in that case class journalism and newspapers in North 
America in 079.7. Options A and B are described under 071-079) 

Class journalism and newspapers in Middle America in 079.72 

.1 Journalism and newspapers in Canada 

Add to base number 071.1 the numbers following —71 in notation 711-719 
from Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in British Columbia 071.1 1 

.3- .9 Journalism and newspapers in the United States 

Add to base number 071 the numbers following —7 in notation 73-79 from 
Table 2, e.g., New York Times 071.471 

Class journalism and newspapers in Hawaii in 079.969 

072 Journalism and newspapers in British Isles In England 

.1-.8 Journalism and newspapers in England 

Add to base number 072 the numbers following —42 in notation 421-428 from 
Table 2, e.g., Times of London 072.1 

.9 Journalism and newspapers in Scotland, Ireland, Wales 

Add to base number 072.9 the numbers following —4 in notation 41-42 from 
Table 2, e.g., newspapers in Scotland and Ireland 072.91 

073 Journalism and newspapers in central Europe In 
Germany 

Add to base number 073 the numbers following —43 in notation 431-439 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Austria 073.6 

074 Journalism and newspapers in France and Monaco 

Add to base number 074 the numbers following —44 in notation 441-449 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Paris 074.36 



72 



075 News media; journalism; publishing 075 

075 Journalism and newspapers in Italy and adjacent territories 

Add to base number 075 the numbers following —45 in notation 451-459 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Rome 075.632 

076 Journalism and newspapers in Iberian Peninsula and 
adjacent islands In Spain 

Add to base number 076 the numbers following —46 in notation 461-469 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Portugal 076.9 

077 Journalism and newspapers in eastern Europe In Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) 

Add to base number 077 the numbers following —47 in notation 472-479 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Ukraine 077.71 

078 Journalism and newspapers in Scandinavia 

Add to base number 078 the numbers following —48 in notation 481-489 from 
Table 2, e.g., journalism and newspapers in Sweden 078.5 

079 Journalism and newspapers in other geographical areas 

Add to base number 079 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., comprehensive works on 
general newspapers in Europe 079.4, in Middle America 079.72 

080 General collections 

Class here addresses, lectures, essays, interviews, graffiti, quotations 

Class essays as literary form, collections gathered for their literary quality in 800 

See Manual at 080 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of collections in specific 
languages and language families in 081-089 



081-089 In specific languages and language families 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to collections in a 
specific language, place them first by use of a letter or symbol, e.g., collections 
in Urdu 08U [preceding 081]) 

(Option B: Arrange collections alphabetically under 080) 

(Option C is described under 081) 

Class comprehensive works in 080 

See Manual at 081-089 



73 



08 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 08 1 

081 American 

English-language collections of Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 

(Option C: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to collections in a specific 
language other than English, class them in this number; in that case class American 
English-language collections in 082. Options A and B are described under 
081-089) 

082 In English 

For American English-language collections, see 081 

083 In other Germanic languages 

Class here comprehensive works on Germanic-language collections 

Add to base number 08 notation 31-394 from Table 6, e.g., German-language 
collections 083.1 

Class English-language collections in 082, Scandinavian-language collections in 
088, Anglo-Saxon-language collections in 089 

084 In French, Provencal, Catalan 

Add to base number 08 notation 41-49 from Table 6, e.g., French-language 
collections 084. 1 

085 In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

Add to base number 08 notation 51-59 from Table 6, e.g., Italian-language 
collections 085.1 

086 In Spanish and Portuguese 

Add to base number 08 notation 61-69 from Table 6, e.g., Portuguese-language 
collections 086.9 

087 In Slavic languages 

Add to base number 087 the numbers following 037 in 037.1-037.9 for language 
only, e.g., Polish-language collections 087.85 

088 In Scandinavian languages 

Add to base number 088 the numbers following —39 in notation 396-398 from 
Table 6, e.g., Swedish-language collections 088.7 

089 In other languages 

Including Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

[.29] In Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 

Number discontinued; class in 089 

.7- .9 In Italic, Hellenic, other languages 

Add to base number 089 notation 7-9 from Table 6, e.g., Chinese-language 
collections 089.951 



74 



090 Manuscripts, rare printed materials 090 

090 Manuscripts, rare books, other rare printed 
materials 

General aspects: critical appraisal, description, history 

Example: rare broadsides 

Class interdisciplinary works on books in 002; a manuscript or rare work with its 
subject, e.g., a book of hours 242; an artistic aspect with the aspect, e.g., 
illumination 745.67 

See also 011.31 for bibliographies of both manuscripts and rare books, 011.44 
for bibliographies of rare boohs only 

091 Manuscripts 

See also 01 1 .31 for bibliographies of manuscripts 

092 Block books 

093 Incunabula 

Books printed before 1501 

See also 011.42 for bibliographies of incunabula 

094 Printed books 

.2 Early printed books 

To 1700 

For block books, see 092; incunabula, 093 
.4 Special editions 

Examples: first editions, limited editions, typographic masterpieces 

095 Books notable for bindings 

See also 686.3 for bookbinding 

096 Books notable for illustrations and materials 
.1 For illustrations 

Class illustrated manuscripts in 091 
.2 For materials 

Examples: leaves of vellum and silk, letters of silver and gold 

097 Books notable for ownership or origin 

098 Prohibited works, forgeries, hoaxes 
.1 Prohibited works 

. 1 1 Prohibited by religious authorities 

.12 Prohibited by civil authorities 



75 



098 Dewey Decimal Classification 098 

.3 Forgeries and hoaxes 

099 Books notable for format 

Examples: books of unusual shapes, miniature editions 



76 



100 



100 Philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, 
psychology 

Class philosophy of a specific discipline or subject with the discipline or subject 
using notation 01 from Table 1, e.g., philosophy of history 901 

See Manual at Tl-01; 100; 100, 109 vs. 190; 100 vs. 200 

101 Theory of philosophy 

Class here works on the concept of philosophy, on the nature of the philosophical 
task, on the method of philosophy 

Class schools of philosophical thought in 140 or 180 

102 Miscellany of philosophy 

103 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances of philosophy 
[104] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

105 Serial publications of philosophy 

106 Organizations and management of philosophy 

107 Education, research, related topics of philosophy 

108 History and description of philosophy with respect to kinds 
of persons 

109 Historical and collected persons treatment of philosophy 

Not limited by period or place 

Class geographical and individual persons treatment in 180-190 
Use 109.2 for collected persons treatment 
See Manual at 100, 109 vs. 190 
[.22] Collected persons treatment 

Number discontinued; class in 109.2 



77 



110 Dewey Decimal Classification 110 



110 


Metaphysics 




For epistemology , causation, humankind, see 120 


111 


Ontology 


.1 


Existence, essence, substance, accidents 


.2 


Universals 


.5 


Nonbeing, nothingness 


.6 


Finite and infinite 




Including the absolute 


.8 


Classical properties of being 




Class comprehensive works on truth in 121 


.82 


Unity 




Including part-whole relationships 


[.83] 


Truth 




Number discontinued; class in 1 1 1.8 


.84 


Goodness and evil 




For ethics, see 170 


.85 


Beauty 




Class here interdisciplinary works on aesthetics 




Class aesthetics of a specific subject with the subject, e.g., of the arts 700.1 


[112] 


[Unassigned] 




Most recently used in Edition 18 


113 


Cosmology (Philosophy of nature) 




Including origin of universe (cosmogony), cosmic harmony 



Class specific topics of cosmology not provided for here in 114-119; cosmology as 
a topic in astronomy in 523.1 

.8 Philosophy of life 

Origin and nature of life 

Class origin and nature of human life in 1 28 

114 Space 

Class here relation of space and matter 
Class matter in 117 

115 Time 

Including eternity, space and time, space-time, relation of time and motion 
For space, see 114 

78 



116 Metaphysics 116 

116 Change 

Including becoming, cycles, evolution, motion, process 
Class relation of time and motion in 1 15 

117 Structure 

Including matter, form, order 

Class relation of space and matter in 1 14 

118 Force and energy 

119 Number and quantity 

120 Epistemology, causation, humankind 

121 Epistemology (Theory of knowledge) 

Class here comprehensive works on truth, e.g., coherence, correspondence theories 
Class knowledge and its extension in 001, truth in logic in 160 
.2 Possibility and limits of knowledge 

Including solipsism and problem of other minds 
.3 Origin, sources, means of knowledge 

Examples: intuition, perception, reason, sensation 

Class reason as a human attribute in 128.3 
.4 Structure of knowledge 

Subjective and objective components 

Including concepts, ideas 
.5 Doubt and denial 

Class comprehensive works on doubt, denial, certainty, probability in 121.63 
.6 Nature of inquiry 

Including belief 

Class faith in 121.7 
.63 Certainty and probability 

For doubt and denial, see 121.5 
.65 Evidence and criteria 



79 



121 Dewey Decimal Classification 121 

.68 Meaning, interpretation, hermeneutics 

Including semantics, semiotics as topics in philosophy 

Class interdisciplinary works on semiotics in 302.2 

See also 149. 94 for general semantics as a school of linguistic 
philosophy, 401.41 for semiotics in linguistics, 401.43 for semantics in 
linguistics 

.7 Faith 

Class belief in 121.6, religious faith in 200 
.8 Worth and theory of values (Axiology) 

Class ethical values in 1 70 

122 Causation 

Class here chance versus cause 

For determinism and indeterminism, see 123; teleology, 124 

123 Determinism and indeterminism 

Including contingency 
.3 Chance 

Class chance versus cause in 122 
.5 Freedom 

Including freedom of will 
.7 Necessity 

124 Teleology 

Design, purpose, final cause 

[125] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 18 

126 The self 

Class here consciousness and personality 

Class the unconscious and the subconscious in 127 

127 The unconscious and the subconscious 



80 



128 Epistemology, causation, humankind 128 

128 Humankind 

Class here philosophical anthropology; comprehensive works on philosophy of 
human life, on philosophy and psychology of human life 

For the self, see 126; psychology, 150 

See also 573 for physical anthropology 
.1 Soul 

For origin and destiny of individual souls, see 129 
.2 Mind 

Including mind-body relationship 
.3 Attributes and faculties 

Examples: appetite, imagination, memory, reason, will 

Class reason as an instrument of knowledge in 121.3 
For freedom of will, see 123.5 
.4 Human action and experience 

Nature, conditions, origin 
.5 Human death 

Use of this number for human life discontinued; class in 128 

Class interdisciplinary works on death in 306.9 

129 Origin and destiny of individual souls 

Including incarnation, reincarnation, immortality 
Class accounts of previous incarnations in 133.9013 
See Manual at 133. 9013 vs. 129 



130 Paranormal phenomena 



Class comprehensive works on controversial knowledge and paranormal 
phenomena in 001.9, phenomena of religious experience in 200 

See Manual at 001 . 9 and 130; 130 vs. 133 

SUMMARY 

131 Parapsychological and occult methods for achieving well-being, happiness, 

success 

133 Parapsychology and occultism 

135 Dreams and mysteries 

137 Divinatory graphology 

138 Physiognomy 

139 Phrenology 

[.112] Forecasting and forecasts 

Do not use here or in any subdivision of 130; class comprehensive works 
in 133.3; a specific type with the type, without adding notation 01 12 
from Table 1, e.g., astrological methods of forecasting 133.5 

81 



1 3 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 131 

131 Parapsychological and occult methods for achieving 
well-being, happiness, success 

Class interdisciplinary works on successful living, on management of personal and 
family living in 646.7; comprehensive works on psychological and 
parapsychological or occult techniques for achievement of personal well-being, 
happiness, success in 158; specific methods of parapsychology and occultism for 
achieving well-being with the subject in 130-139, e.g., spells and charms 133.44 

[132] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

133 Parapsychology and occultism 

Class here frauds in occultism 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

For cabalistic, Hermetic, Rosicrucian traditions, see 135.4 

See Manual at 130 vs. 133: 133 vs. 200 





SUMMARY 


3.1 


Apparitions 


.3 


Divinatory arts 


.4 


Demonology and witchcraft 


.5 


Astrology 


.6 


Palmistry 


.8 


Psychic phenomena 


.9 


Spiritualism 


Apparitions 


Class here ghosts 



Class comprehensive works on discarnate spirits in 133.9, folkloristic ghost 
stories in 398.25, ghosts as a subject of folklore in 398.47, literary accounts of 
ghosts in 808.80375 

See Manual at 133. 129 vs. 133. 109 

. 1 2 Haunted places 

. 1 22 Specific types of haunted places 

Examples: haunted churches, forests, graveyards, houses 
Class specific haunted places regardless of type in 133.129 

. 1 29 Specific haunted places 

Add to base number 133.129 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., the Tower 
of London 133.1294215 

Class general historical and geographical treatment of ghosts in 133.109 

See Manual at 133. 129 vs. 133. 109 



82 



133 Paranormal phenomena 133 

. 1 4 Specific kinds of apparitions 

Examples: disembodied spirits, hobgoblins, phantasms of the living, 
poltergeists 

Class haunted places regardless of kind of apparition in 133.12, 
materialization of spirits as a mediumistic phenomenon in 133.92 

.3 Divinatory arts 

Class here works on the symbolism of divinatory arts and objects, 
comprehensive works on occult methods of foretelling the future 

Persons known chiefly for their predictions rather than their methods of 
predicting are classed in 133.3092, e.g., Nostradamus (Michel de Notredame) 

Class use of extrasensory perception for divination in 133.82-133.86 

For astrology, see 133.5; palmistry, 133.6; dream books, 135.3; divinatory 
graphology, 137; physiognomy, 138 

See also 003.2 for interdisciplinary works on forecasting, 291.32 for 
divination as a religious practice, 303 .49 for social forecasting 

.32 Crystal gazing; radiesthesia; fortune-telling by cards, tea leaves and 

coffee grounds, oracles and sibyls 

.322 Crystal gazing 

.323 Radiesthesia 

Location of living and inert substances through human sensitivity to 
latent radiations and use of divining rods, pendulums, other devices 



133.323 2-133.323 7 Location of specific substances 

Class comprehensive works in 133.323 

.323 2 Location of water 

.323 3 Location of metals 

.323 7 Location of petroleum and gases 

.323 9 Telediesthesia (Distant prospection) 

Class location of specific substances by telediesthesia in 
133.3232-133.3237 

.324 Fortune-telling by cards, tea leaves and coffee grounds, oracles and 

sibyls 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on fortune-telling 
discontinued; class in 133.3 

.324 2 Fortune-telling by cards (Cartomancy) 

.324 24 By tarot 

[.324 29] By other kinds of cards 

Number discontinued; class in 133.3242 



83 



133 Dewey Decimal Classification 133 

.324 4 Fortune-telling by tea leaves and coffee grounds 

.324 8 Fortune-telling by oracles and sibyls 

.33 Symbolic divination 

Examples: divination with / Ching, with runes 

For cartomancy, see 133.3242 

.333 Geomancy 

.334 Divinatory signs and omens 

.335 Numerology 

.335 4 Fortune-telling by numbers 

.335 9 Symbolism of specific numbers 

.4 Demonology and witchcraft 

Class here black arts 

For divinatory arts, see 133.3 

See also 299. 67 for voodooism 

See Manual at 133 vs. 200 

.42 Demonology 

See also 291.216 for religious beliefs about demons 

See Manual at 133 vs. 200 

All Satanism (Devil worship) 

See also 299 for Satanic cults regarded as religions by their 
adherents 

See Manual at 133 vs. 200 

.423 Evil spirits 

Examples: incubi, succubi, vampires, werewolves 

.425 The evil eye 

.426 Demoniac possession 

.427 Exorcism of demons 

.43 Magic and witchcraft 

Class here magicians' manuals, e.g., grimoire; witch hunting 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

For spells, curses, charms, see 133.44 

See also 291.33 for witchcraft regarded as a religious practice 

See Manual at 133 vs. 200 



84 



133 Paranormal phenomena 133 



.430 9 


Historical, geographical, persons treatment 




Class here history of witch crazes {formerly 900] 




See also 306.4 for social analysis of witch crazes 


.44 


Spells, curses, charms 




Examples: amulets, talismans 




Including mascots 


.442 


Love spells and charms 


.443 


Good luck spells and charms 


.446 


Therapeutic spells and charms 


.5 


Astrology 




Class here astrological symbolism 


.52 


Signs of the zodiac 




Class planets in 133.53 


.53 


Planets, sun, moon 




Including rulership 




Class here aspects, houses, positions of planets 


.54 


Horoscopes 


.540 4 


Special topics 


.540 42 


Daily guides and birthday books 


.542 


Casting horoscopes 


.548 


Horoscopes of individuals 




Class horoscopes of individuals connected with specific topics in 133.58 


.55 


Astrological ephemerides 


.56 


Horary astrology 


.58 


Application to specific topics 



Add to base number 133.58 notation 001-999, e.g., medical astrology 
133.5861, astrological guides to personal sex life 133.5864677, astrological 
analysis and prediction about the United States and its leaders 133.58973 

.6 Palmistry 

[.62] Chirognomy 

Number discontinued; class in 133.6 
[.64] Chiromancy 

Number discontinued; class in 133.6 



85 



133 Dewey Decimal Classification 133 

.8 Psychic phenomena 

Including human aura, Kirlian photography of human aura 

Class here psi phenomena; comprehensive works on psychic communication; 
comprehensive works on psychic talents and gifts; comprehensive works on 
extrasensory perception (ESP), spiritualism, ghosts 

Class comprehensive works on divination in 133.3 

For ghosts, see 133.1 ; spiritualism, 133. 9 

See also 778.3 for photographic aspects of Kirlian photography 



133.82-133.86 Extrasensory perception 

Class comprehensive works in 133.8 

.82 Telepathy 

.84 Clairvoyance 

.85 Clairaudience 

.86 Precognition 

.88 Psychokinesis 

.9 Spiritualism 

The phenomena and systems of ideas connected with belief in communication 
with discarnate spirits 

Including astral projection (out-of-body travel), communication with 
extraterrestrial spirits 

Class here necromancy, comprehensive works on discarnate spirits 

For ghosts, see 133.1 

See also 291 .213 for spiritualism as a religious doctrine, 289. 9 for 
spiritualist Christian sects, 292-299 for other spiritualist sects and religions 

See Manual at 133 vs. 200 

.901 Philosophy and theory 

.901 3 Personal survival, nature of spiritual world and life after death 

Including personal recollections of previous incarnations 

See Manual at 133. 9013 vs. 129 

.91 Mediumship 

Nature and practice 

Class here channeling, psychic experiences of individual mediums 

For specific mediumistic phenomena, see 133.92 



86 



133 Paranormal phenomena 133 

.92 Specific mediumistic phenomena 

Examples: dematerialization, ectoplasm, levitation, rapping, spirit 
photography, table tipping, transportation 

For psychic messages, see 133.93 

.93 Psychic messages 

Method and content of communications purporting to come from discamate 
entities 

Examples: automatic writings and utterances, ouija board messages 

Including psychic messages on specific nonreligious topics not provided for 
in 130, e.g., unidentified flying objects (UFOs) 

Class psychic messages on religious subjects in 200; messages on a specific 
subject in paranormal phenomena with the subject, e.g., messages 
concerning nature of spiritual world and life after death 133.9013 

[134] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

135 Dreams and mysteries 

Class mysteries of magic and witchcraft in 133.43 

See also 001.94 for interdisciplinary works on mysteries in the sense of 
reported phenomena not explained, not fully verified 

.3 Dreams 

Including dream books 

Class interdisciplinary works on psychological and parapsychological aspects of 
dreams in 154.63 

.4 Cabalistic, Hermetic, Rosicrucian traditions 

Use of this number for other mysteries, for initiation in other mysteries 
discontinued; class in 135 

See also 296. 16 for Cabala in Judaism 
[.42] Mysteries of the ancient elements 

Number discontinued; class in 135 
.43 Rosicrucianism 

[136] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

137 Divinatory graphology 

Class interdisciplinary works on graphology and use of graphology in analyzing 
character in 155.282 



87 



138 Dewey Decimal Classification 138 

138 Physiognomy 

Class here comprehensive works on determination of character or divination from 
analysis of physical features 

For palmistry, see 133.6; phrenology, 139 

139 Phrenology 

Determination of mental capacities from skull structures 

140 Specific philosophical schools and viewpoints 

Including the concept of ideology, of a world view, of a system of beliefs 

Class comprehensive works on modern Western viewpoints in 190, on modem 
Western and ancient, medieval, Oriental viewpoints in 100; development, 
description, critical appraisal, collected writings, biographical treatment of 
individual philosophers regardless of viewpoint in 180-190; ancient, medieval, 
Oriental schools in 180; systems and schools of ethics in 171; a specific topic or 
branch of philosophy treated from a specific philosophical viewpoint with the topic 
or branch, e.g., existentialist ontology 111, realist epistemology 121; ideologies 
concerning a specific discipline with the discipline, e.g., political ideologies 320.5 

See Manual at 140; 140 vs. 180-190 

141 Idealism and related systems and doctrines 

Examples: panpsychism, spiritualism, subjectivism, voluntarism 
.2 Modern Platonism and Neoplatonism 

Class ancient Platonism in 184, ancient Neoplatonism in 186.4 
.3 Transcendentalism 

.4 Individualism 

.5 Personalism 

.6 Romanticism 

142 Critical philosophy 

Class critical realism in 149.2 
.3 Kantianism and neo-Kantianism 

.7 Phenomenalism and phenomenology 

.78 Existentialism 

143 Intuitionism and Bergsonism 

144 Humanism and related systems and doctrines 
.3 Pragmatism 

.5 Instrumentalism 

.6 Utilitarianism 



88 



145 Specific philosophical schools and viewpoints 145 

145 Sensationalism 

Class here ideology as the system based on analysis of ideas into their sensory 
elements 

Works that discuss ideology, not as a specific philosophical school, but as systems 
of beliefs in general are classed in 140 

146 Naturalism and related systems and doctrines 

Examples: dynamism, energism 
.3 Materialism 

.32 Dialectical materialism 

Class philosophic foundations of Marxism in 335.41 12 
See Manual at 146.32 vs. 335. 4 112 
.4 Positivism (Comtism) and related systems 

Class here comprehensive works on the analytical movement 
For linguistic analysis, see 149. 94 
.42 Logical positivism (Logical empiricism) 

.44 Empiricism 

.5 Atomism 

Including logical atomism 
.6 Mechanism and neomechanism 

.7 Evolutionism and process philosophy 

147 Pantheism and related systems and doctrines 

Examples: animism, occasionalism, panentheism, parallelism, vitalism 
.3 Monism 

.4 Dualism and pluralism 

148 Liberalism, eclecticism, syncretism, traditionalism, 
dogmatism 

149 Other philosophical systems and doctrines 

Examples: constructivism, deconstruction, objectivism 
.1 Nominalism and conceptualism 

.2 Realism, neorealism, critical realism 

.3 Mysticism 

Class occult mysticism in 130, religious mysticism in 200 
.5 Optimism and meliorism 



89 



149 Dewey Decimal Classification 149 

.6 Pessimism 

.7 Rationalism and related systems and doctrines 

Examples: intellectualism, innatism, nativism 

.72 Agnosticism 

.73 Skepticism 

.8 Nihilism and fatalism 

For existentialism, see 142.78 

.9 Other systems and doctrines 

.91 Neo-Aristotelianism, neo-scholasticism, neo-Thomism 

Class ancient Aristotelianism in 185; medieval scholasticism, medieval 
Thomismin 189.4 

.94 Linguistic philosophies 

Including ordinary language philosophy 

Class here general semantics as a school of linguistic philosophy (e.g, the 
school of Alfred Korzybski) 

Class semantics, semiotics as philosophical topics in 121.68; comprehensive 
works on the analytical movement in 146.4 

See also 302.2 for interdisciplinary works on semiotics; 401 for 
philosophy of language 

[.943] Linguistic analysis 

Number discontinued; class in 149.94 
[.946] Semantics 

Number discontinued; class in 149.94 
.96 Structuralism 



90 



150 Psychology 150 

150 Psychology 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
emotions of children 155.4124 {not 152.4) 



Aptitude tests 


153.94 


Comparative psychology 


156 


Subconscious and altered states and processes 


154 


Differential and developmental psychology 


155 


Sensory perception, movement, emotions, 




physiological drives 


152 


Conscious mental processes and intelligence 


153 


{except 153.94) 




Applied psychology 


158 



Class social psychology in 302; psychological principles (other than the principles 
of aptitude testing) of a specific discipline or subject with the discipline or subject, 
using notation 019 from Table 1, e.g., psychological principles of advertising 
659.1019 

Testing for aptitude in a specific discipline or subject is classed in 153.94 

See Manual at 150; 150 vs. 302-307 

SUMMARY 

150.1- .9 Standard subdivisions 

152 Sensory perception, movement, emotions, physiological drives 

153 Conscious mental processes and intelligence 

154 Subconscious and altered states and processes 

155 Differential and developmental psychology 

156 Comparative psychology 
158 Applied psychology 

.1 Philosophy and theory 

.19 Systems, schools, viewpoints 

See Manual at 150.19 

.192 Existential, faculty, phenomenological, rational schools 

Use of this number for other speculative systems discontinued; class in 
150.19 

.193 Functionalism 

Including dynamic, holistic, hormic, organismic psychologies 

[.193 2-. 193 3] Dynamic and purposive psychologies 

Numbers discontinued; class in 150.193 

.194 Reductionism 

.1943 Behaviorism 

. 1 94 32 Watsonian behaviorism 

Examples: systems of Watson, Spranger, Hunter, Lashley 



91 



150 Dewey Decimal Classification 150 



.194 34 


Neobehaviorism (Pragmatic reductionism) 




Examples: systems of Guthrie, Hull, Skinner, Tolman 


.194 4 


Reflexology (Associationism) 




Examples: systems of Pavlov, Bekhterev, Thorndike 




Class associative learning in 153.1526 


.195 


Psychoanalytic systems 




See Manual at 150. 195 vs. 61 6. 89 


.195 2 


Freudian system 


.195 3 


Adlerian system 


.195 4 


Jungian system 


.195 7 


Neopsychoanalytic systems 




Examples: systems of Homey, Fromm, Sullivan 


.198 


Other systems 


.198 2 


Gestalt psychology 


.198 4 


Field theory 


.287 


Testing and measurement 



Class comprehensive works on intelligence testing and personality 
testing in 153.93 

See also 174.915 for the ethics of psychological testing 

.724 Experimental research 

See also 174.915 for the ethics of research in psychology 

.8 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Class psychology of specific kinds of persons in 155 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class the national psychology of specific countries in 155.89 

[151] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

152 Sensory perception, movement, emotions, physiological 
drives 

Former heading: Physiological psychology 

Class here comprehensive works on the psychology and neurophysiology of 
sensory perception, movement, emotions, physiological drives 

Class the neurophysiology of sensory perception, movement, emotions, 
physiological drives in 612.8 

See Manual at 152 vs. 612.8 



92 



152 Psychology 152 



152.1 
.3 
.4 

.5 
.8 


SUMMARY 

Sensory perception 

Movements and motor functions 

Emotions and feelings 

Physiological drives 

Quantitative threshold, discrimination, reaction-time studies 



.1 Sensory perception 

Class here receptive processes and functions, discrimination, thresholds 

Class quantitative threshold and discrimination studies in 152.82 

See Manual at 152. 1 vs. 153. 7 

.14 Visual perception 

. 1 42 Spatial perception 

Class comprehensive works on spatial perception in 153.752 

.1422 Visual acuity 

.142 3 Pattern perception 

. 1 42 5 Movement perception 

Class comprehensive works on movement perception in 153.754 

.143 Brightness perception 

. 1 45 Color perception 

.148 Optical illusions, afterimages 

Use of this number for other perceptual attributes discontinued; class in 
152.14 

. 1 5 Auditory perception 

.152 Pitch perception 

. 1 54 Volume perception 

. 1 57 Timbre perception 

Tone discrimination 

.158 Localization 

. 1 6 Chemical sensory perception 

. 1 66 Perception of smells 

. 1 67 Perception of tastes 

. 1 8 Other types of sensory perception 

. 1 82 Cutaneous (Tactile) perception 

. 1 82 2 Thermal perception 



93 



152 Dewey Decimal Classification 152 

. 1 82 3 Pressure perception 

Including perception of vibration [formerly also 152.1828] 

For tickle, see 152.1828 

. 1 82 4 Pain perception 

For itch and tickle, see 152. 1828 

.1828 Itch and tickle 

Former heading: Derived sensory perception 

Perception of vibration relocated to 152.1823 

.188 Proprioceptive perceptions 

Class here biofeedback 

. 1 88 2 Kinesthetic and vestibular perceptions 

Class here kinesthetic perception 

.188 6 Visceral perceptions 

Examples: fatigue, hunger, thirst, well-being 

. 1 89 Synesthesia 

.3 Movements and motor functions 

Class reaction-time studies in 152.83 

.32 Involuntary movements 

Class here automatic movements 

For habits and habit formation, see 152.33 

.322 Reflexes 

Class comprehensive works on reflexology as a psychological system in 
150.1944 

.322 3 Innate reflexes 

.322 4 Conditioned reflexes 

.324 Instinctive movements 

For innate reflexes, see 152.3223 

.33 Habits and habit formation 

Class here comprehensive works on habits 

Class conscious mental habits in 153 
.334 Motor learning 

.335 Handedness and laterality 

.35 Voluntary movements 

.38 Special motor functions 



94 



152 Psychology 152 

.382 Locomotion 

.384 Expressive movements 

Class meaning of movements (as in body language) in 153.69 

See Manual at 152.384 vs. 153.69 

.384 2 Vocal expressions 

.384 5 Graphic expressions 

.385 Coordination 

.4 Emotions and feelings 

Examples: embarrassment, envy, grief, guilt, humor, jealousy, shame 

Class here affects, attitudes, dispositions, moods, sentiments; complexes of 
emotions and feelings 

Class character traits such as bashfulness in 155.232, loneliness in 155.92, grief 
associated with bereavement by death in 155.937, depression in 616.8527 

.41 Love and affection 

Including empathy 
[.42- .45] Types and aspects of emotions and feelings 

Numbers discontinued; class in 152.4 
.46 Fear 

Including anxiety, worry 
.47 Anger 

Including frustration 

Class here aggressive moods and feelings 

Class comprehensive works on psychology of aggression in 155.232 

.5 Physiological drives 

Class motivation, comprehensive works on drives in 153.8 

.8 Quantitative threshold, discrimination, reaction-time studies 

Use of this number for quantitative and psychophysical methods applied to 
other topics discontinued; class in 152 

.82 Threshold and discrimination studies 

.83 Reaction-time studies 



95 



153 Dewey Decimal Classification 153 

153 Conscious mental processes and intelligence 

Class here intellectual processes 

Standard subdivisions are added for conscious mental processes 

For emotions and feelings, see 152.4 

See also 121 for epistemology , 128.2 for mind-body problem in philosophy 

See Manual at 153.4 vs. 153 





SUMMARY 


1.1 

.2 


Memory and learning 

Formation and association of ideas 


.3 
.4 
.6 


Imagination and imagery 
Cognition (Knowledge) 
Communication 


.7 
.8 
.9 


Perceptual processes 
Volition (Will) 
Intelligence and aptitudes 



[.028 7] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 153.93 
.1 Memory and learning 

. 1 2 Memory 

Class memory with respect to a specific topic with the topic, e.g., memory 
and dreams 1 54.63 

For types of memory, see 153. 13; mnemonics, 153. 14 
All Retention 

. 1 23 Recall and reproduction 

.124 Recognition 

. 1 25 Forgetting 

. 1 3 Types of memory 

. 1 32 Visual memory 

.133 Auditory memory 

. 1 34 Visual-auditory memory 

[.136] Other 

Number discontinued; class in 153.13 
.14 Mnemonics 

. 1 5 Learning 

See Manual at 153. 15 vs. 155.4-155.6; 153. 15 vs. 370. 15 
. 1 52 Methods of learning 

• 1 52 2 Rote learning, learning by repetition 

96 



153 Psychology 153 

.152 3 Learning by imitation 

.1524 Trial-and-error learning 

.1526 Associative learning 

Including Pavlovian (classical) conditioning, operant conditioning 
Class comprehensive works on associationism in 150.1944 

.1528 Discrimination learning 

.153 Factors in learning 

.1532 Attention and concentration 

.153 3 Interest and enthusiasm 

.1534 Motivation 

. 1 54 Transfer of learning 

.158 Learning curves 

.2 Formation and association of ideas 

.22 Association of ideas 

.23 Concepts and concept formation 

For abstraction, see 153.24 

.24 Abstraction 

[.25] Inspiration 

Number discontinued; class in 153.2 

.3 Imagination and imagery 

Class here daydreams, fantasies, reveries considered as aspects of the 
imagination 

Class comprehensive works on daydreams, fantasies, reveries in 154.3 

.32 Imagery 

Including visualization 
.35 Creativity 

Class here interdisciplinary works on creativity 

Class creativity in a specific field with the field, using notation 019 from 
Table 1, e.g., creativity in the arts 700.19 

.4 Cognition (Knowledge) 

For formation and association of ideas, see 153.2 
See Manual at 153.4 vs. 153 
[.402 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 153.93 



97 



153 Dewey Decimal Classification 153 

.42 Thought and thinking 

For reasoning, see 153.43 

[.422- .423] Reflective and imageless thought 

Numbers discontinued; class in 153.42 

.43 Reasoning 

Class here problem solving 

See Manual at 153.43 vs. 160 

.432 Inductive reasoning 

Including inference 

.433 Deductive reasoning 

.44 Intuition 

.45 Value 

.46 Judgment 

Moral judgment relocated to 155.232 

.6 Communication 

Class here individual aspects of interpersonal communication 

Class social psychology of, interdisciplinary works on communication in 302.2; 
sociolinguistics in 306.44; psychology of language and language processing 
(psycholinguistics) in 401.9; psychology of reading in 418.4019 

.68 Listening 

Class speech perception in 401.9 

.69 Nonverbal communication 

Class here body language 

See Manual at 152.384 vs. 153.69 

.7 Perceptual processes 

Perceptual apprehension and understanding 

For extrasensory perception, see 133.82-133.86; sensory perception, 152.1 

See Manual at 152. 1 vs. 153. 7 

.73 Basic elements 

Examples: apperception, preperception 

See also 155.2844 for thematic apperception tests 

.733 Attention 

Including looking, listening 



98 



153 Psychology 153 

[.734-. 735] Apperception and preperception 

Numbers discontinued; class in 153.73 

.736 Subliminal perception 

.74 Errors (Normal illusions) 

.75 Types of perception 

Example: perception of feelings of others 

.752 Spatial perception 

Class visual spatial perception in 152.142 

.753 Time and rhythm perception 

.754 Movement perception 

Class visual perception of movement in 152.1425 

.8 Volition (Will) 

Including self-control 

Class here intentionality, motivation, comprehensive works on drives 

Class physiological drives in 152.5 

.83 Choice and decision 

.85 Modification of will 

Class here behavior modification and attitude change when reference is to 
bending the will or changing conscious intent 

See also 155.25 for modification of character and personality 

.852 Persuasion 

.853 Menticide (Brainwashing) 

.854 Conformity 

.9 Intelligence and aptitudes 

Class factors in differential and developmental psychology that affect 
intelligence and aptitudes in 155 

[.902 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 153.93 

[.92] Factors affecting intelligence 

Number discontinued; class in 153.9 



99 



153 Dewey Decimal Classification 153 

.93 Intelligence tests 

Class here comprehensive works on testing and measurement of cognition, 
of conscious mental processes, of intelligence and personality 

Class aptitude tests in 153.94; educational tests and measurements in 
371.26; tests to diagnose medical conditions in 616.80475 and related 
numbers, e.g., diagnosis of mental retardation 616.8588075 

.932 Individual tests 

Individually administered tests in which there is interaction between 
tester and person tested 

.932 3 Verbal tests 

Class comprehensive works on verbal intelligence tests in 153.9333 

.932 4 Nonverbal tests 

Class comprehensive works on nonverbal intelligence tests in 
153.9334 

.933 Group tests 

Class here written tests 

.933 3 Verbal tests 

Class here comprehensive works on verbal intelligence tests 

Class individual verbal tests in 153.9323 

.933 4 Nonverbal tests 

Class here comprehensive works on nonverbal intelligence tests 

Class individual nonverbal tests in 153.9324 

.94 Aptitude tests 

Individual, group, verbal, nonverbal tests for special abilities 

Class here vocational interest tests 

Use 153.940001-153.940009 for standard subdivisions 

Class comprehensive works on vocational interests in 158.6, use of aptitude 
and vocational interest tests for academic prognosis and placement in 
371.264 

See also 371 .26 for achievement tests and measurements 

See Manual at 153. 94 

.940 01 -.949 99 Tests for aptitudes in specific fields 

Add to base number 153.94 notation 001-999, e.g., tests for 
musical ability 153.9478 

.98 Superior intelligence 



100 



154 Psychology 154 

154 Subconscious and altered states and processes 
.2 The subconscious 

.22 Id, ego, superego 

.24 Activities 

Including complexes, conflicts, reasoning, sublimation, transference 
.3 Daydreams, fantasies, reveries 

Class here secondary consciousness 

Class daydreams, fantasies, reveries considered as aspects of imagination in 
153.3 

.4 Altered states of consciousness 

Including alterations due to use of drugs 
.6 Sleep phenomena 

See Manual at 154.6 vs. 612. 821 

[.62] Sleep 

Number discontinued; class in 154.6 

.63 Dreams 

Class here interdisciplinary works on dreams 

Class parapsychological aspects of dreams in 135.3, physiological aspects of 
dreams in 612.821 

.632 Types 

.634 Analysis 

.64 Somnambulism 

.7 Hypnotism 

Class here interdisciplinary works on hypnotism 

Class hypnotism considered as a psychic power in 133.8, medical applications 
of hypnotism in 615.8512 

.72 Animal magnetism 

Use of this number for mesmerism discontinued; class in 154.7 

.76 Induction of hypnosis 

.77 Hypnotic phenomena 

.772 Phenomena during trance 

.774 Posthypnotic phenomena 



101 



155 Dewey Decimal Classification 155 

155 Differential and developmental psychology 

Class here the role of play in development 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
reactions of Afro-American schoolchildren to deaths in their families 155.937 (not 
155.424 or 155.8496073) 



Specific situations 


155.93 


Psychology of specific ages 


155.4-.6 


Ethnopsychology and national psychology 


155.8 


Evolutional psychology 


155.7 


Environmental psychology 


155.9 


(except 155.93) 




Sex psychology and psychology of the sexes 


155.3 


Individual psychology 


155.2 


See Manual at 155 




SUMMARY 




155.028 7 Testing and measurement 




.2 Individual psychology 




.3 Sex psychology and psychology of the sexes 




.4 Child psychology 




.5 Psychology of young adults 




.6 Psychology of adults 




.7 Evolutional psychology 




.8 Ethnopsychology and national psychology 




.9 Environmental psychology 




.028 7 Testing and measurement [formerly 155.28] 




.2 Individual psychology 





Class here the self; character, identity, individuality, personality 

Class general application of the topics of individual psychology in 158 

[.202 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 155.28 

.22 Individual differences 

.23 Traits and determinants of character and personality 

.232 Specific traits 

Examples: moral judgment [formerly 153.46], altruism, bashfulness, 
dependence, extroversion, introversion, perfectionism, workaholism 

Including comprehensive works on the psychology of aggression 

Class interdisciplinary works on aggression, aggressive social 
interactions in 302.54; aggressive emotions and feelings in 152.47; 
aggressive drives in 153.8; a specific aspect of a specific trait with the 
aspect, e.g., development of moral judgment 155.25 



102 



155 Psychology 155 

.234 Determinants 

Class here environment versus heredity as determinants 

Class environmental determinants in 155.9 

.24 Adaptability 

Including adjustment 

.25 Development and modification of character and personality 

Including maturity, development of self-control 

See also 153.85 for behavior modification and attitude change when 
reference is to bending the will or changing conscious intent 

.26 Typology 

.262 Classical typology (Hippocrates' theory of temperaments) 

.264 Modern typology 

Examples: classification schemes of James, Jung, Kretschmer, 
Rorschach, Sheldon, Stem 

.28 Appraisals and tests 

Comprehensive works on testing and measurement in differential and 
developmental psychology relocated to 155.0287 

Class comprehensive works on appraisals and tests for intelligence and 
personality in 153.93, use of personality tests to determine vocational 
interests in 153.94, to diagnose psychiatric disorders in 616.89075 

.282 Diagnostic graphology 

Class here interdisciplinary works on graphology 

Class divinatory graphology in 137; handwriting analysis for the 
examination of evidence in 363.2565, for screening of prospective 
employees in 658.31 12 

.283 Inventories and questionnaires 

.284 Projective techniques 

.284 2 Rorschach tests 

.284 3 Szondi tests 

.284 4 Thematic apperception tests 

.3 Sex psychology and psychology of the sexes 

.3 1 Erogeneity and libido 

.32 Sex and personality 



103 



155 Dewey Decimal Classification 155 

.33 Sex differences 

.332 Masculinity 

Presumed distinctive characteristics of males, whether overtly sexual or 
not 

.333 Femininity 

Presumed distinctive characteristics of females, whether overtly sexual or 
not 

.334 Bisexuality 

Class here ambiguity of sexual orientation, display of behavior 
characteristics of both sexes (androgynous behavior) 

Class bisexuality in the sense of sexual relations with the same as well as 
with the opposite sex in 155.34 

.34 Sexual relations 

Contains heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual relations 

Class interdisciplinary works on and social psychology of sexual relations in 
306.7 

See Manual at 155.34 vs. 306. 7 



155.4-155.6 Psychology of specific ages 

Class here developmental psychology 

Class comprehensive works in 155 

See Manual at 153.15 vs. 155.4-155. 6 

.4 Child psychology 

Through age eleven 

Class interdisciplinary works on child development in 305.231 

See also 649. 1 for child rearing 

.4 1 General topics 

Class general topics applied to specific groupings in 155.42-155.45 

.412 Sensory perception, movement, emotions, physiological drives 

Add to base number 155.412 the numbers following 152 in 152.1-152.8, 
e.g., emotions in children 155.4124 

.413 Conscious mental processes and intelligence 

Add to base number 155.413 the numbers following 153 in 153.1-153.9, 
e.g., intelligence tests for children 155.41393 {not 155.4130287); 
however, class aptitude tests for children in 153.9400083 



104 



155 Psychology 155 

.4 1 8 Personal-social behavior 

Including play, stress 

Class socialization in 303.32 

.418 028 7 Testing and measurement 

Personality tests for children relocated to 155.41828 

.418 2 Individual psychology 

Add to base number 155.4182 the numbers following 155.2 in 
155.22-155.28, e.g., personality tests for children 155.41828 
[formerly 155.4180287], moral development 155.41825 



155.42-155.45 Specific groupings 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., preschool boys 155.423 {not 
155.432) 

Exceptional children 155.45 

Children by status, type, relationships 155.44 

Children in specific age groups 155.42 

Children by sex 155.43 

Class comprehensive works in 155.4 

.42 Children in specific age groups 

.422 Infants 

From birth to age two 

Class here comprehensive works on children from birth to age 5 

Add to base number 155.422 the numbers following 155.41 in 
155.412-155.418, e.g., emotions in infants 155.42224 

.423 Children three to five 

Class here preschool children, comprehensive works on children aged 
two to six or three to seven 

Add to base number 155.423 the numbers following 155.41 in 
155.412-155.418, e.g., conscious mental processes and intelligence of 
preschool children 155.4233 

.424 Children six to eleven 

Class here comprehensive works on school-age children to age fourteen 

Add to base number 155.424 the numbers following 155.41 in 
155.412-155.418, e.g., personal-social behavior of school-age children 
155.4248 

.43 Children by sex 

Class here sex psychology of children 

.432 Boys 

.433 Girls 

105 



155 Dewey Decimal Classification 155 

.44 Children by status, type, relationships 

Class here psychology of temporary or permanent separation from parents 

.442 The only child 

Class the adopted or foster only child in 155.445, the institutionalized 
only child in 155.446 



.443 Siblings 



For brothers and sisters of the same birth, see 155.444; adopted and 
foster children, 155.445 



AAA Brothers and sisters of the same birth 

.445 Adopted and foster children 

.446 Institutionalized children 



Including children raised in communities that serve as collective parents, 
e.g., kibbutz children 



.45 Exceptional children 

Add to base number 155.45 the numbers following 371.9 in 371.91-371.97, 
e.g., psychology of gifted children 155.455, of wild children ("wolf 
children") 155.4567 

Class psychoanalytic principles derived in part from study of wild children 
in 150.195 

.5 Psychology of young adults 

Aged twelve to twenty 

Class here comprehensive works on the psychology of young adults aged 
twelve to twenty and over twenty 

Class interdisciplinary works on the development of young adults in 305.2355, 
vocational tests for young adults in 153.94000835, the psychology of young 
adults over twenty in 155.65 

.5 1 General topics 

Add to base number 155.51 the numbers following 155.41 in 
155.412-155.418, e.g., personality tests for young adults 155.51828; 
however, class aptitude tests for young adults in 153.94000835 

Subdivisions are added for young adults of specific ages, e.g., cognitive 
development of sixteen-year-olds 155.513 

Class general topics applied to young adults by sex in 155.53 
.53 By sex 

Class here sex psychology of young adults 
.532 Young men 

.533 Young women 



106 



155 Psychology 155 

.6 Psychology of adults 

See Manual at 155 

.63 Adults by sex 

Class adults of either sex by status, type, relationships in 155.64, adults of 
either sex in a specific age group in 155.65— 155.67 

.632 Men 

.633 Women 

.64 Adults by status, type, relationships 

Class adults in a specific age group regardless of status, type, relationship in 
155.65-155.67 



.642 


Single status 


.642 2 


Men 


.642 3 


Women 


.643 


Divorced status 


.643 2 


Men 


.643 3 


Women 


.644 


Widowed status 


.644 2 


Men 


.644 3 


Women 


.645 


Married status 


.645 2 


Men 


.645 3 


Women 


.646 


Parents 




Class unmarrie 




widowed parer 


.646 2 


Fathers 


.646 3 


Mothers 



Class unmarried parents in 155.642, divorced parents in 155.643, 



155.65-155.67 Adults in specific age groups 

Class comprehensive works in 155.6 

.65 Persons in early adulthood 

Over twenty years of age 

Class comprehensive works on the psychology of young adults, young 
adults aged twelve to twenty in 155.5 

.66 Persons in middle adulthood 



107 



155 Dewey Decimal Classification 155 

.67 Persons in late adulthood 

[.67 1 ] Mental and physical impairments 

Number discontinued; class in 155.67 

.672 Adaptability 

Including psychological aspects of institutional life 

Class here psychological aspects of retirement, change in status 

.7 Evolutional psychology 

Evolution of basic human mental and psychological characteristics 

Including behavioral genetics 

See also 304.5 for genetic bases of social behavior 

See Manual at 150 vs. 302-307 

.8 Ethnopsychology and national psychology 

Class here cross-cultural psychology 

Class studies of cultural influence in 155.92 

See Manual at 155 

. 8 1 Nonliterate peoples 

.82 Racial and ethnic differences 

Class here ethnopsychology 

Class psychology of specific racial and ethnic groups in 155.84 

.84 Specific racial and ethnic groups 

Add to base number 155.84 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., 
ethnopsychology of Afro- Americans 155.8496073 

See Manual at 155. 84 vs. 155. 89 

.89 National psychology 

Add to base number 155.89 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., Italian national 
psychology 155.8945 

Class psychology of specific racial and ethnic groups regardless of national 
origin in 155.84 

See Manual at 155.84 vs. 155.89 



108 



155 Psychology 155 

.9 Environmental psychology 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, 
e.g., the influence of family, friends, and work associates upon persons coping 
with a loss through death 155.937 (not 155.92) 

Influence of specific situations 155.93 

Influence of clothing 1 55.95 

Influence of restrictive environments 155.96 
Influence of injuries, diseases, physical disabilities, 

disfigurements 155.916 

Influence of community and housing 155.94 

Influence of social environment 155.92 

Influence of physical environment and conditions 155.91 

(except 155.916) 

.904 Special topics 

.904 2 Stress 

Class here works on how to cope with stress {formerly also 158.1] 

Class job stress, job burnout in 158.7 

.9 1 Influence of physical environment and conditions 

.91 1 Influence of sensory stimuli 

Add to base number 155.911 the numbers following 152.1 in 
152.14-152.18, e.g., psychology of color 155.91145 

Class sensory influences associated with climate in 155.915, sensory 
influences on persons with injuries, diseases, physical disabilities, 
disfigurements in 155.916 

.9 1 5 Influence of climate 

Class influence of climate on persons with injuries, diseases, physical 
disabilities, disfigurements in 155.916 

.916 Influence of injuries, diseases, physical disabilities, disfigurements 

.92 Influence of social environment 

Including comprehensive works on loneliness 

Add to base number 155.92 the numbers following 158.2 in 158.24-158.27, 
e.g., influence of family members, birth order 155.924 

Class overcoming loneliness in 158.2 

For influence of community and housing, see 155.94 

See Manual at 155.92 vs. 158.2, 302-307 



109 



155 Dewey Decimal Classification 155 

.93 Influence of specific situations 

Class here influence of clothing in specific situations {formerly also 155.95] 

.935 Catastrophic disasters 

Including behavior patterns during bombings, earthquakes, fires, floods, 
hurricanes 

Class catastrophic accidents in 155.936, death in catastrophic disasters in 
155.937 

.936 Accidents 

Class death in accidents in 155.937 
.937 Death and dying 

Including reactions to death of others 

Class interdisciplinary works on death in 306.9 
.94 Influence of community and housing 



155.942-155.944 Specific types of communities 

Class comprehensive works in 155.94, housing in specific types of communities 
in 155.945 

.942 Urban communities 

.943 Suburban communities 

.944 Rural communities 

.945 Housing 

.95 Influence of clothing 

Influence of clothing in specific situations relocated to 155.93 

.96 Influence of restrictive environments 

.962 Prisons 

.963 Submarine structures 

.964 Subterranean structures 

Including behavior patterns in caves, mines, tunnels, underground 
shelters 

.965 Aircraft 

Class here aviation psychology 
.966 Spacecraft 

Class here space psychology 



110 



156 Psychology 156 

156 Comparative psychology 

Comparison of human psychology and the psychology of other organisms; study of 
other organisms to elucidate human behavior 

Class behavior of nonhuman organisms in 574.5 

See Manual at 156 vs. 302-307 



> 156.2-156.5 Animals 

Class comprehensive works in 156, habits and behavior patterns of animals in 
591.51 

.2 Comparative psychology of sensory perception, movement, emotions, 

physiological drives of animals 

Add to base number 156.2 the numbers following 152 in 152.1-152.8, e.g., 
comparative reaction-time studies 156.283 

.3 Comparative conscious mental processes and intelligence of animals 

Add to base number 156.3 the numbers following 153 in 153.1-153.9, e.g., 
comparative learning curves 156.3158 

.4 Comparative subconscious states and processes of animals 

.5 Comparative differential and developmental psychology of animals 

[.7] Comparative abnormal behavior of animals 

Relocated to 616.89 
.9 Plants 

Class plant behavior in 581.5 

[157] Abnormal and clinical psychologies 

Relocated to 616.89 



111 



158 Dewey Decimal Classification 158 

158 Applied psychology 

Class here application of individual psychology in general; comprehensive works 
on psychological and parapsychological or occult techniques for achievement of 
personal well-being, happiness, success 

Standard subdivisions are added for comprehensive works on how to better oneself 
and how to get along with other people 

Class interdisciplinary works on successful living, on management of personal and 
family living in 646.7; interdisciplinary works on success in business and other 
public situations in 650. 1 ; parapsychological and occult techniques for 
achievement of well-being, happiness, success in 131; aptitude and vocational 
interest tests (both general and applied to specific subjects) in 153.94; specific 
applications of psychology with the application, e.g., educational guidance and 
counseling 371.4 

Application of a specific branch of psychology (other than individual psychology 
in general) is classed with the branch, e.g., how to be creative 153.35, use of 
personality tests for self-knowledge and self-improvement 155.28 

.1 Personal improvement and analysis 

Including personality analysis and improvement 

Class here works intended to make one a better person or to stave off failure, to 
solve problems or to adjust to a life that does not meet one's expectations; 
works on specific systems and schools of applied psychology written for 
persons who wish to be improved or analyzed 

Works on how to cope with stress relocated to 155.9042 

Class works on how to get along with other people in 158.2, works on specific 
systems and schools of applied psychology written for advisors and counselors 
to help them assist others in 158.9 

Comprehensive works on how to better oneself and how to get along with other 
people are classed in 158 

. 1 2 Through meditation 

Including transcendental meditation 

.2 Interpersonal relations 

Relations between an individual and other people 

Class here dominance, intimacy; overcoming loneliness; applications of 
assertiveness training, sensitivity training, transactional analysis 

Class individual aspects of interpersonal communication in 153.6; 
comprehensive works on loneliness in 155.92; interpersonal relations in 
counseling and interviewing in 158.3, in leadership in 158.4, in cooperation and 
negotiation in 158.5; social psychology of communication in 302.2; 
intrarelationships of groups in 302.3 

See Manual at 155. 92 vs. 158.2, 302-307 

.24 With family members 

.25 With friends and neighbors 



112 



158 Psychology 158 

.26 With work associates 

See also 158. 7 for psychology of work 
.27 With strangers 

.3 Counseling and interviewing 

Class here helping behavior 

Standard subdivisions are added for counseling and interviewing and for 
counseling alone 

Class interdisciplinary works on counseling in 361.323; helpfulness as a 
personality trait in 155.232; counseling in a specific discipline with the 
discipline, e.g., pastoral counseling 253.5 

See Manual at Tl— 019 

.35 Group counseling 

.39 Interviewing 

Class interviewing in a specific discipline with the discipline, e.g., employee 
selection interviewing 658.31 124 

.4 Leadership 

.5 Cooperation and negotiation 

.6 Vocational interests 

Class interdisciplinary works on choice of vocation in 331.702, aptitudes in 
153.9 

[.602 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 153.94 

.7 Industrial psychology 

Works focusing on the psychology of the individual employee in relation to 
work or taking a broad view that encompasses the concerns of individual 
employees, union leaders, management 

Including job stress, job burnout 

Class here psychology of work 

Class workaholism as a personality trait in 155.232; industrial psychology 
applied to a specific subject outside psychology with the subject, using notation 
019 from Table 1, e.g., psychological principles of personnel management 
658.30019 

See also 158.26 for psychology of interpersonal relations with work 
associates 



113 



158 Dewey Decimal Classification 158 

.9 Systems and schools of applied psychology 

Example: transactional analysis 

Class here works on systems and schools of applied psychology written for 
advisors and counselors to help them assist others with personal improvement 
or analysis 

Class works on systems and schools of applied psychology written for persons 
who wish to be improved or analyzed in 158.1; application of systems and 
schools of applied psychology with the application, e.g., application of 
transactional analysis to interviewing 158.39 





See also 299. 936 for Scientology 


[159] 


Other aspects 




Number discontinued; class in 150 


160 


Logic 




Science of reasoning 




Including counterfactuals, negation, question, reference, truth tables 




Class here modality, propositions 




Class psychology of reasoning in 153.43, symbolic (mathematical) logic in 511.3 




See Manual at 153.43 vs. 160 


161 


Induction 




For hypotheses, see 167; analogy, 169 


162 


Deduction 




For syllogisms, see 166 


[163] 


[Unassigned] 




Most recently used in Edition 16 


[164] 


[Unassigned] 




Most recently used in Edition 17 


165 


Fallacies and sources of error 




Examples: contradiction, paradox, fiction 


166 


Syllogisms 


167 


Hypotheses 


168 


Argument and persuasion 


169 


Analogy 



114 



170 Ethics 170 

170 Ethics (Moral philosophy) 

Class here ethics of specific subjects and disciplines 

Class religious ethics in 291.5; ethics of a specific religion with the religion, e.g., 
Christian moral theology 241 

See Manual at 303.372 vs. 170 
SUMMARY 





170.1 


-.9 Standard subdivision 




171 


Systems and doctrines 




172 


Political ethics 




173 


Ethics of family relationships 




174 


Economic, professional, occupational ethics 




175 


Ethics of recreation and leisure 




176 


Ethics of sex and reproduction 




177 


Ethics of social relations 




178 


Ethics of consumption 




179 


Other ethical norms 


.2 


Miscellany 


[.202] 




Normative ethics for specific groups 



Relocated to 170.8 

Do not use for synopses and outlines; class in 170.2 

.4 Special topics 

.42 Metaethics 

Class bases for specific systems in 171 

.44 Normative ethics 

[.440 8] History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class in 170.8 

.8 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Class here normative ethics for specific groups [formerly 170.202] 

[.88] Occupational and religious groups 

Do not use; class ethics of professional and occupational groups in 174, of 
religious groups in 200 

171 Systems and doctrines 

Regardless of time or place 

Class a specific topic in ethics with the topic in 172-179 regardless of the system 
within which it is treated 

See Manual at 171 

.1 Based on authority 



115 



171 Dewey Decimal Classification 171 

.2 Based on intuition, moral sense, reason 

Including empiricism, existentialism, humanism, natural law, naturalism, 
stoicism 

For systems and doctrines based on conscience, see 171.6 

See also 171.7 for systems based on biology, genetics, evolution; 340.11 for 
natural law in legal theory 

.3 Perfectionism 

Systems and doctrines based on self-realization, fulfillment of personality 

.4 Hedonism 

Systems and doctrines based on achievement of individual pleasure or 
happiness 

.5 Utilitarianism and consequentialism 

Systems and doctrines based on achievement of greatest happiness of greatest 
number 

.6 Based on conscience 

Including casuistry, conflict of duties 
.7 Based on biology, genetics, evolution, education, social factors 

Including relativism, communist ethics, sociobiological ethics 
See also 171.2 for systems based on natural law, naturalism 

.8 Based on altruism 

For utilitarianism, see 171.5 

.9 Based on egoism 

For hedonism, see 171.4 



> 172-179 Applied ethics (Social ethics) 

Ethics of specific human qualities, relationships, activities 
Class comprehensive works in 170 

172 Political ethics 

.1 Relation of individuals to the state 

Examples: civic and political activity, military service, obedience to law, 
payment of taxes, resistance, revolution, civil war 

.2 Duties of states and governments 

Duties of government toward citizens, e.g., education, freedom, personal 
security, welfare; duties of officeholders and officials 

Class here justice 



116 



172 Ethics 172 

.4 International relations 

Including conduct of foreign affairs, disarmament, espionage 
.42 War and peace 

Examples: conscientious objection, just war theory, pacifism, ways and 
means of conducting warfare 

Class civil war in 172.1, occupational ethics of military personnel in 
174.9355 

.422 Nuclear weapons and nuclear war 

173 Ethics of family relationships 

Examples: ethics of marriage, divorce, separation, parent-child relationships, 
sibling relationships 

Class ethics of sex and reproduction in 176 

174 Economic, professional, occupational ethics 

Class here ethics of work 
.1 Clergy 

See Manual at 174.1 
.2 Medical professions 

Class medical ethics related to human reproduction in 176 
.22 Hippocratic oath 

.24 Questions of life and death 

Euthanasia relocated to 179.7 
For abortion, see 179.76 
.25 Innovative procedures 

Examples: organ transplants, genetic engineering 
Class comprehensive works on ethics of genetic engineering in 174.9574 
.26 Economic questions 

Examples: advertising, fee splitting 
.28 Experimentation 

Including experimentation on human subjects 
For experimentation on animals, see 179.4 
.3 Legal professions 

.4 Trade, manufacture, finance (Business ethics) 

Including industrial espionage 



117 



174 Dewey Decimal Classification 174 

.6 Gambling business and lottery management 

See also 175.5 for games of chance, 175.9 for betting 

.9 Other professions and occupations 

Add to base number 174.9 notation 09-99 from Table 7, e.g., ethics of genetic 
engineering 174.9574; however, class ethics of public administration and public 
office in 172.2 

175 Ethics of recreation and leisure 

Including ethics of hunting 

Class here sportsmanship, fair play 

Class occupational ethics for those involved in the recreation industry in 174.9, 
e.g., occupational ethics for professional athletes 174.9796 

.1 Radio, television, motion pictures, circuses 

.2 Theater, opera, musical performances 

.3 Dancing 

.4 Athletics and games of skill 

Class card games in 175.5, human and animal combat in 175.6, racing in 175.7 
.5 Games of chance 

See also 174.6 for gambling business 
.6 Human and animal combat 

.7 Racing 

Humans, animals, vehicles 
.8 Recreational reading 

Including comics 

Class obscene literature in 176.8 
.9 Betting 

Class games of chance involving betting in 175.5 
See also 174.6 for gambling business 

176 Ethics of sex and reproduction 

Including artificial insemination, celibacy, chastity, contraception, embryo 
transplant, homosexuality, premarital and extramarital relations, promiscuity, 
surrogate motherhood 

Class abortion in 179.76 

.5 Prostitution 

.7 Obscenity 

For obscenity in literature, see 176.8; obscenity in speech, 179.5 



118 



176 Ethics 176 

.8 Obscenity in literature 

177 Ethics of social relations 

Limited to the topics provided for below 
.1 Courtesy, politeness, hospitality 

Class etiquette in 395 
.2 Conversation, gossip 

.3 Slander, flattery, truthfulness, lying 

.4 Personal appearance 

Examples: exposure of person, ostentatious dress 
.5 Slavery and discriminatory practices 

.6 Friendship and courtship 

Class sexual ethics in courtship in 176 
.7 Love 

Including benevolence, charity, kindness, liberality, philanthropy 

178 Ethics of consumption 

Examples: abstinence, gluttony, greediness, overindulgence, temperance 

Class here use of natural resources, of wealth 

Class environmental, ecological ethics, respect for nature in 179.1, consumption of 
meat in 179.3 

.1 In use of alcoholic beverages 

.7 In use of tobacco 

.8 In use of narcotics 

[.9] In other forms 

Number discontinued; class in 178 

179 Other ethical norms 

Class here cruelty 
Do not use standard subdivisions 
.1 Respect for life and nature 

Class here environmental, ecological ethics 

For ethics of consumption, see 178; respect for human life, 179. 7; treatment 
of animals, 179.3 

.2 Treatment of children 

For parent-child relationships, see 173 



119 



179 Dewey Decimal Classification 179 

.3 Treatment of animals 

Including vegetarianism 

Class racing of animals in 175.7 

For animal combat, see 175.6; experimentation on animals 179.4 
.4 Experimentation on animals 

Including vivisection 

.5 Profanity, blasphemy, obscenity in speech 

.6 Courage and cowardice 

.7 Respect and disrespect for human life 

Including euthanasia {formerly 174.24], capital punishment, dueling, genocide, 
homicide, suicide 

Class here comprehensive works on ethics of violence, of nonviolence 

Class ethics of violence, of nonviolence in political activity in 172, ethics of 
war in 172.42, of civil war in 172.1, medical ethics in 174.2, ethics of 
contraception in 176 

For treatment of children, see 179.2 

.76 Abortion 

.8 Vices, faults, failings 

Not otherwise provided for 

Examples: anger, cheating, covetousness, envy, hatred, jealousy, pride, sloth 
.9 Virtues 

Not otherwise provided for 

Examples: cheerfulness, gentleness, gratitude, honesty, humility, modesty, 
patience, prudence, self-reliance, self-control, toleration 



120 



1 80 Philosophy of specific areas and periods 1 80 



> 180-190 Historical, geographical, persons 

treatment of philosophy 

Class here development, description, critical appraisal, collected writings, 
biographical treatment of individual philosophers regardless of viewpoint 

Do not add notation 09 from Table 1 to numbers that express specific areas, 
e.g., twentieth century British philosophy 192 {not 192.0904), but twentieth 
century Western philosophy 190.904 

Do not add notation 092 from Table 1 to 180- 190 

Class comprehensive works on geographical treatment in 100, on historical 
treatment in 109, on collected persons treatment in 109.2; critical appraisal of 
an individual philosopher's thought on a specific topic with the topic, using 
notation 092 from Table 1, e.g., critical appraisal of Kant's theory of knowledge 
121.092 

See Manual at 140 vs. 180-190; 180-190 

180 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 

Use 180.01-180.09 for standard subdivisions 

SUMMARY 

180.1- .9 Standard subdivisions of ancient philosophy 

181 Oriental philosophy 

182 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies 

183 Sophistic, Socratic and related Greek philosophies 

184 Platonic philosophy 

185 Aristotelian philosophy 

186 Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophies 

187 Epicurean philosophy 

188 Stoic philosophy 

189 Medieval Western philosophy 

.1-.8 Standard subdivisions of ancient philosophy 

.9 Historical and geographical treatment of ancient philosophy 

Class treatment of specific schools in 181-188 
.938 Greece 

Use 180 for comprehensive works on ancient Greek philosophy 
See Manual at 180.938 

181 Oriental philosophy 

Ancient, medieval, modern 
.001-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 181.1-181.9 



121 



181 Dewey Decimal Classification 181 

.04-. 09 Based on specific religions 

Add to base number 181.0 the numbers following 29 in 294-299, e.g., 
Jewish philosophy 181.06; however, class Hindu-Brahmanical philosophy in 
181.41-181.48, Christian philosophy in 190; Confucian philosophy 
relocated from 1 8 1 .095 1 2 to 1 8 1 . 1 1 2, Taoist philosophy from 1 8 1 .095 1 4 to 
181.114 

See Manual at 100 vs. 200 



181.1-181.9 Of specific places 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to philosophy of a 
specific country, use one of the following: 

(Option A: Place it first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., philosophy 
of Lebanon 181.L [preceding 181.1] 

(Option B: Class it in 181.1; in that case class comprehensive works on 
philosophy of Far East and South Asia in 1 8 1 .9) 

Class comprehensive works in 1 8 1 

.1 Far East and South Asia 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to philosophy of a 
specific country, class it in this number; in that case class comprehensive works 
on philosophy of the Far East and South Asia in 181.9) 

For philosophy of India, see 181.4 

. 1 1 China and Korea 



181.112-181.115 Schools of Chinese philosophy 

Class comprehensive works in 181.11, Buddhist philosophy in 1 8 1 .043 
.112 Confucian [formerly 1 8 1 .095 1 2] and Neo-Confucian philosophy 

Class here the Four Books of Confucius 
Class the Five Confucian Classics in 299.51282 
.1 14 Taoist philosophy [formerly 181.09514] 

.115 Mohist, Dialecticianist, Legalist philosophies 

.119 Korea 

.12 Japan 

Class Shinto philosophy in 181.09561 
.15 Pakistan and Bangladesh 

.16 Indonesia [formerly also 1 8 1 .198] 

. 1 7 Philippines [formerly also 1 8 1 . 1 99] 



722 



181 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 181 

.19 Southeast Asia 

Add to base number 181.19 the numbers following —59 in notation 
591-597 from Table 2, e.g., philosophy of Thailand 181.193 

Indonesia relocated from 181.198 to 181.16; Philippines from 181.199 to 
181.17 

.2 Egypt 

.3 Palestine, Judea, Israel 

Class Jewish philosophy in 181.06 
.4 India 

See also 181 .15 for philosophy of Pakistan and Bangladesh 



181.41-181.48 Schools of Hindu-Brahmanical philosophy 

Class comprehensive works in 181.4, Buddhist philosophy in 181.043, Jainist 
philosophy in 181.044 



.41 


Sankhya 


.42 


Mimamsa 


.43 


Nyaya 


.44 


Vaisheshika 


.45 


Yoga 



Class here interdisciplinary works on the practice of yoga and yoga as a 
philosophical school 

For physical yoga, see 613. 7046; Hindu yogic meditation, 294.543; 
karma yoga, 294.544 

.452 Patanjali's philosophy 

.48 Vedanta 

.482 Sankaracharya (Advaita) 

.483 Ramanujacharya (Visistadvaita) 

.484 Dualistic school 

.484 1 Madhvacharya (Dvaita) 

.484 2 Bhedabheda 

.484 3 Nimbarka (Dvaitadvaita) 

.484 4 Vallabhacharya (Suddhadvaita) 

.5 Iran (Persia) 

.6 Iraq 

Class here Assyria, Babylonia, Chaldea, ancient Mesopotamia 



123 



1 8 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 1 8 

.8 Syria and Lebanon 

Including ancient Phoenicia 
.9 Other 

Example: Arabia 



> 182-188 Ancient Western philosophy 

Class comprehensive works in 180 

182 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies 
.1 Ionic philosophy 

.2 Pythagorean philosophy 

.3 Eleatic philosophy 

.4 Heraclitean philosophy 

.5 Empedoclean philosophy 

.7 Democritean philosophy 

.8 Anaxagorean philosophy 

183 Sophistic, Socratic and related Greek philosophies 
.1 Sophistic philosophy 

.2 Socratic philosophy 

.4 Cynic philosophy 

.5 Cyrenaic philosophy 

.6 Megaric philosophy 

.7 Elian and Eretrian philosophies 

184 Platonic philosophy 

Class here comprehensive works on ancient and modern Platonism 
For modern Platonism, see 141.2 

185 Aristotelian philosophy 

For modern Aristotelianism, see 149. 91 

186 Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophies 
.1 Pyrrhonic philosophy 

.2 New Academy 

.3 Eclectic philosophy 



124 



186 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 186 

.4 Neoplatonic philosophy 

Class here Alexandrian philosophy, comprehensive works on ancient and 
modern Neoplatonism 

For modern Neoplatonism, see 141.2 

187 Epicurean philosophy 

188 Stoic philosophy 

189 Medieval Western philosophy 

Class here early Christian philosophy 
.2 Patristic philosophy 

.4 Scholastic philosophy 

For neo-scholasticism, neo-Thomism, see 149.91 
.5 Mystic philosophy 

190 Modern Western philosophy 

Class here comprehensive works on Christian philosophy, on modern philosophy, 
on Western philosophy, on European philosophy 

Modern philosophy of areas not provided for in 180 is classed here, even if not in 
the Western tradition, e.g., North American native philosophy 191.08997, 
traditional African philosophy 199.6 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to philosophy of a specific 
country, use one of the following: 

(Option A: Place it first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., philosophy of 
Mexico 19M [preceding 191] 

(Option B: Class it in 191; in that case class philosophy of United States and 
Canada in 199.7) 

Class ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy in 180 

See Manual at 100, 109 vs. 190; 190 

.9 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 191-199 (not 190.94-190.99) 

191 United States and Canada 

Class here North American philosophy 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to philosophy of a specific 
country, class it in this number; in that case class philosophy of United States and 
Canada in 199.7) 

Class Middle American and Mexican philosophy in 199.72 

192 British Isles 

193 Germany and Austria 



125 



194 Dewey Decimal Classification 194 



194 


France 


195 


Italy 


196 


Spain and Portugal 


.1 


Spain 


.9 


Portugal 


197 


Soviet Union 




Class philosophy of Soviet Asia in 181.9 


[.1] 


Finland 




Relocated to 198.8 


[.2] 


Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia 




Number discontinued; class in 197 


198 


Scandinavia 


.1 


Norway 


.5 


Sweden 


.8 


Finland [formerly 197.1] 


.9 


Denmark 


199 


Other geographical areas 



Add to base number 199 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Mexican philosophy 
199.72; however, class Asiatic philosophy in 181, European philosophy in 190, 
comprehensive works on North American philosophy in 191 



126 



200 



200 Religion 



Beliefs, attitudes, practices of individuals and groups with respect to the ultimate 
nature of existences and relationships within the context of revelation, deity, 
worship 

Class here comprehensive works on Christianity 

(Option: To give preferred treatment or shorter numbers to a specific religion other 
than Christianity, use one of the four options described at 292-299) 

Class comparative religion, works dealing with various religions in 291 

See Manual at 100 vs. 200; 133 vs. 200; 200 

.1 Philosophy and theory 

See Manual at 200. 1 vs. 2 10, 291 

.2- .6 Standard subdivisions 

.7 Education, research, related topics 

.71 Schools and courses 

See also 377.1 for religious observances and exercises in nonsectarian 
schools 

.8 Religion with respect to kinds of persons 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of religion 

Class here religious situation and conditions 



> 201-209 Standard subdivisions of Christianity 

Class comprehensive works in 200 

201 Philosophy and theory of Christianity 

Nature, origin, validity of Christian beliefs 
Class Christian theology in 230 

202 Miscellany of Christianity 

203 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances of Christianity 

204 Special topics 

.5 Christian mythology 

Class mythology in the Bible in 220.68, Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha in 229 

127 



205 Dewey Decimal Classification 205 

205 Serial publications of Christianity 

206 Organizations of Christianity 

Class the Christian church in 260 

207 Education, research, related topics of Christianity 

Class here Christianity as an academic subject 

Comprehensive works on Christian religious education relocated to 268 

Class Christian religious education under church auspices at other than the 
university level in 268 

See Manual at 207 vs. 268 

.1 Schools and courses 

.101-. 103 In areas, regions, places in general; in the ancient world 

[. 104-. 109] In specific continents, countries, localities in the modern world 

Do not use; class in 207.4-207.9 

. 1 1 Colleges and universities 

Do not use for geographical treatment of colleges and universities; class 
colleges and universities regardless of denomination in areas, regions, places 
in general in 207.101; in the ancient world in 207.103; in specific continents, 
countries, localities in the modern world in 207.4-207.9 

Add to base number 207.1 1 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Roman Catholic seminaries and courses 207.1 12 

. 1 2 Secular secondary schools 

Do not use for geographical treatment of secular secondary schools; class 
secular secondary schools in areas, regions, places in general in 207.101; in 
the ancient world in 207.103; in specific continents, countries, localities in 
the modern world in 207.4-207.9 

Comprehensive works on Christian education in secondary schools, 
secondary schools under church auspices relocated to 268.433 

. 1 5 Agencies for adult education 

Class agencies for adult education under church auspices in 268.434 

.3 Research and topics related to research and education 

Add to base number 207.3 the numbers following —07 in notation 072-079 
from Table 1, e.g., museums, collections, exhibits on Christianity 207.34 



128 



207 Religion 207 

.4- .9 Colleges, universities, secular secondary schools in specific continents, 
countries, localities in the modern world 

Class here specific schools and courses 

Do not use for research and miscellaneous educational aspects; class in 207.3 

Add to base number 207 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., a seminary in Dublin 
207.41835 

Secondary schools under church auspices and their courses relocated to 
268.433094-268.433099 

208 Christianity with respect to kinds of persons 

209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of Christianity 
and Christian thought 

Observe the table of precedence under 230-280 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of the organized Christian church 
in 270 

See Manual at 209.2 



210 Natural theology 



Religious beliefs and attitudes attained through observation and interpretation of 
evidence in nature, through speculation, through reasoning, but not through 
revelation 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to a specific religion other 
than Christianity, class it in this number, and add to base number 21 the numbers 
following the base number for that religion in 292-299, e.g., Hinduism 210, 
Mahabharata 219.23; in that case class natural theology in 200, its subdivisions 
from 21 1-218 in 201-208, standard subdivisions of Christianity in 200.1-200.9, 
standard subdivisions of religion in 200.01-200.09. Other options are described at 
292-299) 

Class a specific topic treated with respect to religions based on revelation or 
authority in 291, e.g., concepts of God in world religions 291.21 1; with respect to a 
specific religion with the religion, e.g., Christian concepts of God 231 

See Manual at 200. 1 vs. 210, 291 

211 Concepts of God 

Including anthropomorphism 

Class here comprehensive works on God, on The Holy 
For existence, knowability , attributes of God, see 212 
.2 Pantheism 

.3 Theism 

.32 Polytheism 

.33 Dualism 

.34 Monotheism 



129 



211 Dewey Decimal Classification 211 

.4 Rationalism (Free thought) 

.5 Deism 

.6 Humanism and secularism 

.7 Agnosticism and skepticism 

.8 Atheism 

212 Existence, knowability, attributes of God 
.1 Existence 

Including proofs 

See Manual at 212.1 vs. 23 1.042 
.6 Knowability 

Class proofs in 212.1 
.7 Attributes 

Examples: love, omniscience 

213 Creation 

Including creation of life and human life, evolution versus creation, evolution as 
method of creation 

See Manual at 231.765 vs. 21 3, 575 

214 Theodicy 

Vindication of God's justice and goodness in permitting existence of evil and 
suffering 

.8 Providence 

215 Science and religion 

Including cybernetics 

Class religion and scientific theories of creation in 213 

See also 261.55 for Christianity and science; 291.175 for various religions and 
science 



.1 


Mathematics 


.2 


Astronomy and related topics 


.24 


Life on other worlds 


.25 


Space flight 


.3 


Physics 


.4 


Chemistry 


.5 


Geology 


.6 


Paleontology 



130 



2 1 5 Natural theology 2 1 5 



.7 


Life sciences 




Class evolution versus creation, evolution as method of creation in 2 1 3 




For paleontology, see 215.6 


.72 


Anthropology and ethnology 


.74 


Biology and natural history 




For life on other worlds, see 215.24 


.8 


Archaeology 


.9 


Technology 




For spaceflight, see 215.25 


216 


Good and evil 




For theodicy, see 214 


[217] 


[Unassigned] 




Most recently used in Edition 18 


218 


Humankind 




Including immortality 




Class creation, human evolution in 213 


[219] 


Analogy 




Number discontinued; class in 210 


220 


Bible 




Holy Scriptures of Judaism and Christianity 



(If option A under 292-299 is chosen, class here sources of the specified religion; 
class the Bible in 298) 

Class Christian Biblical theology in 230, Judaic in 296.31-296.34; Biblical 
precepts in Christian codes of conduct in 241 .52-241 .54, in Judaic codes in 
296.385 

See Manual at 220 

SUMMARY 

220.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1-.9 Generalities 

221 Old Testament 

222 Historical books of Old Testament 

223 Poetic books of Old Testament 

224 Prophetic books of Old Testament 

225 New Testament 

226 Gospels and Acts 

227 Epistles 

228 Revelation (Apocalypse) 

229 Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works 



131 



220 Dewey Decimal Classification 220 

.01-.02 Standard subdivisions 

[.03] Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Do not use; class dictionaries and encyclopedias in 220.3, concordances in 
220.4-220.5 

.04 Special topics 

.046 Apocalyptic passages 

Class apocalypses in the pseudepigrapha in 229.9; apocalyptic passages 
in a book or group of books with the book or group of books, e.g., 
apocalyptic passages in the prophets 224.0046, in the Book of Daniel 
224.50046 

For Revelation (Apocalypse), see 228 

.05- .08 Standard subdivisions 

.09 General historical, geographical, persons treatment of the Bible 

Class the canon in 220.12; geography, history, chronology, persons of Bible 
lands in Bible times in 220.9 

SUMMARY 

220.1 Origins and authenticity 

.3 Encyclopedias and topical dictionaries 

.4 Original texts, early versions, early translations 

.5 Modern versions and translations 

.6 Interpretation and criticism (Exegesis) 

.7 Commentaries 

.8 Nonreligious subjects treated in the Bible 

.9 Geography, history, chronology, persons of Bible lands in Bible times 



220.1-220.9 Generalities 

Class comprehensive works in 220, generalities applied to a specific part of the 
Bible with the part, e.g., a commentary on Job 223.107 

.1 Origins and authenticity 

.12 Canon 

Class here selection of the books accepted as Holy Scripture 
. 1 3 Inspiration 

The Bible as revelation (word of God) 

Including the authority of the Bible 

. 1 5 Biblical prophecy and prophecies 

Class Christian messianic prophecies in 232.12, Christian eschatological 
prophecies in 236, Judaic messianic and eschatological prophecies in 296.33 

See also 224 for prophetic books of the Old Testament 



132 



220 Bible 220 

.3 Encyclopedias and topical dictionaries 

Class dictionaries of specific texts in 220.4-220.5 



220.4-220.5 Texts, versions, translations 

Class here critical appraisal of language and style; concordances, indexes, 
dictionaries of specific texts; complete texts; selections from more than one 
part; paraphrases 

Class comprehensive works in 220.4; texts accompanied by commentaries in 
220.77; selections compiled for a specific purpose with the purpose, e.g., 
selections for daily meditations 242.2 

.4 Original texts, early versions, early translations 

Class here textual (lower) criticism (use of scientific means to ascertain the 
actual original texts), original texts accompanied by modern translations, 
comprehensive works on texts and versions 

For modern versions and translations, see 220. 5 

.42 Aramaic 



.43 


Syriac 


.44 


Hebrew 


.45 


Samaritan 


.46 


Other Semitic 




Examples: Arabic, Ethiopic 


.47 


Latin 




Examples: Itala, Vulgate 


.48 


Greek 



.49 Other early versions 

Examples: Armenian, Coptic 

Gothic relocated to 220.5399 

.5 Modern versions and translations 

Class works containing translations in English and one other modern language 
with the other language in 220.53-220.59; in two modern languages other than 
English with the language coming later in Table 6; in more than two modern 
languages in 220.5 1 . 

.5 1 Polyglot 



133 



220 Dewey Decimal Classification 220 

.52 In English and Anglo-Saxon 

Use 220.52001-220.52009 for standard subdivisions 



> 220.520 1-220.520 9 English 

Add to the notation for each term identified by * as follows: 
01-02 Standard subdivisions 
[031 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Do not use; class in 3 
05-08 Standard subdivisions 
09 Geographical and persons treatment 

Class historical treatment of the translation in 8 

2 Standard editions 

3 Concordances, indexes, dictionaries 

4 Special editions 

Examples: annotated editions, study editions, editions notable for 
illustrations 

6 Selections 

7 Paraphrases 

8 History, criticism, explanation of the translation 

Class comprehensive works in 220.52 

.520 1 English versions before 1582 

Examples: Coverdale, Tyndale, Wycliffe 

.520 2 *Douay 

Class here Rheims-Douay, Rheims-Douay-Challoner versions 

See also 220.5205 for Confraternity -Douay-Challoner version 

.520 3 * Authorized (King James) 

.520 4 Revised 

Including English revised (1881-1885), American revised (American 
standard) (1901) 

.520 42 *Revised standard (1946-1957) 

.520 5 *Confratemity and *New American 

Class here Confraternity-Douay-Challoner version 

See also 220.5202 for Rheims-Douay , Rheims-Douay-Challoner 
versions 

.520 6 *New English Bible 

.520 7 * Jerusalem Bible 

.520 8 Other English translations since 1582 

Examples: Good News Bible, New International Version 

For translations by individuals, see 220.5209 

*Add as instructed under 220.5201-220.5209 



134 



220 Bible 220 

.520 9 Translations by individuals 

Former heading: Private translations 
Examples: Goodspeed, Knox, Moffatt, Phillips 

.529 Anglo-Saxon 

.53-. 59 In other languages 

Add to base number 220.5 notation 3-9 from Table 6, e.g., the Bible in 
Gothic 220.5399 {formerly 220.49], in German 220.531 

.6 Interpretation and criticism (Exegesis) 

Class Christian meditations based on Biblical passages and intended for 
devotional use in 242.5, Judaic meditations in 296.72; material about the Bible 
intended for use in preparing Christian sermons in 25 1 , Christian sermons based 
on Biblical passages in 252; material for preparation of Judaic sermons and 
texts of Judaic sermons in 296.42 

For textual (lower) criticism, see 220.4; commentaries, 220. 7 
.601 Philosophy and theory (Hermeneutics) 

.61 General introductions to the Bible 

Including isagogics (introductory studies prior to actual exegesis) 
.64 Symbolism and typology 

Class here interpretation of specific symbols 

.65 Harmonies 

.66 Literary criticism 

Literary examination of the text in order to reach conclusions about its 
meaning, structure, authorship, date 

Class here higher criticism, internal criticism, redaction criticism 

Class the language and style of specific texts in 220.4-220.5 

See also 809. 93522 for the Bible as literature 

.663 Form criticism 

Analysis of preliterary or oral forms and traditions in Biblical text 

.67 Historical criticism 

Interpretation of texts in light of the cultural, historical, religious, 
sociological milieu in which written 

Class form criticism in 220.663 

.68 Mythological, allegorical, numerical, astronomical interpretations 

Including mythology in the Bible, demythologizing 

.7 Commentaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 

.77 With text 

135 



220 Dewey Decimal Classification 220 

.8 Nonreligious subjects treated in the Bible 

Use 220.80001-220.80009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 220.8 notation 001-999, e.g., natural sciences in the Bible 
220.85 

Class a religious subject treated in the Bible with the specific religion and topic, 
e.g., Christian theology 230, Judaic moral virtues based on biblical teaching 
296.385; geography, history, chronology, persons of Bible lands in Bible times 
in 220.9 

.9 Geography, history, chronology, persons of Bible lands in Bible times 

Class general history of areas in the ancient world in 930 
.91 Geography 

Class here description and civilization 

Class civilization treated separately in 220.95 

.92 Collected persons 

Class an individual person with the part of the Bible in which he is chiefly 
considered, e.g., Abraham 222.1 1092 

See Manual at 209.2; 220. 92 

.93 Archaeology (Material remains) 

.95 History 

Including civilization treated separately 

Use 220.95001-220.95009 for standard subdivisions 

Class geographical description and civilization treated together in 220.91 

.950 5 Bible stories retold 

Including picture books 



221-228 Specific parts of the Bible 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows (regardless of whether the 
subdivision is treated as a whole or in part): 

001-08 Standard subdivisions and generalities 

Add to the numbers following 220 in 220.01-220.8, e.g., 
interpretation of the work or of a part of the work 06 
09 Geography, history, chronology, persons 

Add to 09 the numbers following 221.9 in 221.91-221.95, e.g. 
biography 092 

Class comprehensive works in 220 

For Apocrypha, see 229 



136 



221 Bible 221 

221 Old Testament 

Holy Scriptures of Judaism, Old Testament of Christianity 

For historical books, see 222; poetic books, 223; prophetic books, 224 

[.03] Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Do not use; class dictionaries and encyclopedias in 221.3, concordances in 
221.4-221.5 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Hagiographa (Writings) 

.044 Megillot (Five Rolls) 

.046 Apocalyptic passages 

Class apocalyptic passages in a book or group of books with the book or 
group of books, e.g., apocalyptic passages in the prophets 224.0046, in 
the Book of Daniel 224.50046 

.09 General historical, geographical, persons treatment of the Old 

Testament 

Class the canon in 221.12; geography, history, chronology, persons of Old 
Testament lands in Old Testament times in 221.9 

.1-.8 Generalities 

Add to base number 221 the numbers following 220 in 220.1-220.8, e.g., 
Targums 221.42, commentaries 221.7 

.9 Geography, history, chronology, persons of Old Testament lands in 

Old Testament times 

Class general history of ancient areas in 930 

.9 1 Geography 

Class here description and civilization 

Class civilization treated separately in 221.95 

.92 Persons 

See Manual at 209.2; 220. 92 

.922 Collected treatment 

.93 Archaeology (Material remains) 

.95 History 

Including civilization treated separately 

Use 221.95001-221.95009 for standard subdivisions 

Class geographical description and civilization treated together in 221.91 

.950 5 Old Testament stories retold 

Including picture books 



137 



222 Dewey Decimal Classification 222 



222 


*Historical books of Old Testament 


.1 


♦Pentateuch (Torah) 




Class here *Hexateuch 




For Joshua, see 222.2 


.11 


*Genesis 


.12 


*Exodus 




For Ten Commandments, see 222. 16 


.13 


*Leviticus 


.14 


* Numbers 


.15 


*Deuteronomy 




For Ten Commandments, see 222. 16 


.16 


*Ten Commandments (Decalogue) 




Class Ten Commandments as code of co 
Judaism in 296.385 


.2 


* Joshua (Josue) 


.3 


*Judges and Ruth 


.32 


*Judges 


.35 


*Ruth 


.4 


*Samuel 


.43 


*Samuel 1 



Variant name: Kings 1 
.44 *Samuel 2 

Variant name: Kings 2 
.5 *Kings 

.53 *Kings 1 

Variant name: Kings 3 
.54 *Kings 2 

Variant name: Kings 4 
.6 *Chronicles (Paralipomena) 

.63 *Chronicles 1 (Paralipomenon 1) 

.64 *Chronicles 2 (Paralipomenon 2) 

.7 *Ezra (Esdras 1) 

See also 229. 1 for Esdras 1 (also called Esdras 3) of the Apocrypha 
*Add as instructed under 221-228 

138 



222 Bible 222 

.8 *Nehemiah (Esdras 2, Nehemias) 

See also 229. 1 for Esdras 2 (also called Esdras 4) of the Apocrypha 
(.86) *Tobit (Tobias) 

(Optional number; prefer 229.22) 
(.88) *Judith 

(Optional number; prefer 229.24) 
.9 *Esther 

(Option: Class here deuterocanonical part of Esther; prefer 229.27) 

223 *Poetic books of Old Testament 

Class here *wisdom literature 

For Apocryphal wisdom literature, see 229.3 
.1 *Job 

.2 *Psalms 

.7 *Proverbs 

.8 *Ecclesiastes (Qohelet) 

.9 *Song of Solomon (Canticle of Canticles, Song of Songs) 

(.96) *Wisdom of Solomon (Wisdom) 

(Optional number; prefer 229.3) 
(.98) *Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) 

(Optional number; prefer 229.4) 

224 *Prophetic books of the Old Testament 

Class here Major Prophets 

.1 *Isaiah (Isaias) 

.2 *Jeremiah (Jeremias) 

.3 ^Lamentations 

(.37) *Baruch 

(Optional number; prefer 229.5) 

.4 *Ezekiel (Ezechiel) 

.5 *Daniel 

(Option: Class here Song of the Three Children, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon; 
prefer 229.5 for Song of the Three Children, 229.6 for Susanna, Bel and the 
Dragon) 

.6 *Hosea (Osee) 

*Add as instructed under 221-228 

139 



224 Dewey Decimal Classification 224 



.7 


*Joel 


.8 


*Amos 


.9 


♦Minor prophets 




For Hosea, see 224. 6; Joel, 224. 7; Amos, 224. 8 


.91 


*Obadiah (Abdias) 


.92 


*Jonah (Jonas) 


.93 


*Micah (Micheas) 


.94 


*Nahum 


.95 


♦Habakkuk (Habacuc) 


.96 


*Zephaniah (Sophonias) 


.97 


*Haggai (Aggeus) 


.98 


*Zechariah (Zacharias) 


.99 


*Malachi (Malachias) 


(.997) 


♦Maccabees 1 and 2 (Machabees 1 and 2) 




(Optional number; prefer 229.73) 


225 


New Testament 




For Gospels and Acts, see 226; Epistles, 227; Revelation, 228 


[.03] 


Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 




Do not use; class dictionaries and encyclopedias in 225.3, concordances in 
225.4-225.5 


.04 


Special topics 


.046 


Apocalyptic passages 



Class apocalyptic passages in a book or group of books with the book or 
group of books, e.g., in the Gospels 226.0046, in the Gospel of Mark 
226.30046 

For Revelation (Apocalypse), see 228 

.09 General historical, geographical, persons treatment of the New 

Testament 

Class the canon in 225.12; geography, history, chronology, persons of New 
Testament lands in New Testament times in 225.9 

.1-.8 Generalities 

Add to base number 225 the numbers following 220 in 220.1-220.8, e.g., 
Authorized Version 225.5203 

*Add as instructed under 221-228 



140 



225 Bible 225 

.9 Geography, history, chronology, persons of New Testament lands in 

New Testament times 

Add to base number 225.9 the numbers following 221.9 in 221.91-221.95, e.g., 
individual persons 225.92; however, class Jesus Christ, Mary, Joseph, Joachim, 
Anne, John the Baptist in 232 

See Manual at 209.2; 220. 92 

226 *Gospels and Acts 

Class here synoptic Gospels 

See Manual at 209.2 

.095 05 Gospel stories retold 

Class Jesus as a historical figure, biography and specific events in 
the life of Jesus in 232.9 

.1 Harmonies of the Gospels 



> 226.2-226.5 Specific Gospels 

Class comprehensive works in 226 

For miracles, see 226. 7; parables, 226.8 
.2 *Matthew 

Class Golden Rule as code of conduct in 241.54 
For Sermon on the Mount, see 226. 9 
.3 *Mark 

.4 *Luke 

Class Golden Rule as code of conduct in 241.54 
For Sermon on the Mount, see 226. 9 
.5 *John 

Class here comprehensive works on Johannine literature 

For Epistles of John, see 227.94; Revelation (Apocalypse), 228 
.6 *Acts of the Apostles 

.7 *Miracles 

Class miracles in the context of Jesus' life in 232.955 
.8 *Parables 

Class parables in the context of Jesus' life in 232.954 
.9 *Sermon on the Mount 

.93 *Beatitudes 

.96 *Lord's Prayer 

e Add as instructed under 221-228 

141 



227 Dewey Decimal Classification 227 



227 


*Epistles 




Class here comprehensive works on Pauline epistles 


.1 


*Romans 


.2 


^Corinthians 1 




Class here comprehensive works on the Epistles to the Corinthians 




For Corinthians 2, see 227.3 


.3 


♦Corinthians 2 


.4 


*Galatians 


.5 


*Ephesians 


.6 


*Philippians 


.7 


*Colossians 


.8 


*Other Pauline epistles 


.81 


*Thessalonians 1 




Class here comprehensive works on the Epistles to the Thessalonians 




For Thessalonians 2, see 227.82 


.82 


*Thessalonians 2 


.83 


*Timothy 1 




Class here comprehensive works on the Epistles to Timothy, on the Pastoral 
Epistles 




For Timothy 2, see 227.84; Titus, 227.85 


.84 


Timothy 2 


.85 


Titus 


.86 


*Philemon 


.87 


*Hebrews 


.9 


*Catholic epistles 


.91 


*James 


.92 


*Peter 1 




Class here comprehensive works on the Epistles of Peter 




For Peter 2, see 227.93 


.93 


*Peter 2 



*Add as instructed under 221-228 



142 



227 Bible 227 

.94 *John 1 

Class here comprehensive works on the Epistles of John 
For John 2, see 227. 95; John 3,227. 96 
.95 *John 2 

.96 *John 3 

.97 *Jude 

228 *ReveIation (Apocalypse) 

229 Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works 

Apocrypha: works accepted as deuterocanonical in some Bibles 

Pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works: works from intertestamental times 
connected with the Bible but not accepted as canonical 

Add to base number 229 as instructed under 221-228, e.g., Authorized Version of 
the Apocrypha 229.05203 

Standard subdivisions and generalities are added for the Apocrypha alone 



> 229.1-229.7 Specific books and works of the Apocrypha 

Add to each subdivision identified by t as instructed under 221-228 
Subdivisions may be added for a part of any work that has its own number 
Class comprehensive works in 229 
.1 f Esdras 1 and 2 

Variant names: Esdras 3 and 4 

See also 222. 7 for Ezra, 222.8 for Nehemiah 
.2 f Tobit, Judith, Esther 

.22 tTobit (Tobias) 

(Option: Class in 222.86) 
.24 tJudith 

(Option: Class in 222.88) 
.27 t Deuterocanonical part of Esther 

(Option: Class in 222.9) 
.3 tWisdom of Solomon (Wisdom) 

Class here Apocryphal wisdom literature 
(Option: Class in 223.96) 

For Ecclesiasticus, see 229.4 
*Add as instructed under 221-228 
tAdd as instructed under 229.1-229.7 

143 



229 Dewey Decimal Classification 229 

.4 tEcclesiasticus (Sirach) 

(Option: Class in 223.98) 
.5 tBaruch, Epistle of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Children 

(Option: Class Baruch in 224.37, Song of the Three Children in 224.5) 
.6 t Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses 

(Option: Class Susanna, Bel and the Dragon in 224.5) 
.7 tMaccabees (Machabees) 

.73 tMaccabees 1 and 2 (Machabees 1 and 2) 

(Option: Class in 224.997) 
.75 tMaccabees 3 and 4 (Machabees 3 and 4) 



> 229.8-229.9 Pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works 

Class comprehensive works in 229.9 

For Maccabees 3 and 4, see 229. 75 

.8 tPseudo gospels 

Example: Gospel of Thomas 

Including agrapha (Jesus' words not appearing in canonical Gospels) [formerly 
232.98] 

Class comprehensive works on New Testament pseudepigrapha in 229.92 

.9 tPseudepigrapha 

For pseudo gospels, see 229.8 

.91 tOld Testament 

For Maccabees 3 and 4, see 229. 75 

.911 tHistorical books 

.912 t Poetic books 

Example: Odes of Solomon 

.913 t Prophetic books 

Examples: Apocalypse of Elijah, Ascension of Isaiah, Assumption of 
Moses, Books of Enoch, Jewish apocalypses 

.914 tTestaments 

Example: Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs 

[.915] Other books by or about the prophets 

Number discontinued; class in 229.91 

tAdd as instructed under 229.1-229.7 



144 



229 Bible 229 

[.918] Pseudepigrapha in Dead Sea Scrolls 

Number discontinued; class in 229.91 
.92 tNew Testament Acts of the Apostles 

For pseudo gospels, see 229. 8 
.93 tEpistles 

.94 fApocalypses 



230-280 Christianity 



(Option: To give local emphasis and more and shorter numbers to a specific 
religion other than Christianity, e.g., Buddhism, class it in these numbers, its 
sources in 220, comprehensive works in 200; in that case class the Bible and 
Christianity in 298. Other options are described at 292-299) 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence 
for the history of Christianity and the Christian church (except for biography, 
explained in Manual at 209.2), e.g., Jesuit missions in India 266.254 (not 
271.53054); persecution of Jesuits by Elizabeth I 272.7 (not 271.53042 or 
274.206): 

Specific topics 220-260 

Persecutions in general church history 272 

Doctrinal controversies and heresies in general 

church history 273 

Religious congregations and orders in church 

history 271 

Denominations and sects of the Christian church 280 
Treatment of the Christian church by continent, 

country, locality 274-279 

General historical, geographical, persons treatment 

of the Christian church 270 

Historical, geographical, persons treatment of 

Christianity and Christian thought 209 

Class comprehensive works in 200 
For the Bible, see 220 
See Manual at 209.2 



> 230-270 Specific elements of Christianity 

Class here specific elements of specific denominations and sects 

(Option: Class specific elements of specific denominations and sects in 280) 

Class comprehensive works in 200 

tAdd as instructed under 229.1-229.7 



145 



230 Dewey Decimal Classification 230 

230 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 

Class here Biblical theology 

Class doctrinal controversies in general church history in 273 

For Christian moral and devotional theology, see 240; Christian social and 
ecclesiastical theology, 260 

SUMMARY 

230.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1-.9 Doctrines of specific denominations and sects 

231 God 

232 Jesus Christ and his family Christology 

233 Humankind 

234 Salvation (Soteriology) and grace 

235 Spiritual beings 

236 Eschatology 

238 Creeds, confessions of faith, covenants, catechisms 

239 Apologetics and polemics 

.01-.03 Standard subdivisions 

.04 Specific types of Christian theology 

Class theology of specific denominations and sects in 230.1-230.9 

See Manual at 230. 04 vs. 230. 092 , 230. 1-230. 9 
.042 Theology of Eastern and Roman Catholic churches 

Class specific schools and systems of theology in 230.046 
.044 Protestant theology 

Specific schools of Protestant theology relocated to 230.046 

.046 Specific schools and systems of theology 

Examples: dispensationalist, evangelical, existentialist, fundamentalist, 
liberal, liberation, neo-orthodox, process theologies 

Class here specific schools of Protestant theology [formerly 230.044] 
.05-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

See Manual at 230. 04 vs. 230. 092, 230. 1-230. 9 

.1-.9 Doctrines of specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 230 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., Methodist 
doctrines 230.7 

(Option: Class here specific doctrines of specific denominations and sects; 
prefer 231-236. If option is chosen, add as above, then add and to the result 
add the numbers following 23 in 231-236, e.g., Methodist doctrines on 
salvation 230.704) 

See Manual at 230. 04 vs. 230. 092, 230. 1-230. 9; 230. 16-230. 2 



146 



23 1 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 23 1 



231-239 Christian doctrinal theology 

Class comprehensive works in 230, specific types of Christian doctrinal 
theology in 230.042-230.046, comprehensive works on doctrines of specific 
denominations and sects in 230.1-230.9 



> 231-236 Specific topics in Christian doctrinal theology 

Class here specific doctrines of specific denominations and sects 

(Option: Class specific doctrines of specific denominations and sects in 
230.1-230.9) 

Class comprehensive works in 230 

231 God 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Ways of knowing God 

Examples: faith, reason, tradition, proofs 

Class revelation in 231.74 

See Manual at 212. 1 vs. 231 . 042 
.044 General concepts of God 

Example: non-Trinitarian concepts 

Class here comprehensive works on Holy Trinity 



231.1-231.3 Holy Trinity 

Class comprehensive works in 23 1 .044 
.1 God the Father 

.2 God the Son 

For Jesus Christ, see 232 
.3 God the Holy Spirit 

.4 Attributes 

Examples: omnipotence, omnipresence, omniscience, transcendence 

For love and wisdom, see 231.6; sovereignty, 231.7; justice and goodness, 
231.8 

.5 Providence 

.6 Love and wisdom 



147 



23 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 23 1 

.7 Relation to the world 

Examples: relation to nature, sovereignty 

Class here God's relation to individual believers 

Class redemption in 234.3, divine law in 241.2, believers' experience of God in 
248.2, God's relation to the church in 262.7 

For Providence, see 231.5 
.72 Kingdom of God 

Class the Kingdom of God to come in 236 
.73 Miracles 

Class here miracles associated with saints 

Stigmata relocated to 248.29 

Class miracles of Jesus in 232.955, miracles associated with Mary in 
232.917 

.74 Revelation 

Vision and appearing of God, disclosure to men of divine purpose and 
superhuman knowledge 

.745 Prophecy 

Class Biblical prophecy and prophecies in 220.15, messianic prophecies 
in 232.12, eschatological prophecies in 236 

.76 Relation to and action in history 

Examples: covenant relationship, relationship to the Jewish people 

.765 Creation 

Including relation of scientific and Christian viewpoints, evolution versus 
creation, evolution as method of creation 

For creation of humankind, see 233. 11 

See Manual at 231.765 vs.213, 575 

.8 Justice and goodness 

Class here theodicy (vindication of God's justice and goodness in permitting 
existence of evil and suffering) 

For Providence, see 231.5 

232 Jesus Christ and his family Christology 

See Manual at 232 



148 



232 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 232 





SUMMARY 


232.1 


Incarnation and messiahship of Christ 


.2 


Christ as Logos (Word of God) 


.3 


Christ as Redeemer 


.4 


Sacrifice of Christ 


.5 


Resurrection of Christ 


.8 


Divinity and humanity of Christ 


.9 


Family and life of Jesus 



232.1-232.8 Christology 

Class comprehensive works in 232, the life of Jesus in 232.9 
.1 Incarnation and messiahship of Christ 

Including typology 
. 1 2 Messianic prophecies 

.2 Christ as Logos (Word of God) 

.3 Christ as Redeemer 

Including atonement 

Class comprehensive works on the doctrine of redemption in 234.3 
For sacrifice of Christ, see 232.4 
.4 Sacrifice of Christ 

.5 Resurrection of Christ 

[.6] Second Coming of Christ 

Relocated to 236.9 
[.7] Judgment of Christ 

Relocated to 236.9 
.8 Divinity and humanity of Christ 

Including Person; offices as Prophet, Priest, King; intercession 

Class here the hypostatic union 

Class non-Trinitarian concepts of Jesus in 232.9 

For incarnation, see 232.1; Christ as Logos, 232.2; Christ as Redeemer, 
232.3 

.9 Family and life of Jesus 

Class here non-Trinitarian concepts of Jesus 
Use 232.9001-232.9009 for standard subdivisions 
See Manual at 209.2 

.901 Life of Jesus 

Class specific events in 232.92, 232.95-232.97 
149 



232 Dewey Decimal Classification 232 

.903 Character and personality of Jesus 

.904 Jesus as teacher and exemplar 

Including influence 
Class teachings in 232.954 
.908 Historicity of Jesus 

.9 1 Mary, mother of Jesus 

Class here Mariology 

Class Mary's husband and parents in 232.93 
.9 1 1 Immaculate Conception 

.912 Annunciation 

.913 Virginity 

.914 Assumption (Ascent to heaven) 

.915 Sanctity and virtues 

.916 Spiritual powers 

.917 Miracles and apparitions 

.92 Infancy of Jesus 

Including Holy Family 

For Mary, see 232.91 ; Joseph, 232. 932 
.921 Nativity 

Including virgin birth 
.922 Adoration of the shepherds 

.923 Wise men (Magi) 

.924 Circumcision 

.925 Massacre of innocents 

.926 Flight into Egypt 

.927 Childhood in Nazareth 

.928 Presentation in temple 

.929 Jesus among the doctors in the temple 

.93 Mary's husband and parents 

.932 Joseph 

.933 Joachim and Anne 



150 



232 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 232 

.94 John the Baptist 

.95 Public life of Jesus 

Including baptism, temptation, calling of apostles 

.954 Teachings 

Class texts and interpretations of New Testament passages narrating 
parables in 226.8 

.955 Miracles 

Class texts and interpretations of New Testament passages narrating 
miracles in 226.7 

.956 Transfiguration 

.957 Last Supper 

.958 Last words to disciples 

.96 Passion and death of Jesus 

.961 Betrayal by Judas 

.962 Trial and condemnation 

.963 Crucifixion and death 

.963 5 Seven last words on cross 

.964 Burial 

.966 Relics of Passion 

.967 Descent into hell 

.97 Resurrection, appearances, ascension of Jesus 

[.98] Agrapha 

Relocated to 229.8 

233 Humankind 

Class relation to God in 231.7, salvation in 234 
.1 Creation and fall 

. 1 1 Creation 

Including relation of human creation and human evolution 
Class comprehensive works on creation in 23 1 .765 
. 14 Original sin and fall 

Class sins in 241.3 
.4 Accountability 

Including guilt 



151 



233 Dewey Decimal Classification 233 

.5 Nature 

Including body, soul, spirit; as image and likeness of God, as child of God 
Class free will in 233.7 

For original sin, see 233. 14; death, 236.1; immortality, 236.22 
.7 Freedom of choice between good and evil 

Class predestination and free will in relation to salvation in 234.9 

For accountability, see 233.4 

234 Salvation (Soteriology) and grace 

Including election, innate virtues, merit, universal priesthood 

.1 Kinds and means of grace 

Examples: actual and sanctifying grace 

.12 Gifts of the Holy Spirit 

Contains wisdom, understanding, counsel, knowledge, fortitude, piety, fear 
of the Lord 

Class here Baptism in the Holy Spirit 

For spiritual gifts, see 234. 13 

. 1 3 Spiritual gifts 

Examples: healing, speaking in tongues, interpretation of tongues, prophecy, 
working of miracles, helps, governments, apostleship, teaching, exhortation, 
speaking words of wisdom and knowledge 





For faith, see 234.2 


.16 


Sacraments 




Class liturgy and ritual of sacraments in 265 


.161 


Baptism 


.161 2 


Infant 


.161 3 


Adult 


.162 


Confirmation 


.163 


Eucharist, Holy Communion, Lord's Supper 


.164 


Holy Orders 


.165 


Matrimony 


.166 


Penance 




Including confession 


.167 


Anointing of the sick 



752 



234 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 234 



.2 


Faith and hope 




See also 236 for eschatology, 241.4 for virtues 


.3 


Redemption 


.4 


Regeneration 


.5 


Repentance and forgiveness 




Including atonement, reconciliation 


.6 


Obedience 


.7 


Justification 


.8 


Sanctification and holiness 


.9 


Predestination and free will 


■ 


Spiritual beings 




For Mariology, see 232. 91 


.2 


Saints 




Class miracles associated with saints in 23 1 .73 



For Joseph, see 232.932; Joachim and Anne, 232. 933; John the Baptist, 
232.94 



See Manual at 209.2 
.24 Beatification and canonization 



> 235.3-235.4 Pure spirits 

Class comprehensive works in 235 
For God, see 231 
.3 Celestial hierarchy 

Examples: angels, archangels, cherubim, seraphim 
.4 Devils (Demons) 

.47 Satan (Lucifer) 

236 Eschatology 

Including Antichrist 

Class here Kingdom of God to come 

.1 Death 

.2 Future state (Life after death) 

Class resurrection of the dead in 236.8 
For intermediate state, see 236.4 
.21 Eternity 

153 



236 Dewey Decimal Classification 236 

.22 Immortality 

For conditional immortality, see 236.23 
.23 Conditional immortality (Annihilationism) 

.24 Heaven 

.25 Hell 

[.3] Millennium 

Relocated to 236.9 
.4 Intermediate state 

Probation after death 

For purgatory, see 236.5 
.5 Purgatory 

.6 Limbo of fathers (Limbus patrum) 

Abode of souls of the just who died before the coming of Jesus Christ 
.7 Limbo of infants (Limbus infantium) 

Abode of souls of the unbaptized but just 

.8 Resurrection of the dead 

.9 Last Judgment and related events 

Examples: Second Coming of Christ [formerly also 232.6], Judgment of Christ 
{formerly also 232.7], millennium [formerly 236.3], Armageddon, Day of the 
Lord, end of the world, rapture, tribulation 

Class interdisciplinary works on the end of the world in 001.9 

[237] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

238 Creeds, confessions of faith, covenants, catechisms 

Class catechetics in 268, creeds and catechisms on a specific doctrine with the 
doctrine, e.g., attributes of God 231.4 

.1 Early and Eastern 

.11 Apostles' Creed 

. 14 Nicene and post-Nicene creeds of the Western Church 

Including Constantinopolitan Creed 
.142 Nicene Creed 

. 1 44 Athanasian Creed 



154 



238 Christian theology Christian doctrinal theology 238 

.19 Creeds and confessions of the Eastern Church 

Examples: Confession of Gennadius II, Answers of Jeremiah II, Confession 
of Metrophanes, Orthodox Confession of Peter Mogila, Confession of 
Dositheus 

.2 Roman Catholic 

Example: Creed of Pius IV 
.3- .9 Other 

Add to base number 238 the numbers following 28 in 283-289, e.g., Augsburg 
Confession 238.41 

239 Apologetics and polemics 

Apologetics: systematic argumentation in defense of the divine origin and authority 
of Christianity 

Polemics: refutation of alleged errors in other systems 

Class apologetics and polemics on a specific doctrine with the doctrine, e.g., the 
nature of the church 262.7; apologetics of specific denominations in 230.1-230.9 

See also 273 for doctrinal controversies and heresies in general church history 

.001 -.009 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Apologetics and polemics in apostolic times 

For polemics against doctrines of specific groups in apostolic times, see 
239.2-239.4 



239.2-239.4 Polemics against doctrines of specific groups in apostolic 
times 

Class comprehensive works in 239. 1 

.2 Polemics against Jews in apostolic times 

.3 Polemics against pagans and heathens in apostolic times 

.4 Polemics against Neoplatonists in apostolic times 



239.5-239.9 Polemics against doctrines of specific groups in 
postapostolic times 

Class comprehensive works in 239; comprehensive postapostolic defenses of 
and attacks on doctrines of specific denominations or sects in 230.1-230.9; 
attacks on doctrines of a specific religion with the religion, e.g., doctrines of 
Judaism 296.31-296.34 

.5 Polemics against deists 

.6 Polemics against Encyclopedists 

.7 Polemics against rationalists, agnostics, apostates, atheists 



155 



239 Dewey Decimal Classification 239 

.8 Polemics against scientists and materialists 

For polemics against communists, see 239. 9 
.9 Polemics against other specific groups in postapostolic times 

Groups not provided for in 239.5-239.8 
Examples: communists, secular humanists 

240 Christian moral and devotional theology 

SUMMARY 

241 Moral theology 

242 Devotional literature 

243 Evangelistic writings for individuals and families 

245 Texts of hymns 

246 Use of art in Christianity 

247 Church furnishings and related articles 

248 Christian experience, practice, life 

249 Christian observances in family life 

241 Moral theology 

See Manual at 261 . 8 vs. 241 

.04 Specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 241.04 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Protestant moral theology 241.0404 

.1 Conscience 

.2 Laws and bases of morality 

Examples: divine law, natural law 
For codes of conduct, see 241.5 
.3 Sin and vices 

Including specific vices [formerly also 241.6] 
Class original sin in 233.14 

For specific moral issues, see 241.6 
See Manual at 241 .6 vs. 241 .3, 241 .4 
.31 Mortal and venial sin 

.32 Sins against the Holy Spirit 

.4 Virtues 

Including specific virtues [formerly also 241.6] 
Class faith and hope as means of salvation in 234.2 
For specific moral issues, see 241 .6 
See Manual at 241.6 vs. 24 1.3, 241.4 



156 



241 Christian moral and devotional theology 241 

.5 Codes of conduct 

For specific moral issues, see 241.6 



> 241.52-241.54 Biblical precepts 

Class comprehensive works in 241.5 

.52 Ten Commandments 

.53 Sermon on the Mount 

.54 Golden Rule 

.57 Precepts of the church 

Class church law in 262.9 

.6 Specific moral issues 

Add to base number 241.6 the numbers following 17 in 172-179, e.g., the 
morality of warfare 241.6242, of abortion 241.6976; however, specific vices 
relocated to 241.3, specific virtues to 241.4 

See Manual at 241 . 6 vs. 241.3, 241 . 4 

242 Devotional literature 

Class here texts of meditations, contemplations, prayers for individuals and 
families, religious poetry intended for devotional use 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g. 
prayers and meditations for daily use based on passages from the Bible 242.2 (not 
242.5) 

Prayers and meditations for use in times of illness, 

trouble, bereavement 242.4 

Prayers and meditations for daily use 242.2 

Prayers and meditations for the church year 242.3 

Prayers and meditations for specific classes of persons 242.6 
Prayers and meditations based on passages from the 

Bible 242.5 

Specific prayers and groups of prayers 242.7 

Collections of prayers 242.8 

Class devotional literature on a specific subject with the subject, e.g., meditations 
on God's providence 231.5 

For evangelistic writings, see 243; hymns, 245 

Prayers addressed to spiritual beings other than God are classed in 242.74-242.76 

.2 Prayers and meditations for daily use 

Not limited to saints' days or specific parts of the church year 
Including meditations and prayers for Sunday, Sabbath 

.3 Prayers and meditations for the church year 

.33 Advent and Christmas 



157 



242 Dewey Decimal Classification 242 



.34 


Lent 




For Holy Week, see 242.35 


.35 


Holy Week 


.36 


Easter 


.37 


Other feast and fast days 




Examples: Ascension Day, Ember Days, Rogation Days, saints' days 


.4 


Prayers and meditations for use in times of illness, trouble, 
bereavement 


.5 


Prayers and meditations based on passages from the Bible 



Class interpretation and criticism of Bible passages for other than devotional 
use in 220.6, Bible prayers in 242.722 

.6 Prayers and meditations for specific classes of persons 

Add to base number 242.6 the numbers following 248.8 in 248.82-248.89, e.g. 
for young women 242.633; however, class prayers and meditations for use in 
times of illness, trouble, bereavement in 242.4 

Class collections of prayers for specific classes of persons in 242.82-242.89 

.7 Specific prayers and groups of prayers 

.72 Specific types of prayers 

Class here prayers to Father, Son, Holy Spirit 

.721 Doxologies (Prayers of praise) 

.722 Bible prayers 

.723 Prayers of faith 

.724 Prayers of thanksgiving 

.725 Prayers of penitence 

.726 Prayers of petition 



242.74-242.76 Prayers addressed to spiritual beings other than God 
Class comprehensive works in 242.7 
.74 To Mary 

Including Ave Maria (Hail Mary), Rosary 
.75 To Joseph, Joachim, Anne 

.76 To saints and angels 

For Joseph, Joachim, Anne, see 242. 75 



158 



242 Christian moral and devotional theology 242 

.8 Collections of prayers 

Use 242.8001-242.8009 for standard subdivisions 

For specific prayers and groups of prayers, see 242. 7 

.801-. 809 By adherents of specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 242.80 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
collections of private prayers by Methodists 242.807 

.82- .89 For specific classes of persons 

Add to base number 242.8 the numbers following 248.8 in 248.82-248.89, 
e.g., collections of private prayers for young women 242.833 

243 Evangelistic writings for individuals and families 

Works designed to convert readers, promote repentance 
Class evangelistic sermons in 252.3 

[244] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 15 

245 Texts of hymns 

For devotional use of individuals and families 

Add to base number 245 notation 1-9 from Table 6, e.g., hymns in German 245.31 

Class comprehensive works on texts of hymns in 264.2, musical scores and parts in 
782.27, modern metrical versions of Psalms in 223.205 

246 Use of art in Christianity 

Religious meaning, significance, purpose 
Class creation, description, critical appraisal as art in 700 
For church furnishings and related articles, see 247 



246.1-246.4 Schools and styles 

Class comprehensive works in 246, specific elements by school and style in 
246.5-246.9 

.1 Byzantine and Gothic 

.2 Early Christian and Romanesque 

.4 Renaissance and modern 

Including Protestant 



246.5-246.9 Specific elements 

Class comprehensive works in 246 

159 



246 Dewey Decimal Classification 246 



.5 


Icons, symbols, insignia 


.53 


Icons 


.55 


Emblems and symbols 




Examples: banners, incense, votive offerings 




For colors and lights, see 246. 6 


.558 


Crosses and crucifixes 


.56 


Insignia 




Including insignia of rank 


.6 


Colors and lights 


.7 


Musical, rhythmic, dramatic arts 




Examples: the dance, passion plays, puppet shows 


.9 


Architecture 



Add to base number 246.9 the numbers following 726 in 726.4-726.9, e.g. 
cathedral church buildings 246.96 

247 Church furnishings and related articles 

Examples: sculpture, structural decoration, paintings, textiles, plastic arts 
.1 Furniture 

[.11-. 18] [Kinds of furniture] 

Numbers discontinued; class in 247.1 
[.3- .8] Sculpture, structural decoration, paintings, textiles, plastic arts 
Numbers discontinued; class in 247 

248 Christian experience, practice, life 

See Manual at 209.2 





SUMMARY 


.06 

.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.8 


Organizations 
Religious experience 
Worship 

Christian life and practice 
Witness bearing 
Stewardship 
Guides to Christian life for specific classes of persons 



.06 Organizations 

Class here pious societies, e.g., sodalities, confraternities 
.2 Religious experience 

.22 Mysticism 



160 



248 Christian moral and devotional theology 248 

.24 Conversion 

For moral renewal and commitment, see 248. 25 



248.242-248.246 Conversion from one system of belief to another 

Class comprehensive works in 248.24 

.242 From Protestantism to Roman Catholicism 

.244 From Roman Catholicism to Protestantism 

.246 From non-Christianity to Christianity 

Class conversion of Christians to another religion with the religion, e.g., 
conversion of Christians to Judaism 296.71 

.25 Moral renewal and commitment 

.29 Other 

Including stigmata [formerly also 231.73], speaking in tongues (glossolalia) 

See also 234. 13 for spiritual gifts 

.3 Worship 

Class here comprehensive works on worship 

Class texts of prayers and devotions in 242 

For observances in family life, see 249; public worship, 264 

.32 Prayer 

.34 Meditation and contemplation 

.4 Christian life and practice 

Class here Christian marriage and family 

Class guides to Christian life for specific classes of persons in 248.8 

For moral theology, see 241; worship, 248.3; witness bearing, 248.5; 
stewardship, 248. 6 

.46 Individual observances 

Examples: ceremonial and ritual observances, observance of restrictions and 
limitations 

For asceticism, see 248.47 

.463 Pilgrimages 

.47 Asceticism 

Attitudes and practices aside from and beyond normal moral duties adopted 
as aids to moral and spiritual development 

Examples: practice of celibacy, fasting and abstinence, poverty, solitude, 
other physical austerities, e.g., flagellation 



161 



248 Dewey Decimal Classification 248 

.48 Guides to Christian life by or for adherents of specific denominations 

and sects 

Add to base number 248.48 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
guides for Roman Catholics 248.482 

Guides to Christian life for specific classes of persons who are adherents of 
specific denominations and sects relocated to 248.8 

.5 Witness bearing 

.6 Stewardship 

.8 Guides to Christian life for specific classes of persons 

Class here guides to Christian life for specific classes of persons who are 
adherents of specific denominations and sects [formerly 248.48] 

Class a specific aspect with the aspect, e.g., prayer 248.32 



248.82-248.85 For specific age groups 

Class comprehensive works in 248.8, persons of specific ages in specific 
occupational groups or experiencing illness, trouble, bereavement in 
248.86-248.89 



.82 


Children 




Through age eleven 


.83 


Young adults 




Junior-high-school, high-school, college students 


.832 


Young men 




Class male college students in 248.834 


.833 


Young women 




Class female college students in 248.834 


.834 


College students 




Male and female 


.84 


Adults 




For persons in late adulthood, see 248.85 


.842 


Men 


.842 1 


Fathers 




Regardless of marital status 


.842 2- 


.842 9 By marital status 



Add to base number 248.842 the numbers following —0865 in 
notation 08652-08659 from Table 1, e.g., guides for husbands 
248.8425 

Class fathers in 248.8421 
162 



248 Christian moral and devotional theology 248 



.843 


Women 


.843 1 


Mothers 




Regardless of marital status 


.843 2-. 843 9 


By marital status 



Add to base number 248.843 the numbers following —0865 in 
notation 08652-08659 from Table 1, e.g., guides for wives 248.8435 

Class mothers in 248.8431 

.844 Married couples 

Class husbands in 248.8425, wives in 248.8435 

.845 Parents 

Class here Christian religious training of children in the home [formerly 
also 649.7], Christian child rearing 

For fathers, see 248.8421; mothers, 248.8431 
.846 Separated and divorced persons 

Class separated and divorced men in 248.8423, separated and divorced 
women in 248.8433 

.85 Persons in late adulthood 



248.86-248.89 For occupational classes; persons experiencing illness, 
trouble, bereavement 

Class comprehensive works in 248.8 

.86 Persons experiencing illness, trouble, bereavement 

.88 Occupational classes 

For religious groups, see 248. 89 

.89 Religious groups 

.892 Secular clergy 

Examples: priests, ministers, pastors, rectors, vicars, chaplains, curates, 
elders, deacons, assistants 

.894 Persons in religious orders 

Religious and monastic life 

.894 2 Men 

.894 22 Vocation 

.894 25 Selection and novitiate 

[.894 28] Rules 

Relocated to 255 



163 



248 Dewey Decimal Classification 248 

.894 3 Women 

.894 32 Vocation 

.894 35 Selection and novitiate 

[.894 38] Rules 

Relocated to 255.9 

249 Christian observances in family life 

Class here family prayer; family observance of religious restrictions, rites, 
ceremonies 



> 250-280 Christian church 

Class comprehensive works in 260 

250 Local Christian church and Christian religious 
orders 

Class here basic Christian communities 

Class the local church in overall church organization in 262.2, public worship in 
264, missions in 266, religious training and instruction in 268 

SUMMARY 

250.1- .9 Standard subdivisions 

251 Preaching (Homiletics) 

252 Texts of sermons 

253 Pastoral office and work (Pastoral theology) 

254 Parish government and administration 

255 Religious congregations and orders 
259 Activities of the local church 

[.68] Management 

Do not use; class management of the local church in 254, of religious 
congregations and orders in 255 



> 251-254 Local church 

Class comprehensive works in 250, special activities of the local church in 259 
See Manual at 251-254, 259 vs. 260 

251 Preaching (Homiletics) 

Use 251.001-251.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class texts of sermons in 252, pastoral methods in 253.7 
.01 Preparation 

.02 Sermon outlines 



164 



25 1 Local Christian church and religious orders 25 1 

.03 Delivery 

Class here voice, expression, gesture 
.07 Radio and television preaching 

Class specific aspects of radio and television preaching in 251.01-251.03 
.08 Homiletic illustrations 

252 Texts of sermons 

Use 252.001-252.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class sermons on a specific subject with the subject, e.g., God's Providence 231.5 

.01-. 09 By specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 252.0 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
Anglican sermons 252.03 

.1 For baptisms, confirmations, weddings, funerals 

Class sermons for memorial occasions in 252.9 
.3 For evangelistic meetings 

.5 For specific classes of persons 

.53 Children 

Through age eleven 

.55 Young adults 

Junior-high-school, high-school, college students 

Including academic, chapel, convocation, commencement sermons 

.56 Persons in late adulthood, and persons experiencing illness, trouble, 

bereavement 

.58 Occupational classes 

For religious groups, see 252.59 

.59 Religious groups 

.592 Secular clergy 

Examples: priests, ministers, pastors, rectors, vicars, chaplains, curates, 
elders, deacons, assistants 

.594 Persons in religious orders 

.6 For church and public occasions 



252.61-252.67 Church year 

Class comprehensive works in 252.6 
.61 Advent and Christmas 



165 



252 Dewey Decimal Classification 252 

.62 Lent and Holy Week 

.63 Easter 

.67 Other feast and fast days 

Examples: Ascension Day, Ember Days, Rogation Days, saints' days 
.68 Secular occasions 

Examples: elections, holidays, thanksgivings 
.7 For consecrations, ordinations, installations 

.9 For memorial occasions 

253 Pastoral office and work (Pastoral theology) 

Class here the work of priests, ministers, pastors, rectors, vicars, curates, chaplains, 
elders, deacons, assistants, laity in relation to the work of the church at the local 
level 

Class local clergy and laity in relation to the government, organization and nature 
of the church as a whole in 262.1; the role of clergy in religious education in 268; 
the ordination of women in 262.14 (unless the work treats the ordination of women 
only in relation to its effect on the local parish) 

.092 Persons treatment 

Class biography of clergy in the period prior to 1054 in 270.1-270.3, in 
the period subsequent to 1054 in 280 

See Manual at 209.2 
.2 Life and person 

Including professional and personal qualifications, families of clergy 

Class education of the clergy in 207.1, guides to Christian life for secular clergy 
in 248.892 



253.5-253.7 Pastoral duties and responsibilities 

Methods and techniques for clergy and laity 

Class comprehensive works in 253, methods for services to specific groups in 
259 

For preaching, see 251; parish government and administration, 254 

.5 Counseling and spiritual direction 

.52 Pastoral psychology 

.53 Spiritual direction 



166 



253 Local Christian church and religious orders 253 

.7 Pastoral methods [formerly also 259.7] 

Former heading: Evangelistic methods 
Examples: group work, telephone work 
.73 Outdoor 

[.75] In prisons 

Relocated to 259.5 
.76 In homes 

.78 Use of radio and television 

254 Parish government and administration 

Use 254.001-254.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-. 09 By specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 254.0 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
government and administration of Roman Catholic parishes 254.02 

.1 Initiation of new churches 

.2 In specific kinds of communities 

Class a specific activity in a specific kind of community with the activity, e.g., 
membership promotion 254.5 

.22 Urban 

.23 Suburban 

.24 Rural 

.3 Use of communications media 

Including use of audiovisual materials 
.4 Public relations and publicity 

For use of communications media, see 254.3 
.5 Membership 

Promotion and growth 
.6 Programs 

Planning and execution 

For activities of the local church, see 259 
.7 Buildings, equipment, grounds 

.8 Finance 

Examples: budget, expenditures, income, methods of raising money 



167 



255 Dewey Decimal Classification 255 

255 Religious congregations and orders 

Class here rules [formerly also 248.89428], monasticism, comprehensive works on 
Christian religious congregations and orders 

Use 255.001-255.009 for standard subdivisions 

When adding from 271 to indicate kinds of orders or specific orders, add only the 
notation for the kind or order. Do not use the footnote instruction to add as 
instructed under 271, but add notation from the table under 255.1-255.7 if it 
applies, or add notation 01-09 from Table 1. For example, the correct number for 
contemplative orders in the United Kingdom is 255.010941 (not 255.01041); for 
Benedictines in the United Kingdom 255.100941 (not 255.1041) 

Class guides to Christian life for persons in religious orders in 248.894, specific 
types of activity of religious congregations and orders with the activity, e.g., 
sponsoring religious camps 259.8, missionary work 266 

For religious congregations and orders in church organization, see 262.24; in 
church history, 271 

.01-.09 Specific kinds 

Add to base number 255.0 the numbers following 271.0 in 271.01-271.09 
for the kind only, e.g., contemplative orders 255.01; then add notation 
01-09 from Table 1, e.g., contemplative orders in the United Kingdom 
255.010941 

Fuller instructions for use of the add note are given at 255 

.1-.7 Roman Catholic orders of men 

Add to base number 255 the numbers following 271 in 271.1-271.7 for the 
order only, e.g., Benedictines 255.1; then, for each order having its own 
number, add further as follows (not as instructed at 271), e.g., Benedictines in 
the United Kingdom 255.100941, the rule of St. Benedict 255.106: 

001-009 Standard subdivisions 

02 Constitutions 

04 Statutes, ordinances, customs 

06 Rule 

Fuller instructions for use of the add note are given at 255 
.8 Non-Roman Catholic orders of men 

.9 Congregations and orders of women 

Class here rules [formerly also 248.89438] 

Use 255.9001-255.9009 for standard subdivisions 

.901-. 909 Specific kinds 

Add to base number 255.90 the numbers following 271.0 in 
271.01-271.09 for the kind only, e.g., contemplative orders 255.901; 
then add notation 01-09 from Table 1, e.g., contemplative orders in the 
United Kingdom 255.9010941 

Fuller instructions for use of the add note are given at 255 



168 






255 Local Christian church and religious orders 255 

.9 1 - .97 Roman Catholic orders of women 

Add to base number 255.9 the numbers following 271.9 in 271.91-271.97 
for the order only, e.g., Dominican sisters 255.972; then, for each order 
having its own number, add further as instructed under 255.1-255.7 (not as 
instructed at 271), e.g., Dominicans in the United Kingdom 255.97200941, 
the rule of the Dominicans 255.97206 

Fuller instructions for use of the add note are given at 255 

.98 Non-Roman Catholic orders of women 

[256] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 14 

[257] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 14 

[258] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 17 

259 Activities of the local church 

Former heading: Parochial activities by parishes and religious orders 

Not provided for elsewhere 

Class here activities designed to promote religious and social welfare of social 
groups in community 

Class works limited to social welfare work by religious organizations in 361.75 

See Manual at 251-254, 259 vs. 260 

.08 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

[.083] Young people 

Do not use; class in 259.2 

.084 Persons in specific stages of adulthood 

[.084 6] Late adulthood 

Do not use; class in 259.3 

.086 Persons by social and economic characteristics 

[.086 92] Asocial and antisocial persons 

Do not use; class in 259.5 

.087 Gifted persons 

Class handicapped and ill persons in 259.4 

[.088 375] Students 

Do not use; class in 259.2 

.1 Activities with families 



169 



259 Dewey Decimal Classification 259 

.2 Activities with young people 

Class activities with sick and handicapped young people in 259.4, with young 
delinquents in 259.5 

.22 With children 

Through age eleven 
.23 With young adults 

Ages twelve through seventeen; junior-high-school and high-school students 

Class activities with college students in 259.24 

.24 With college students 

.3 Activities with persons in late adulthood 

Class activities with sick and handicapped persons in late adulthood in 259.4 

.4 Activities with handicapped and ill 

Class here hospital chaplaincy, programs for visiting the sick 

.5 Activities with delinquents and criminals 

Class here pastoral methods in prisons [formerly 253.75], prison chaplaincy, 
activities with asocial and antisocial persons 

.6 Activities with the bereaved 

[.7] Pastoral methods 

Relocated to 253.7 
.8 Specific types of activity 

Including recreational and camp programs 

Class activities with specific classes of people in 259.2-259.6, revival and 
camp meetings in 269.24, retreats in 269.6 

260 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 

Institutions, services, observances, disciplines, work of Christianity and the 
Christian church 

Class here comprehensive works on the Christian church 

For local church and religious orders, see 250; denominations and sects, 280 

See Manual at 251-254, 259 vs. 260 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of the Christian church in 
270 



170 



261 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 261 





SUMMARY 


261 


Social theology and interreligious relations and attitudes 


262 


Ecclesiology 


263 


Days, times, places of religious observance 


264 


Public worship 


265 


Sacraments, other rites and acts 


266 


Missions 


267 


Associations for religious work 


268 


Religious education 


269 


Spiritual renewal 



261 Social theology and interreligious relations and attitudes 

Attitude of Christianity and the Christian church toward and influence on secular 
matters, attitude toward other religions, interreligious relations 

Class here Christianity and culture 

Class sociology of religion in 306.6 

.1 Role of the Christian church in society 

Class specific socioeconomic problems in 261.8 

.2 Christianity and other systems of belief 

.21 Christianity and irreligion 

Including Christianity and communism, Christianity and the apostate and 
indifferent 

.22-. 29 Christianity and other religions 

Add to base number 261.2 the numbers following 29 in 292-299, e.g., 
Christianity and Islam 261.27 

.5 Christianity and secular disciplines 

See Manual at 261 . 5 
.51 Philosophy, logic, related disciplines 

Including paranormal phenomena and arts 
.515 Psychology 

.52 Communications media 

Attitude toward and use 

Class a specific use of communications media by the church with the use, 
e.g., in parish administration 254.3 

.55 Science 

Class the relation of scientific and Christian views on creation in 23 1 .765 

.56 Technology 

.561 Medicine 

.57 Art 



171 



261 Dewey Decimal Classification 261 

.58 Literature 

.7 Christianity and political affairs 

Including civil war and revolution 

Class here Christianity and civil rights 

Class Christianity and international affairs in 261.87 

See Manual at 322. 1 vs. 261. 7, 291.177 

.72 Religious freedom 

.73 Theocracy 

Supremacy of church over civil government 

.8 Christianity and socioeconomic problems 

Class here comprehensive works on the Christian view of socioeconomic and 
political affairs 

For Christianity and political affairs, see 261.7 

See also 361.75 for welfare services of religious organizations 

See Manual at 261 . 8 vs. 241 

.83 Social problems 

.832 Social welfare problems and services 

Add to base number 261.832 the numbers following 362 in 362.1-362.5, 
e.g., the Christian attitude toward alcoholism 261.832292 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on social welfare problems 
and crime discontinued; class in 261.8 



.833 Crime 



Add to base number 261.833 the numbers following 364 in 364.1-364.8, 
e.g., the Christian attitude toward treason 261.833131, toward capital 
punishment 261.83366 



.834 Social structure 



Add to base number 261.834 the numbers following 305 in 305.2-305.8, 
e.g., the Christian attitude toward women 261.8344; however, class 
Christianity in relation to other religions in 261.22-261.29 



.835 Relation of the sexes, marriage, family 



Add to base number 261.835 the numbers following 306 in 306.7-306.8, 
e.g., the Christian attitude toward homosexuality 261.835766 

.836 Ecology and population 

Add to base number 261.836 the numbers following 304 in 304.2-304.8, 
e.g., the Christian attitude toward abuse of the environment 261.83628 

.85 The economic order 

Including management of business enterprises 



172 



261 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 261 

.87 International affairs 

.873 War and peace 

.873 2 Nuclear weapons and nuclear war 

262 Ecclesiology 

Church government, organization, nature 
See Manual at 251-254, 259 vs. 260 

SUMMARY 

262.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .09 Government and organization of specific denominations and sects 

.1 Governing leaders of churches 

.2 Local church in church organization 

.3 Government and organization of systems governed by papacy and 

episcopacy 
.4 Government and organization of systems governed by election 

.5 General councils 

.7 Nature of the church 

.8 Church and ministerial authority and its denial 

.9 Church law and discipline 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

.001 1 Ecumenicalism 

Do not use for systems; class in 262.001 
Class the history of the ecumenical movement in 270.82 
See Manual at 280. 042 vs. 270. 82, 262. 0011 

.001 7 Church renewal 

.002- .005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations and management 

.006 8 Management 

Do not use notation 068 from Table 1 by itself in 262; however, add 
notation 0681-0688 as appropriate for particular aspects of 
administration, e.g., financial administration of the Anglican church 
262.030681 

.007- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 -.09 Government and organization of specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 262.0 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
government and organization of the United Methodist Church 262.076 



173 



262 Dewey Decimal Classification 262 

.1 Governing leaders of churches 

Authority, function, role 

Class biography of church leaders in 270, of leaders of specific denominations 
in 280 

See Manual at 209.2 

. 1 1 Apostolic succession 



262.12-262.15 Governing leaders by rank 
Class comprehensive works in 262. 1 
. 1 2 Bishops and archbishops 

. 1 3 Popes and patriarchs 



262.131-262.136 Popes and their administration 

Class comprehensive works in 262.13 

.131 Papal infallibility 

.132 Temporal power of the pope 

. 1 35 College of Cardinals 

. 1 36 Administration 

Including congregations, tribunals, offices of Curia Romana, Synod of 
Bishops 

For the College of Cardinals, see 262. 135 

.14 Local clergy 

Class here the ordination of women 

Add to base number 262.14 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
local Methodist clergy 262.147 

.15 Laity 

Body of church members 



262.17-262.19 Governing leaders by system of government 

Class comprehensive works in 262. 1 , leaders by rank in a specific system of 
government in 262.12-262.15 

. 1 7 Governing leaders in papal and episcopal systems 

. 1 8 Governing leaders in presbyterian systems 

.19 Governing leaders in congregational systems 



174 



262 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 262 

.2 Local church in church organization 

Class government and administration of parishes in 254, of religious 
congregations and orders in 255 

See Manual at 251-254, 259 vs. 260 
.22 Parishes 

.24 Religious congregations and orders 

.26 Small groups 

Example: basic Christian communities 



262.3-262.4 Specific forms of church organization 

Class comprehensive works in 262, comprehensive works on government and 
organization of specific denominations and sects regardless of form of 
organization in 262.01-262.09, a specific aspect of government and 
organization with the aspect, e.g., parishes 262.22 

.3 Government and organization of systems governed by papacy and 

episcopacy 

Examples: sees, dioceses, cathedral systems 

.4 Government and organization of systems governed by election 

Examples: congregational systems, presbyteries, synods 

.5 General councils 

Add to base number 262.5 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church 262.52 

Class legal acts of general councils in 262.9, nonlegal decrees on a specific 
subject with the subject, e.g., statements on original sin 233.14 

.7 Nature of the church 

Including God's relation to the church 

.72 Attributes, marks, notes 

Examples: apostolicity, catholicity, credibility, holiness, infallibility, 
necessity, visibility and invisibility, unity 

.73 Communion of saints 

.77 Mystical body of Christ 

.8 Church and ministerial authority and its denial 

Including heresy, schism 



175 



262 Dewey Decimal Classification 262 

.9 Church law and discipline 

Class here canon (ecclesiastical) law 

Class civil law relating to church or religious matters in 340 

See also 364. 188 for offenses against religion as defined and penalized by 
the state 



262.91-262.94 Roman Catholic 

Class comprehensive works in 262.9 

.9 1 Acts of the Holy See 

Examples: apostolic letters, briefs, encyclicals, papal bulls and decrees 

Class acts on specific subjects with the subject, e.g., on the nature of the 
church 262.7 

.92 Early Roman Catholic codes 

.922 To Gratian, ca. 1 140 

.923 Corpus iuris canonici 

.924 Quinque compilationes antiquae 

.93 Codex iuris canonici (1917) 

.931 General principles (Canons 1-86) 

.932 Persons (Canons 87-725) 

Clergy, religious, laity 

.933 Things (Canons 726- 1551) 

Including sacraments, sacred times and places, worship, teaching office, 
benefices, temporal goods 

.934 Procedure (Canons 1552-2194) 

Including trials, cases of beatification and canonization 

.935 Crimes and penalties (Canons 2195-2414) 

.94 Codex iuris canonici (1983) 

.98 Branches and other denominations 

Add to base number 262.98 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Anglican ecclesiastical law 262.983 



776 



263 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 263 

263 Days, times, places of religious observance 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Holy places 

Add to base number 263.042 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., Santiago 
de Compostela 263.042461 1 

Class works treating miracles and the shrines associated with them in 
231.73; miracles associated with Mary and the shrines associated with 
them in 232.917; miracles of Jesus and shrines associated with them in 
232.955; pilgrimages in 248.463 



> 263.1-263.4 Sabbath and Sunday 

Class comprehensive works in 263 
.1 Biblical Sabbath 

.2 Observance of the seventh day 

.3 Sunday 

For Sunday observance, see 263.4 
.4 Sunday observance 

.9 Church year and other days and times 

Standard subdivisions are added for the church year 
See Manual at 394.2682 vs. 263.9, 290 
.91 Advent and Christmas 

.92 Lent and Holy Week 

.93 Easter 

.97 Other feast and fast days 

Examples: Ascension Day, Ember Days, Rogation Days 
For specific saints' days, see 263.98 
.98 Specific saints' days 

264 Public worship 

Ceremonies, rites, services (liturgy and ritual) 

Class comprehensive works on worship in 248.3; works not limited by 
denomination or sect about sacraments, other rites and acts in 265; Sunday school 
services in 268.7 



777 



264 Dewey Decimal Classification 264 





SUMMARY 


1.001 


-.009 Standard subdivisions 


.01- 


.09 By denominations and sects 


.1 


Prayer 


.2 


Music 


.3 


Scripture readings and communion sacrament 


.4 


Responsive readings 


.5 


Creeds and confessions of faith 


.6 


Sermons, exhortations, instructions 


.7 


Prayer meetings, Holy Hours, novenas 


.9 


Sacramentals 



.001 Philosophy and theory 

Class here liturgical renewal 
.002- .009 Standard subdivisions 



264.01-264.09 By denominations and sects 

Class here works limited by denomination or sect about sacraments, other rites 
and acts [formerly 265] 

Class comprehensive works in 264; comprehensive works on sacraments, other 
rites and acts in 265 

.01 Early and Eastern churches 

Add to base number 264.01 the numbers following 281 in 281.1-281.9, e.g., 
liturgy and ritual of Eastern Orthodox churches 264.019; then add further 
from the table under 264.04-264.09, e.g., Eastern Orthodox Mass 
264.019036 

.02 Roman Catholic Church 

Use 264.02001-264.02009 for standard subdivisions 

.020 1-.020 9 History, meaning, place of liturgy, ritual, prayers in public worship 

Add to base number 264.02 notation 01-09 from the table under 
264.04-264.09, e.g., the Mass 264.02036; however, class texts in 
264.021-264.029 



264.021-264.029 Texts of liturgy, ritual, prayers 

Class comprehensive works in 264.02 

.02 1 Texts of calendars and ordos 

.022 Texts of ceremonials 

Ceremonials: canonization of saints, election and coronation of popes, 
creation of cardinals, other papal functions and services; instructions for 
bishops 



178 



264 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 264 

.023 Texts of missals 

Class here sacramentaries 

For lectionary, see 264.029 

.024 Texts of breviaries 

For psalters, see 264.028; lectionary, 264.029 

.025 Texts of ritual 

Class here Pontificate Romanum, Rituale Romanum 

Add to base number 264.025 the numbers following 265 in 265.1-265.7, 
e.g., text of baptism 264.0251 

.027 Texts of special books 

.027 2 For special times of year 

Example: Holy Week 

.027 4 For special liturgical services 

Examples: funeral services outside the Mass, litanies, novenas, 
stations of the cross 

.028 Texts of psalters 

.029 Texts of the lectionary 

.03 Anglican churches 

Class here the Book of Common Prayer 

Use 264.03001-264.03009 for standard subdivisions 

.030 1-.030 9 History, meaning, place of liturgy, ritual, prayers in public worship 

Add to base number 264.03 notation 01-09 from the table under 
264.04-264.09, e.g., prayer 264.0301; however, class texts in 
264.031-264.038 



264.031-264.038 Texts of liturgy, ritual, prayers 

Class comprehensive works in 264.03 

.03 1 Texts of calendars, festivals, fasts 

.032 Texts of the lectionary and rubrics 

.033 Texts of morning prayer and litany 

.034 Texts of evening prayer and vespers 

.035 Texts of sacraments, ordinances, services 

Add to base number 264.035 the numbers following 265 in 265.1-265.7, 
e.g., text of baptism 264.0351 

Class texts of morning prayer and litany in 264.033, texts of evening 
prayer and vespers in 264.034 



179 



264 Dewey Decimal Classification 264 

.036 Texts of collects, epistles, Gospels 

.037 Texts of ordinal, articles, creeds 

.038 Texts of psalters 

.04- .09 Other specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 264.0 the numbers following 28 in 284-289, e.g., 
United Methodist services 264.076; then add further as follows: 
001-009 Standard subdivisions 
01-07 Specific elements 

History, meaning, place in public worship, texts 
Add to the numbers following 264 in 264.1-264.7, e.g., 
the Lord's Supper 036, the Lord's Supper in the United 
Methodist Church 264.076036 
081-087 Sacraments 

History, meaning, place in public worship, texts 
Add to 08 the numbers following 265 in 265.1-265.7, 
e.g., the ceremony of baptism 081, the ceremony of 
baptism in the United Methodist Church 264.076081; 
however, class the Eucharist, Holy Communion, Lord's 
Supper, Mass in 036 
09 Sacramentals, other rites and acts 

History, meaning, place in public worship, texts 
091 Sacramentals 

098-099 Other rites and acts 

Add to 09 the numbers following 265 in 265.8-265.9, 
e.g., funeral services 0985, United Methodist funerals 
264.0760985 



264.1-264.9 Specific elements 

History, meaning, place in public worship, texts 

Class comprehensive works in 264, specific elements in the public worship of 
specific denominations and sects in 264.01-264.09 

Specific elements as part of the Mass are classed in 264.36, e.g., Eucharistic 
prayers (not 264. 1 ) 

.1 Prayer 

.13 Texts of prayers 

Including litanies 

Class comprehensive collections of public and private prayers in 242.8 

.2 Music 

Class here comprehensive works on texts of hymns 

Class interdisciplinary works on Christian sacred music in 78 1 .7 1 , on sacred 
vocal music in 782.22, on hymns in 782.27; texts of hymns for devotional use 
of individuals and families in 245 



180 



264 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 264 

.3 Scripture readings and communion sacrament 

.34 Scripture readings 

Class here the common lectionary 
.36 Eucharist, Holy Communion, Lord's Supper, Mass 

Including specific elements when part of the Mass 
For viaticum, see 265. 7 
.4 Responsive readings 

.5 Creeds and confessions of faith 

Class texts in 238 
.6 Sermons, exhortations, instructions 

Class texts of sermons in 252 
.7 Prayer meetings, Holy Hours, novenas 

.9 Sacramentals 

For consecrations and dedications, see 265. 92 

265 Sacraments, other rites and acts 

Not limited by denomination or sect 

Works limited by denomination or sect about sacraments, other rites and acts 
relocated to 264.01-264.09 





265.1-265.7 Sacraments 




Class comprehensive works in 265 




For Eucharist, Holy Communion, Lord's Supper, Mass, see 264.36 


.1 


Baptism 


.12 


Infant 


.13 


Adult 




Class here Christian initiation (baptism and confirmation) of adults, 
catechumenate 




For confirmation, see 265.2 


.2 


Confirmation 


.4 


Holy Orders 


.5 


Matrimony 


.6 


Penance 


.61 


Contrition 




Examination of conscience, prayers preparatory to confession 


.62 


Confession 




181 



265 Dewey Decimal Classification 265 

.63 Satisfaction 

Penitential prayers and acts for the remission of sin 
.64 Absolution 

.66 Indulgences 

.7 Viaticum and anointing of the sick 

.8 Rites in illness and death 

.82 Religious ceremonies for the afflicted 

For viaticum and anointing of the sick, see 265. 7 
.85 Religious ceremonies for the dead 

Class here funeral services 

Class the requiem Mass in 264.36 

.9 Other acts 

Examples: love feasts (agapes), foot washing, laying on of hands, ceremonies of 
joining a church 

.92 Consecrations and dedications 

.94 Exorcism 

266 Missions 

Class here missionary societies, religious aspects of medical missions 

Class medical services of medical missions in 362.1 

For mission schools, see 377. 6 

.001-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here joint and interdenominational missions; foreign missions by 
continent, country, locality served 

Class foreign missions originating in specific continents, countries, 
localities in 266.023; historical, geographical, persons treatment of 
missions of specific denominations and sects in 266.1-266.9 



.02 


Kinds of missions 


.022 


Home missions 


.023 


Foreign missions 



Add to base number 266.023 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., missions 
originating in France 266.02344; then add 0* and again add notation 1-9 
from Table 2 for place served, e.g., French missions to Africa 
266.0234406 

Class foreign missions characterized only by place served in 266.009 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



182 



266 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 266 

.1-.9 Of specific denominations and sects 

Add to base number 266 the numbers following 28 in 281-289, e.g., 
Seventh-Day Adventist missions 266.6732; Anglican missions serving Africa 
266.36 

267 Associations for religious work 

For pious societies, see 248.06; religious congregations and orders, 255; 
missionary societies, 266 

See Manual at 209.2 

.1 Of both men and women 

. 1 3 Interdenominational and nondenominational 

For Moral Rearmament, see 267. 16 

[. 1 5] Salvation Army 

Relocated to 287.96 

. 1 6 Moral Rearmament 

.18 Of specific branches, denominations, and sects 

Add to base number 267.18 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Baptist Adult Union 267.186132 

.2 Of men 

.23 Interdenominational and nondenominational 

For Young Men's Christian Associations, see 267.3 

.24 Of specific branches, denominations, and sects 

Add to base number 267.24 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Baptist societies 267.246 

.3 Young Men's Christian Associations 

.308 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Class here work among special classes {formerly also 267.36] 
[.309] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 267.39 

.31 Program and objectives 

.32 Buildings and equipment 

.33 Organization and administration 

.34 Staff 

.35 Departments 

Examples: religious, educational, physical, boys' departments 



183 



267 Dewey Decimal Classification 267 

[.36] Work among special classes 

Relocated to 267.308 

.39 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 267.39 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., Young Men's 
Christian Association in New York City 267.397471 

.4 Of women 

.43 Interdenominational and nondenominational 

For Young Women's Christian Associations, see 267.5 

.44 Of specific branches, denominations, and sects 

Add to base number 267.44 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Baptist societies 267.446 

.5 Young Women's Christian Associations 

Add to base number 267.5 the numbers following 267.3 in 267.308-267.39, 
e.g., staff 267.54 

.6 Of young adults 

.61 Interdenominational and nondenominational 

For Young Men's Christian Associations, see 267.3; Young Women's 
Christian Associations, 267.5 

.613 Young People ' s Society of Christian Endeavor 

.62 Of specific branches, denominations, and sects 

Add to base number 267.62 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Baptist Young People's Union 267.626132 

.7 Of boys 

For Young Men's Christian Associations, see 267.3 
.8 Of girls 

For Young Women's Christian Associations, see 267.5 

268 Religious education 

Class here comprehensive works on Christian religious education \formerly 207], 
catechetics (the science or art devoted to organizing the principles of religious 
teaching), curriculums 

Class religious education at the university level in 207.1 1, in secular secondary 
schools in 207.12; religion and secular education in 377.1; textbooks on a specific 
subject with the subject, e.g., on missions 266 

See Manual at 207 vs. 268 

[.068] Management 

Do not use; class in 268.1 



184 



268 Christian social and ecclesiastical theology 268 

.08 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Class education of specific groups in 268.4 
.1 Administration 

Class plant management in 268.2, personnel management in 268.3 
.2 Buildings and equipment 

.3 Personnel 

Class here preparation, role, training, personnel management 
See Manual at 209.2 
A Religious education of specific groups 

Former heading: Teaching departments and divisions 

Class here curriculums, records and rules, teaching methods, services for 
specific groups 

.43 Specific age groups 

.432 Children 

Through age twelve 

(Option: Class here elementary textbooks on specific subjects; prefer the 
specific subject, e.g., on missions 266) 

See also 372.84 for religion courses in secular elementary schools 

.433 Young people 

Class here Christian education in secondary schools, secondary school 
courses in schools run under church auspices [formerly 207.12] 

Secondary schools under church auspices and their courses in specific 
continents, countries, localities in the modern world [formerly 
207.4-207.9] are classed in 268.433094-268.433099 

.434 Adults 

[.435] Home departments 

Number discontinued; class in 268.4 

.5 Records and rules 

Including attendance, decorations, honor rolls, prizes, promotion 

Class records and rules for specific groups in 268.4 
.6 Methods of instruction and study 

Use of this number for curriculums, catechetics discontinued; class in 268 

Class methods for specific groups in 268.4 
.61 Value and use of textbooks 



185 



268 Dewey Decimal Classification 268 

.62 Textbook method 

For value and use of textbooks, see 268.61 
.63 Lecture and audiovisual methods 

.632 Lecture method 

.635 Audiovisual methods 

.67 Dramatic method 

.68 Laboratory methods 

.7 Services 

Including anniversaries, festivals, music, order of service, rallies, special days 

Class services for specific groups in 268.4 

.8 Specific branches, denominations, and sects 

Add to base number 268.8 the numbers following 28 in 280.2-289.9, e.g., 
Presbyterian religious education 268.85 

Class specific elements in religious education by specific denominations and 
sects in 268.1-268.7 

269 Spiritual renewal 

.2 Evangelism 

Class here comprehensive works on evangelism 

Class evangelistic writings for individuals and families in 243, witness bearing 
by individual lay Christians in 248.5, texts of evangelistic sermons in 252.3, 
missionary evangelization in 266 

.24 Revival and camp meetings 

.26 Evangelism by radio and television 

.4 Pentecostalism 

Class history of the pentecostal movement in 270.82 

.6 Retreats 

Add to base number 269.6 the numbers following 248.8 in 248.82-248.89, e.g., 
retreats for men 269.642 



186 



270 Church history 270 

270 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of 
organized Christian church (Church history) 

Class here the collected writings of the apostolic and church fathers (patristics) 
{formerly 281.1-281.4] 

Observe table of precedence under 230-280 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of specific denominations and 
sects in 280 

See Manual at 209.2 

SUMMARY 

270.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1-.8 Historical periods 

271 Religious congregations and orders in church history 

272 Persecutions in general church history 

273 Doctrinal controversies and heresies in general church history 

274 Christian church in Europe 

275 Christian church in Asia 

276 Christian church in Africa 

277 Christian church in North America 

278 Christian church in South America 

279 Christian church in other parts of the world 

.01-.06 Standard subdivisions 

.07 Education, research, related topics 

.072 Research 

Class here historiography {formerly also 270.09] 
.08 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

.09 Areas, regions, places in general, persons 

Historiography relocated to 270.072 
[.093- .099] Geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 274-279 



270.1-270.8 Historical periods 

Class comprehensive works in 270 
See Manual at 281 . 1-281 . 4 
.1 Apostolic period to 325 

.2 Period of ecumenical councils, 325-787 

.3 Period of struggle between papacy and empire, 787-1054 

.38 Great schism, 1054 

.4 Period of papal supremacy, 1054-1200 



187 



270 Dewey Decimal Classification 270 

.5 Late Middle Ages through the Renaissance, 1200-1517 

.6 Period of Reformation and Counter-Reformation, 1517-1648 

Including 17th century 

Class 1648-1699 in 270.7 

.7 Period from Peace of Westphalia through the French Revolution, 

1648-1789 

.8 Modern period, 1789- 

.81 1789-1900 

.82 1900- 

Class here ecumenical, pentecostal, charismatic movements 

Add to base number 270.82 the numbers following —0904 in notation 
09041-09049 from Table 1, e.g., 1960-1969 in church history 270.826 

See Manual at 280.042 vs. 270. 82, 262.0011 



> 271-273 Special topics of church history 

Class comprehensive works in 270 

271 Religious congregations and orders in church history 

Use 271.001-271.009 for standard subdivisions 

Add Of to notation for each term identified by *, and to the result add notation 1-9 
from Table 2, e.g., collected biography of Benedictines 271.1022, Benedictines in 
the United Kingdom 271.1041 

Class persecutions involving religious congregations and orders in 272, doctrinal 
controversies and heresies involving congregations and orders in 273 





SUMMARY 


.01-.09 


Specific kinds 


.1 


Benedictines 


.2 


Dominicans (Friars Preachers, Black Friars) 


.3 


Franciscans (Gray Friars) 


.4 


Augustinians 


.5 


Regular clerics 


.6 


Passionists and Redemptorists 


.7 


Roman Catholic orders of men not otherwise provided for 


.8 


Non-Roman Catholic orders of men 


.9 


Congregations and orders of women 



> 271.01-271.09 Specific kinds 

Class comprehensive works in 27 1 

.01 *Contemplative 

*Add as instructed under 271 

t Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 

188 





Church history 


.02 


*Eremitical 


.03 


♦Teaching 


.04 


♦Preaching 


.05 


♦Military 




Class specific orders of knighthood in 271.791 


.06 


♦Mendicant 


.07 


♦Nursing 


.08 


♦Canons regular 


.09 


Other 


.092 


♦Brothers 




See also 271.093 for lay brothers 


.093 


♦Lay brothers 


.094 


♦Third orders 




Secular and regular 


.095 


♦Secular institutes 



271 



271.1-271.8 Specific orders of men 

Class comprehensive works in 271 





271.1-271.7 Roman Catholic orders of men 




Class comprehensive works in 27 1 


.1 


♦Benedictines 


.11 


♦Confederated Benedictines 




For Olivetans, see 271.13 


.12 


♦Cistercians (Bernardines) 


.125 


♦Trappists 


.13 


♦Olivetans 


.14 


♦Cluniacs 




Including Camaldolese, Silvestrians, Monks of Saint Paul the Hermit 




For Carthusians, see 271.71 


.16 


♦Celestines 


.17 


Mechitarists and Basilians 



*Add as instructed under 271 



189 



27 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 27 1 



.18 


Antonines (Antonians), Maronites, Chaldeans, Syrians 


.19 


*Canons 




Examples: Crosier Fathers, Crosiers of the Red Star, Premonstratensians 




Class Augustinians in 271.4 


.2 


♦Dominicans (Friars Preachers, Black Friars) 


.3 


♦Franciscans (Gray Friars) 




Including Alcantarines, Observants, Recollects 




See also 271.4 for Augustinian Recollects 


.36 


♦Capuchins 


.37 


♦Conventuals 


.38 


♦Third Order Regular 


.4 


♦Augustinians 




Including Augustinian Recollects 


.42 


♦Trinitarians 


.45 


♦Mercedarians 


.47 


♦Servites 


.49 


Other Augustinians 




Examples: Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God, Minims 




Teutonic Knights relocated to 271.7914 


.5 


♦Regular clerics 


.51 


♦Theatines 


.52 


♦Barnabites 


.53 


♦Jesuits (Society of Jesus) 


.54 


♦Somaschi 


.55 


♦Camillians 


.56 


♦Minor Clerks Regular (Caracciolini) 


.57 


♦Clerks Regular of the Mother of God 


.58 


♦Piarists 


.6 


♦Passionists and Redemptorists 


.62 


♦Passionists 


.64 


♦Redemptorists 



*Add as instructed under 271 



190 



271 Church history 271 

.7 Roman Catholic orders of men not otherwise provided for 

.71 *Carthusians 

.73 *Carmelites (White Friars) 

.75 *Sulpicians 

.76 *Oblates 

.77 *Lazarists (Vincentians) 

.78 *Christian Brothers (Brothers of the Christian Schools) 

.79 Other Roman Catholic orders of men 

.79 1 *Specific orders of knighthood 

Class comprehensive works on orders of knighthood in 27 1 .05 

.791 2 * Knights of Malta (Knights Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem) 

.791 3 *Knights Templars 

.79 1 4 *Teutonic Knights {formerly 27 1 .49] 

.8 Non-Roman Catholic orders of men 

.9 Congregations and orders of women 

.900 1 - .900 08 Standard subdivisions 

.900 09 Historical treatment 

[.900 09 1- .900 099] Geographical and persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 271.9001-271.9009 

.900 1-.900 9 Geographical and persons treatment 

Add to base number 271.900 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
collected biography of women religious 271.90022, congregations 
and orders of women in France 271.90044 

.901-.909 Specific kinds 

Add to base number 271.90 the numbers following 271.0 in 
271.01-271.09, e.g., contemplative orders 271.901 



271.91-271.98 Specific orders of women 
Class comprehensive works in 27 1 .9 



> 27 1 .91-27 1 .97 Roman Catholic orders of women 

Class comprehensive works in 27 1 .9 

.9 1 *Sisters of Charity orders 

.92 * Sisters of Mercy orders 

*Add as instructed under 271 

191 



271 Dewey Decimal Classification 271 

.93 * Sacred Heart orders 

.94 *Sisters of Bon Secours 

.95 *Little Sisters of the Poor 

.97 Other Roman Catholic orders of women 

.971 *Carmelites 

.972 *Dominicans 

.973 *Franciscan orders 

Example: Poor Clares 

.974 *Ursulines 

.975 *Visitation orders 

.976 * Saint Joseph orders 

.977 *Presentation orders 

.98 Non-Roman Catholic orders of women 

272 Persecutions in general church history 

Regardless of denomination 

Class here martyrs 

Class relation of state to church in 322.1 

See also 364. 188 for offenses against religion as defined and penalized by the 
state 

.1 Of Apostolic Church by imperial Rome 

.2 By Inquisition 

.3 Of Waldenses and Albigenses 

.4 Of Huguenots 

.5 Of Molinists and Quietists 

.6 Of Anglican reformers by Mary I 

.7 Of Roman Church by Elizabeth I and Anglicans 

.8 Of Quakers, Baptists, witches by Puritans and others of Puritan 

times 

.9 Modern persecutions and martyrs 

273 Doctrinal controversies and heresies in general church 
history 

Class persecutions resulting from controversies and heresies in 272, churches 
founded on specific doctrines in 280 

See also 239 for apologetics and polemics 

*Add as instructed under 271 

192 



273 Church history 273 

.1 lst-2nd centuries 

Class here Christian Gnosticism 

Class Gnosticism of 3rd century in 273.2, comprehensive works and 
non-Christian Gnosticism in 299.932 

.2 3rd century 

Example: Christian Manicheism 

Class comprehensive works and non-Christian Manicheism in 299.932 
For Sabellianism, see 273.3 
.3 Sabellianism 

.4 4th century 

Examples: Arianism, Donatism 
.5 5th century 

Example: Pelagianism 
.6 6th-16th centuries 

Examples: Albigensianism, Catharism, Waldensianism 

Class here antinomianism 

Class later antinomianism in 273.7-273.9 
.7 17th century 

Examples: Jansenism, Molinism, Pietism 
.8 18th century 

Example: agnosticism 
.9 19th century and later centuries 

Examples: materialism, modernism 



> 274-279 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 27 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Christian church in 
Europe 274, in France 274.4; then to the result add the numbers following 27 in 
270.01-270.8, e.g., Christian church in France during the Reformation 274.406 

Class comprehensive works in 270, geographical treatment of a specific subject 
with the subject, using notation 09 from Table 1, e.g., persecutions in France 
272.0944 

274 *Christian church in Europe 

275 *Christian church in Asia 

276 *Christian church in Africa 

*Add as instructed under 274-279 



193 



277 Dewey Decimal Classification 277 

277 *Christian church in North America 

278 *Christian church in South America 

279 *Christian church in other parts of the world 

280 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 

Class here general historical and geographical treatment of, comprehensive works 
on specific denominations and sects and their individual local churches 

(Option: Class here specific elements of specific denominations and sects; prefer 
230-270. If option is chosen, add to the number for each specific denomination, 
sect, group as follows: 

001-008 Standard subdivisions 
[009] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 07 
02 Basic textual sources 

Class Bible in 220 
03-06 Doctrinal, moral, devotional, social, ecclesiastical theology 
Add to the numbers following 2 in 230-260, e.g., the 
denomination and international affairs 06187 
07 Historical and geographical treatment 

Add to 07 the numbers following 27 in 270.1-279, e.g., 20th 
century 07082) 

Class persecution of or by specific churches in 272 

See also 273 for doctrines of specific churches considered as heresies 

See Manual at 280 

SUMMARY 

280.01- .09 [Standard subdivisions] 

.2- .4 Branches 

281 Early church and Eastern churches 

282 Roman Catholic Church 

283 Anglican churches 

284 Protestant denominations of Continental origin and related bodies 

285 Presbyterian churches, Reformed churches centered in America, 

Congregational churches 

286 Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist churches 

287 Methodist churches; churches uniting Methodist and other denominations; 

Salvation Army 
289 Other denominations and sects 

.01-. 03 Standard subdivisions 

.04 Special topics of general applicability 

.042 Relations between denominations 

Class the history of the ecumenical movement in 270.82 

See Manual at 280.042 vs.270.82, 262.0011 

.05- .09 Standard subdivisions 

*Add as instructed under 274-279 



194 



280 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 280 



> 280.2-280.4 Branches 

Class comprehensive works in 280, specific denominations and sects in 
281-289 

.2 Eastern and Roman Catholic churches 

Class specific denominations and sects in 281-282, comprehensive works on 
Roman Catholic Church and Eastern churches in communion with Rome in 282 

.4 Protestant churches and Protestantism 

Class here dissenters, free churches, nonconformists (British context) 
Class specific Protestant denominations in 283-289 

281 Early church and Eastern churches 

Former heading: Primitive and Oriental churches 



281.1-281.4 Early church 

Use these subdivisions only for building other numbers in 230-260, e.g., 
theology in the Ante-Nicene church 230.13; never use them by themselves. Use 
281.1 for building numbers for comprehensive works, e.g., theology in the early 
church 230. 11 

Collected writings of apostolic and church fathers (patristics) relocated to 270 

Class general history in 270.1-270.3, a specific work of an apostolic or church 
father with the subject, e.g., philosophy 189.2 

See Manual at 281 . 1-281 . 4 

.1 Apostolic Church to the time of the great schism, 1054 

For Apostolic Church to 100, see 281.2; Ante-Nicene church, 281.3; 
Post-Nicene church, 281.4 

.2 Apostolic Church to 100 

.3 Ante-Nicene church, 100-325 

.4 Post-Nicene church, 325-1054 

.5 Eastern churches 

Including Catholics of Eastern rites, St. Thomas (Mar Thoma, Syro-Malabar) 
Christians 

For Monophysite churches, see 281.6; Coptic and Ethiopian churches, 
281.7; Nestorian churches, 281.8; Eastern Orthodox churches, 281.9 

.6 Monophysite churches 

Example: Eutychian Church 

For Coptic and Ethiopian churches, see 281 . 7 
.62 Armenian 



195 



28 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 28 1 

.63 Jacobite 

Class here Syrian Orthodox Church, Jacobite Patriarchate of Antioch 

See also 281 . 95691 for Eastern Orthodox Church in Syria 

.7 Coptic (Coptic Orthodox) and Ethiopian (Ethiopian Orthodox) 

churches 

.8 Nestorian churches 

.9 Eastern Orthodox churches 

.909 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 281.94-281.99 {not 
281.9094-281.9099) 

[.93] Specific national churches 

Relocated to 281.94-281.99 

.94-. 99 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here specific national churches [formerly also 281.93] 

Add to base number 281.9 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Russian 
Orthodox Church 281.947, Orthodox Church in America 281.97 

282 Roman Catholic Church 

Class here the Catholic traditionalist movement, comprehensive works on Roman 
Catholic Church and Eastern rite churches in communion with Rome 

Class Eastern rite churches in communion with Rome in 281.5-281.8; modem 
schisms in Roman Catholic Church in 284.8 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 282.4-282.9 (not 
282.094-282.099) 

.4- .9 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 282 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g, Roman Catholic 
Church in Latin America 282.8 



> 283-289 Protestant and other denominations 

Class comprehensive works in 280.4 
See Manual at 283-289 

283 Anglican churches 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 283.4-283.9 (not 
283.094-283.099) 



796 



283 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 283 

.3 Specific branches not in communion with the See of Canterbury 

Example: Reformed Episcopal Church and its affiliates 

National churches in communion with the See of Canterbury relocated to 
283.4-283.9; Church of South India to 287.94 

Class treatment of a specific branch by continent, country, locality in 
283.4-283.9 

See Manual at 283-289 

.4- .9 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here national churches in communion with the See of Canterbury 
{formerly also 283.3] 

Add to base number 283 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Church of England 
283.42, Episcopal Diocese of Long Island 283.74721 

284 Protestant denominations of Continental origin and related 
bodies 

For Baptist churches, see 286. 1-286.5; Church of the New Jerusalem, 289.4; 
Mennonite churches, 289. 7 

SUMMARY 

284.1 Lutheran churches 

.2 Calvinistic and Reformed churches of European origin 

.3 Hussite and Anabaptist churches 

.4 Albigensian, Catharist, Waldensian churches 

.5 Huguenot churches 

.6 Moravian churches 

.8 Modern schisms in Roman Catholic Church 

.9 Arminian and Remonstrant churches 

.1 Lutheran churches 

.109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 284.14-284.19 (not 
284.1094-284.1099) 

(. 1 2) (Permanently unassigned) 

(Optional number used to provide local emphasis or a shorter number for 
Lutheran church in a specific country other than the United States; prefer 
284.14-284.19) 

.13 Specific denominations, branches, synods centered in the United States 

Specific denominations, branches, synods centered outside the United States 
relocated to 284.14-284.19 

Class treatment of specific denominations, branches, synods by continent, 
country, locality in 284.14-284.19 

See Manual at 283-289 

.131 The American Lutheran Church 

.1312 The Evangelical Lutheran Church 

797 



284 Dewey Decimal Classification 284 

.1313 United Evangelical Lutheran Church 

.1314 The Lutheran Free Church 

. 1 32 The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America 

For Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, see 284. 134 

.132 2 The Lutheran Church— Missouri Synod 

For Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, see 284. 1323 

.1323 Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (Slovak) 

.133 The Lutheran Church in America 

.133 2 American Evangelical Lutheran Church 

.133 3 Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church 

.1334 Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church 

.133 5 The United Lutheran Church in America 

. 1 34 Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 

.135 The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 

. 14-. 19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here specific denominations, branches, synods centered outside the 
United States [formerly also 284.13] 

(Option: Class Lutheran churches in a specific country other than the United 
States in 284.12) 

Add to base number 284.1 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Lutheran Church 
of Sweden 284.1485, Memorial Evangelical Lutheran Church of 
Washington, D.C. 284.1753 

See Manual at 284.143 

.2 Calvinistic and Reformed churches of European origin 

Class here comprehensive works on Calvinistic churches, on Reformed 
churches 

For Huguenot churches, see 284.5; Presbyterian churches, 285; Reformed 
churches centered in America, 285. 7 

See also 285. 9 for Puritanism 

.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 284.24-284.29 {not 
284.2094-284.2099) 

[.23] Specific churches and branches 

Relocated to 284.24-284.29 



198 



284 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 284 

.24-. 29 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here specific churches and branches {formerly also 284.23] 

Add to base number 284.2 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Reformed 
churches in Holland 284.2492 

.3 Hussite and Anabaptist churches 

Class here Lollards, Wycliffites 
.4 Albigensian, Catharist, Waldensian churches 

.5 Huguenot churches 

.6 Moravian churches 

For Hussite churches, see 284.3 

.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 284.64-284.69 (not 
284.6094-284.6099) 

.64-. 69 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 284.6 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Moravian 
churches in Germany 284.643 

.8 Modern schisms in Roman Catholic Church 

Examples: Constitutional Church, Gallican schismatic churches, Little Church 
of France, Old Catholic churches, Philippine Independent Church 

.84 Jansenism 

.9 Arminian and Remonstrant churches 

285 Presbyterian churches, Reformed churches centered in 
America, Congregational churches 

SUMMARY 

285.1 Presbyterian churches of United States origin 

.2 Presbyterian churches of British Commonwealth origin 

.7 Reformed churches centered in America 

.8 Congregationalism 

.9 Puritanism 



285.1-285.2 Presbyterian churches of United States, of British 
Commonwealth origin 

Class comprehensive works on Presbyterian churches, Presbyterian churches of 
other origin in 285 

(If option under 280 is followed, use 285.001-285.008 for standard 
subdivisions, 285.02-285.07 for specific elements of Presbyterian churches) 



199 



285 Dewey Decimal Classification 285 

.1 Presbyterian churches of United States origin 

.109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 285.14-285.19 (not 
285.1094-285.1099) 

. 1 3 Specific denominations 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
285.14-285.19 

See Manual at 283-289 

.131 United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 

.132 Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 

.133 Presbyterian Church in the United States 

. 1 34 United Presbyterian Church of North America 

.135 Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

. 1 36 Reformed Presbyterian churches 

. 1 37 Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 

. 1 4- . 1 9 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 285.1 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., the Hudson 
River Presbytery 285.17473 

.2 Presbyterian churches of British Commonwealth origin 

.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 285.24-285.29 (not 
285.2094-285.2099) 

.23 Specific denominations 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 285.24-285.29 

See Manual at 283-289 

.232 United Reformed Church in the United Kingdom 

Class Congregational Church of England and Wales in 285.842 

.233 Church of Scotland 

.234 Free Church of Scotland 

.235 Presbyterian Church of Wales (Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church) 

.24-. 29 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 285.2 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Presbyterianism 
in Ireland 285.2415, a Church of Scotland parish in Edinburgh 285.24134 

Class United Church of Canada in 287.92, Uniting Church in Australia in 
287.93 



200 



285 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 285 

.7 Reformed churches centered in America 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 285.74-285.79 (not 
285.7094-285.7099) 

.73 Specific denominations 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 

285.74-285.79 

See Manual at 283-289 

.731 Christian Reformed Church 

.732 Reformed Church in America (Dutch) 

.733 Reformed Church in the United States (German) 

.734 Evangelical and Reformed Church 

.74-. 79 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 285.7 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., First Reformed 
Church of Schenectady, N.Y. 285.774744 

.8 Congregationalism 

.809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 285.84-285.89 (not 
285.8094-285.8099) 

(.82) (Permanently unassigned) 

(Optional number used to provide local emphasis or a shorter number for 
Congregational churches in a specific country other than the United States; 
prefer 285.84-285.89) 

.83 Specific denominations centered in the United States 

Specific denominations centered outside the United States relocated to 
285.84-285.89 

Class treatment of specific denominations centered in the United States by 
continent, country, locality in 285.84-285.89 

See Manual at 283-289 

.832 Congregational Churches of the United States 

.833 Congregational Christian Churches 

.834 United Church of Christ 

For Evangelical and Reformed Church, see 285. 734 



201 



285 Dewey Decimal Classification 285 

.84-. 89 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here specific denominations centered outside the United States 
{formerly also 285.83] 

(Option: Class Congregational churches in a specific country other than the 
United States in 285.82) 

Add to base number 285.8 notations —4-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
Congregational Church of England and Wales 285.842, Congregational 
churches in New England 285.874 

Class United Church of Canada in 287.92, Uniting Church in Australia in 
287.93 

.9 Puritanism 

286 Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist churches 



286.1-286.5 Baptist churches 

Class comprehensive works in 286 

(If option under 280 is followed, use 286.001-286.008 for standard 
subdivisions, 286.02-286.07 for specific elements of Baptist churches) 

.1 Regular (Calvinistic) Baptists 

. 109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 286.14-286.19 (not 
286.1094-286.1099) 

(.12) (Permanently unassigned) 

(Optional number used to provide local emphasis or a shorter number for 
Regular Baptist churches in a specific country other than the United States; 
prefer 286.14-286.19) 

. 1 3 Specific denominations centered in the United States 

Specific denominations centered outside the United States relocated to 
286.14-286.19 

Class treatment of specific denominations centered in the United States by 
continent, country, locality in 286.14-286.19 

See Manual at 283-289 
.131 American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A. 

Former name: American (Northern) Baptist Convention 
. 1 32 Southern Baptist Convention 

. 1 33 National Baptist Convention of the United States of America 

. 1 34 National Baptist Convention of America 

. 1 35 Progressive National Baptist Convention 



202 



286 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 286 

. 1 36 American Baptist Association 

.14-. 19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Class here specific denominations centered outside the United States 
[formerly also 286.13] 

(Option: Class Regular Baptist churches in a specific country other than the 
United States in 286.12) 

Add to base number 286.1 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Association of 
Regular Baptist Churches of Canada 286.171, a Southern Baptist association 
in Tennessee 286.1768 

.2 Freewill Baptists 

.3 Seventh-Day Baptists 

.4 Old School Baptists 

Examples: Antimission, Hard-Shell, Primitive Baptists 
.5 Other Baptist churches and denominations 

Examples: Baptist General Conference, Church of the Brethren, Dunkers 
.6 Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) 

.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 286.64-286.69 (not 
286.6094-286.6099) 

.63 Specific denominations 

Examples: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Churches of Christ 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
286.64-286.69 

See Manual at 283-289 

.64-. 69 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 286.6 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., the Christian 
Church (Disciples of Christ) in Florida 286.6759 

.7 Adventist churches 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 286.74-286.79 (not 
286.7094-286.7099) 

.73 Specific denominations 

Examples: Advent Christian Church, Church of God General Conference 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
286.74-286.79 

See Manual at 283-289 

.732 Seventh-Day Adventist Church 



203 



286 Dewey Decimal Classification 286 

.74-. 79 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 286.7 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Seventh-Day 
Adventists in South America 286.78 

287 Methodist churches; churches uniting Methodist and other 
denominations; Salvation Army 

SUMMARY 

287.1 Wesleyan Methodist Church 

.2 Miscellaneous Methodist churches 

.4 Primitive Methodist Church 

.5 Methodist churches in the British Isles 

.6 United Methodist Church 

.7 Methodist Protestant Church 

.8 Black Methodist churches of United States origin 

.9 Churches uniting Methodist and other denominations; Salvation Army 

.1 Wesleyan Methodist Church 

.109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 287.14-287.19 (not 
287.1094-287.1099) 

. 14-. 19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 287.1 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Wesleyan 
Methodist Church in New South Wales 287.1944 

.2 Miscellaneous Methodist churches 

Examples: Free Methodist Church of North America, Congregational Methodist 
Church [both formerly 287.97] 

.4 Primitive Methodist Church 

.409 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 287.44-287.49 (not 
287.4094-287.4099) 

.44- .49 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 287.4 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Primitive 
Methodist Church in Kent 287.44223 

.5 Methodist churches in the British Isles 

.509 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by country and locality in 287.54 (not 
287.50941-287.50942) 



204 






287 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 287 

.53 Specific denominations 

Examples: Bible Christians, Methodist New Connexion, Protestant 
Methodists, United Methodist Church, United Methodist Free Churches, 
Wesleyan Conference, Wesleyan Reformers, Yearly Conference of People 
Called Methodists 

Class Wesleyan Methodist Church in British Isles in 287.141, Primitive 
Methodist Church in British Isles in 287.441, treatment of specific 
denominations by country and locality in 287.54 

See Manual at 283-289 

.532 United Conference of Methodist Churches 

.533 Independent Methodists 

.534 Wesleyan Reform Union 

.54 Treatment by country and locality 

Add to base number 287.54 the numbers following —4 in notation 41-42 
from Table 2, e.g., Independent Methodists in Wales 287.5429 

.6 United Methodist Church 

See also 287.53 for United Methodist Church in Great Britain 

.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 287.64-287.69 {not 
287.6094-287.6099) 

.63 Specific antecedent denominations 

Class treatment of specific antecedent denominations by continent, country, 
locality in 287.64-287.69 

For Methodist Protestant Church, see 287. 7; Evangelical United 
Brethren Church, 289.9 

See Manual at 283-289 

.63 1 The Methodist Church (1939-1 968) 

.632 Methodist Episcopal Church 

.633 Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

.64-. 69 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 287.6 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., United 
Methodist churches in Ohio 287.6771 

.7 Methodist Protestant Church 

.8 Black Methodist churches of United States origin 

.809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country,locality in 287.84-287.89 {not 
287.8094-287.8099) 



205 



287 Dewey Decimal Classification 287 

.83 Specific denominations 

Examples: African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
287.84-287.89 

See Manual at 283-289 

.84-. 89 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 287.8 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Black Methodist 
churches in Georgia 287.8758, in Liberia 287.86662 

See Manual at 283-289 

.9 Churches uniting Methodist and other denominations; Salvation 

Army 

.92 United Church of Canada 

.93 Uniting Church in Australia 

.94 Church of South India [formerly 283.3] 

.95 Church of North India 

.96 Salvation Army [formerly 267.15] 

[.97] Free Methodist Church of North America, Congregational Methodist 

Church 

Relocated to 287.2 

[288] Unitarianism, Socinianism, Anti-Trinitarianism 

Relocated to 289.1 

289 Other denominations and sects 

SUMMARY 

289.1 Unitarian and Universalist churches 

.3 Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) 

.4 Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgianism) 

.5 Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) 

.6 Society of Friends (Quakers) 

.7 Mennonite churches 

.8 Shakers (United Society of True Believers in Christ's Second Appearing) 

.9 Others 

.1 Unitarian and Universalist churches 

Class here Unitarianism, Socinianism, Anti-Trinitarianism [all formerly 288] 
. 1 09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.14-289.19 {not 
289.1094-289.1099) 



206 



289 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 289 

. 1 3 Specific denominations 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
289.14-289.19 

See Manual at 283-289 

. 1 32 Unitarian Universalist Association 

. 1 33 Unitarian churches 

. 1 34 Universalist churches 

. 14-. 19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.1 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Unitarianism in 
Boston 289.174461 

(.2) (Permanently unassigned) 

(Optional number used to provide local emphasis or a shorter number for a 
specific denomination or sect; prefer the number for the specific denomination 
or sect in 281-289) 

.3 Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.34-289.39 (not 
289.3094-289.3099) 

.32 Sources (Sacred books) 

.322 Book of Mormon 

.33 Specific branches 

Class treatment of specific branches by continent, country, locality in 
289.34-289.39 

See Manual at 283-289 

.332 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 

.333 Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 

.34-39 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.3 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Mormons in 
Utah 289.3792 

.4 Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgianism) 

.409 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.44-289.49 (not 
289.4094-289.4099) 

.44- .49 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.4 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
Swedenborgianism in Europe 289.44 



207 



289 Dewey Decimal Classification 289 

.5 Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) 

.509 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.54-289.59 {not 
289.5094-289.5099) 

.52 Sources 

Writings by Mary Baker Eddy 

.54-. 59 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.5 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., First Church of 
Christ, Scientist, Boston 289.574461 

.6 Society of Friends (Quakers) 

.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.64-289.69 {not 
289.6094-289.6099) 

.63 Specific denominations 

Class treatment of specific denominations by continent, country, locality in 
289.64-289.69 

See Manual at 283-289 

.64-. 69 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.6 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Quakers in 
England 289.642 

.7 Mennonite churches 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 289.74-289.79 {not 
289.7094-289.7099) 

.73 Specific branches 

Examples: Amish, Church of God in Christ, Defenseless Mennonites, 
General Conference Mennonites, Hutterian Brethren 

Class treatment of specific branches by continent, country, locality in 
289.74-289.79 

See Manual at 283-289 

.74-. 79 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add to base number 289.7 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., Amish churches 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 289.774815 

.8 Shakers (United Society of True Believers in Christ's Second 

Appearing) 



208 



289 Denominations and sects of the Christian church 289 

.9 Others 

Examples: Church of the Nazarene, Churches of God, Dukhobors, Evangelical 
Congregational Church, Evangelical United Brethren Church, Messianic 
Judaism, Plymouth Brethren, United Brethren in Christ 

(Option: Class a specific denomination or sect requiring local emphasis in 
289.2) 

See Manual at 289.9 

.92 Jehovah's Witnesses 

.94 Pentecostal churches 

Examples: Assemblies of God, United Pentecostal Church 

Class the pentecostal movement in general church history in 270.82 

.95 Independent Fundamentalist and Evangelical churches 

Examples: Evangelical Free Church of America, Independent Fundamental 
Churches of America 

Class fundamentalist, evangelical movements in general church history in 
270.82 

.96 Unification Church 

.97 Unity School of Christianity 

.98 New Thought 

Class eclectic New Thought, comprehensive works in 299.93 

290 Comparative religion and religions other than 
Christianity 

See Manual at 290; 394. 2682 vs. 263. 9, 290 

SUMMARY 

291 Comparative religion 

292 Classical (Greek and Roman) religion 

293 Germanic religion 

294 Religions of Indie origin 

295 Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism) 

296 Judaism 

297 Islam and religions originating in it 
299 Other religions 



209 



291 Dewey Decimal Classification 291 

291 Comparative religion 

Class here works dealing with various religions, with religious topics not applied to 
specific religions 

Class treatment of religious topics with respect to natural theology in 210, with 
respect to Christianity in 220-280, with respect to a specific religion other than 
Christianity in 292-299 

(Option: To give preferred treatment or shorter numbers to a specific religion other 
than Christianity, class it in this number, and add to base number 291 the numbers 
following the base number for that religion in 292-299, e.g., Hinduism 291, 
Mahabharata 291.923; if the option is followed, class comparative religion in 290 
and its subdivisions in 290.1-290.9, standard subdivisions in 290.01-290.09. 
Other options are described at 292-299) 

See Manual at 200. 1 vs. 210, 291 ; 291 

SUMMARY 

291.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Religious mythology, social theology, interreligious relations and attitudes 

.2 Doctrines 

.3 Public worship and other practices 

.4 Religious experience, life, practice 

.5 Moral theology 

.6 Leaders and organization 

.7 Missions, religious training and education 

.8 Sources 

.9 Sects and reform movements 

[.012] Classification 

Do not use; class in 291.14 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Prehistoric religions and religions of nonliterate peoples 

[.044] Ancient religions 

Number discontinued; class in 291 

.046 Religions of 19th and 20th century origin 

.06 Organizations 

Class management in 291.6, religious organizations in 291.65 

.07 Education, research, related topics of religions 

Class here education in and teaching of comparative religion, religions as an 
academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on religious education, religious education for 
the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and practice in 291.7 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

See Manual at 291.09 vs. 294, 299.5 



210 



291 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 291 

.1 Religious mythology, social theology, interreligious relations and 

attitudes 

. 1 3 Mythology and mythological foundations 

Stories of primeval history, beings, origins, and customs archetypically 
significant in the sacred life, doctrine, and ritual of religions 

Class sources in 291.8, myths on a specific subject with the subject, e.g., 
creation myths 291.24 

See Manual at 398. 2 vs. 291.13 

. 1 4 Classification of religions 

Class here general classes of religions, e.g., monotheistic, nontheistic, 
pantheistic, polytheistic 

.17 Social theologies and interreligious relations and attitudes 

Attitudes of religions toward and influences on secular matters, attitudes 
toward other religions, interreligious relations 

.171 Role of organized religions in society 

Class specific socioeconomic problems in 291.178 

. 1 72 Interreligious relations 

Including relations of religions with irreligion 

. 1 75 Religions and secular disciplines 

Examples: communications media, literature, psychology, science, 
technology 

.177 Religions and political affairs 

Attitudes toward and influences on political activities and ideologies 

Including civil war and revolution 

Class here religions and civil rights 

Class religions and international affairs in 291.1787 

See Manual at 322. 1 vs. 261. 7, 291.177 

All 2 Religious freedom 

.177 3 Theocracy 

Supremacy of organized religion over civil government 

.178 Religions and socioeconomic problems 

For religions and political affairs, see 291.177 

See also 361.75 for welfare work of religious organizations 



211 



291 Dewey Decimal Classification 291 

.1783 Social problems 

.178 32 Social welfare problems and services 

Add to base number 291.17832 the numbers following 362 in 
362.1-362.5, e.g., attitude of religions toward alcoholism 
291.17832292 



Use of this number for comprehensive works on social welfare 
problems and crime discontinued; class in 291.1783 



178 33 Crime 



Add to base number 291.17833 the numbers following 364 in 
364.1-364.8, e.g., attitude of religions toward treason 
291.17833131, toward capital punishment 291.1783366 



178 34 Social structure 



Add to base number 291.17834 the numbers following 305 in 
305.2-305.8, e.g., attitude of religions toward women 
291.178344; however, class attitudes toward various religions in 
291.172 



178 35 Relation of the sexes, marriage, family 



Add to base number 291.17835 the numbers following 306 in 
306.7-306.8, e.g., attitude of religions toward homosexuality 
291.17835766 



178 36 Ecology and population 



Add to base number 291.17836 the numbers following 304 in 
304.2-304.8, e.g., attitude of religions toward family planning 
291.17836666 



,178 5 


The economic order 




Including management of business enterprises 


,178 7 


International affairs 


,178 73 


War and peace 




Examples: attitude of religions toward paci 
objectors 


,178 732 


Nuclear weapons and nuclear war 


,2 


Doctrines 



Class here comprehensive works on theologians [formerly 291.64]; apologetics, 
polemics 

For social theologies, see 291.17; moral theology, 291.5 
.21 Objects of worship and veneration 

Class here animism, spiritism 
.21 1 God, gods, goddesses, other divinities and deities 

.2113 Male 

.2114 Female 



212 



291 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 291 



.212 


Nature 




Examples: sun, water, fire, trees, sex 


.213 


Persons 




Examples: ancestors, the dead, heroes, monarchs, saints 


.214 


Personified abstractions 


.215 


Good spirits 




Example: angels 


.216 


Evil spirits 




Examples: demons, devils 


.218 


Images 


.22 


Humankind 




Including atonement, creation, repentance, salvation, sin, soul 




Class here comprehensive works on karma 




Class creation of the world in 291 .24; a specific aspect of karma with the 
aspect, e.g., as a concept in Buddhist moral theology 294.35 




For eschatology, see 291.23 


.23 


Eschatology 




Including death, end of the world, heaven, hell, immortality, other worlds, 
punishments, purgatory, resurrection, rewards 


.237 


Reincarnation 


.24 


Creation and cosmology 



For creation of humankind, see 291.22 
.3 Public worship and other practices 

Class comprehensive works on worship in 291.43 
.32 Divination 

Examples: omens, oracles, prophecies 
.33 Witchcraft 

.34 Offerings, sacrifices, penances 

.35 Sacred places 

Examples: grottoes, holy buildings, pagodas, shrines, temples 
.36 Sacred times 

Examples: holy days, liturgic year, religious calendar, religious festivals 
.37 Symbolism, symbolic objects, emblems 

Class here the religious use, significance, purpose of the arts in religions 



213 



291 Dewey Decimal Classification 291 

.38 Rites and ceremonies 

Conduct and texts 

Examples: liturgy, music, processions, public feasts and fasts, public prayer 

Class offerings, sacrifices, penances in 291.34; interdisciplinary works on 
sacred music in 781.7, on sacred vocal music in 782.22 

.4 Religious experience, life, practice 

.42 Religious experience 

Examples: conversion, enlightenment, moral renewal and commitment 

.422 Mysticism 

.43 Worship 

Description, interpretation, criticism, history, practical works on prayer, 
meditation, contemplation 

Including devotional texts 

Class here comprehensive works on worship 

For public worship, see 291.3 

.44 Religious life and practice 

Including religious training of children in the home [formerly also 649 .7] 

For worship, see 291.43; moral theology, 291.5 

.446 Individual observances 

Examples: almsgiving, ceremonial and ritual observances, observance of 
restrictions and limitations, pilgrimages 

.447 Asceticism 

Including practice of celibacy, fasting and abstinence, poverty, solitude 

.448 Guides to religious life 

.5 Moral theology 

Including conscience, duties, sins, vices, virtues 

.56 Specific moral issues 

Add to base number 291.56 the numbers following 17 in 172-179, e.g., 
morality of discriminatory practices 291.5675; however, virtues and vices 
are classed in 291.5 



214 



291 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 291 

.6 Leaders and organization 



291.61-291.64 Leaders and their work 

Class here role, function, duties 

Do not use notation 092 from Table 1 with 291.6 or its subdivisions 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, 
e.g., clergy who are religious writers 291.61 (not 291.64) 

Divinely inspired persons 29 1 .63 

Persons endowed with supernatural power 291.62 

Clergy and counselors 29 1 .6 1 

Interpreters of religion 29 1 .64 

Class comprehensive works in 291.6 

See Manual at 291 : Biography 

.61 Clergy and counselors 

Examples: heads of religions, gurus, ministers, pastors, priests 

.62 Persons endowed with supernatural power 

Examples: exorcists, magicians, shamans, sorcerers, thaumaturgists 

.63 Divinely inspired persons 

Examples: founders of religions, messiahs, prophets 

.64 Interpreters of religion 

Examples: reformers, writers 

Comprehensive works on theologians relocated to 291.2 

For clergy and counselors, see 291 . 61 

.65 Organization and organizations 

Examples: associations, congregations, institutions, orders, parties 

Class laws and decisions in 291.84 

.657 Monasticism and monasteries 

.7 Missions, religious training and education 

Class here comprehensive works on religious education 

Use of this number for the concept of religious war discontinued; class in 291 

Class education in and teaching of comparative religion, of religions as an 
academic subject in 291.07 

.8 Sources 

Class theology based on sacred sources with theology, e.g., doctrinal theology 
291.2 

.82 Sacred books and scriptures 

.83 Oral traditions 

215 



291 Dewey Decimal Classification 291 

.84 Laws and decisions 

Class civil law relating to religious matters in 340 

See also 364. 188 for offenses against religion as defined and penalized 
by the state 

.85 Sources of sects and reform movements 

.9 Sects and reform movements 

Class specific aspects of sects and reform movements in 291.1-291.8 



292-299 Religions other than Christianity 

(Options: To give preferred treatment or shorter numbers to a specific religion, 
use one of the following: 

(Option A: Class the religion in 230-280, its sources in 220, comprehensive 
works in 200; in that case class the Bible and Christianity in 298 

(Option B: Class in 210, and add to base number 21 the numbers following 
the base number for the religion in 292-299, e.g., Hinduism 210, 
Mahabharata 219.23; in that case class natural religion in 200, its 
subdivisions in 201-209, standard subdivisions of Christianity in 
200.1-200.9, standard subdivisions of religion in 200.01-200.09 

(Option C: Class in 291, and add to base number 291 the numbers following 
the base number for that religion in 292-299, e.g., Hinduism 291, 
Mahabharata 291.923; in that case class comparative religion in 290 and its 
subdivisions in 290.1-290.9, standard subdivisions in 290.01-290.09 

(Option D: Class in 298, which is permanently unassigned 

(Option E: Place first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., Hinduism 2H0 
(preceding 220), or 29H (preceding 291 or 292); add to the base number 
thus derived, e.g., to 2H or to 29H, the numbers following the base number 
for the religion in 292-299, e.g., Shivaism 2H5.13 or 29H.513) 

Aside from additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to notation for each term identified by t as follows: 
01-05 Standard subdivisions 

06 Organizations 

Class management in 6, religious organizations in 65 

07 Education, research, related topics 

Class here the religion as an academic subject 
Class comprehensive works on religious education, religious 
education for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious 
life and practice in 7 
08-09 Standard subdivisions 
1-9 Specific elements 

Add to base number the numbers following 291 in 291.1-291.9, 
e.g., organizations 65 

Class comprehensive works in 29 1 

See Manual at 291 



216 



292 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 292 

292 Classical (Greek and Roman) religion 

See also 299 for modern revivals of classical religions 
.001 -.005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations 

Class management in 292.6, religious organizations in 292.65 
.007 Education, research, related topics 

Class here classical religion as an academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on religious education, religious education 
for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and practice in 

292.7 

.008-. 009 Standard subdivisions 



292.07-292.08 By specific culture 

Class comprehensive works in 292, specific elements regardless of culture in 
292.1-292.9 



.07 


Roman 


.08 


Greek 


.1-.9 


Specific elements 



Add to base number 292 the numbers following 291 in 291.1-291.9, e.g., 
mythology 292.13 

Class classical religion as an academic subject in 292.007 

293 f Germanic religion 

See also 299 for modern revivals of Germanic religion 

294 Religions of Indie origin 

Including Divine Light Mission, Radha Soami Satsang 
See Manual at 291 . 09 vs. 294, 299. 5 

SUMMARY 

294.3 Buddhism 

.4 Jainism 

.5 Hinduism 

.6 Sikhism 

.3 Buddhism 

See Manual at 291 
.306 Organizations 

Class management in 294.36, religious organizations in 294.365 
tAdd as instructed under 292-299 

217 



294 Dewey Decimal Classification 294 

.307 Education, research, related topics 

Class here Buddhism as an academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on religious education, religious education 
for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and practice in 
294.37 

.33 Mythology, social theology, interreligious relations and attitudes 

Add to base number 294.33 the numbers following 291.1 in 291.13-291.17, 
e.g., social theology 294.337 

.34 Doctrines and practices 

Add to base number 294.34 the numbers following 291 in 291.2-291.4, e.g., 
religious experience 294.3442 

For social theology, see 294.337; moral theology, 294.35 

.35-. 37 Moral theology, leaders and organization, missions, religious education 

Add to base number 294.3 the numbers following 291 in 291.5-291.7, e.g., 
the Buddha 294.363, Buddhist religious education 294.37 

.38 Sources 

.382 Sacred books and scriptures (Tripitaka) 

Works sacred to both Theravadins and Mahayanists 

Class here comprehensive treatment of Theravadin and Mahayanist 
sacred texts 

Class works sacred only to Mahayanists in 294.385 
.382 2 Vinayapitaka 

.382 3 Suttapitaka 

.382 4 Abhidhammapitaka 

.383 Oral traditions 

.384 Laws and decisions 

.385 Sources of branches, sects, reform movements 

Examples: Buddhist Tantras, Mahayanist sacred works 

.39 Branches, sects, reform movements 

Class specific aspects of branches, sects, reform movements in 
294.33-294.38 

.391 Theravada (Southern, Hinayana) Buddhism 

Including Mahasanghika, Saravastivada, Sautrantika schools 

.392 Mahayana (Northern) Buddhism 

Including Madhyamika, Yogacara (Vijnana) schools 

.392 3 Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism) 

See also 299.54 for Bon 

218 



294 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 294 



.392 5 


Tantric Buddhism 


.392 6 


Pure Land sects 


.392 7 


Zen 




Including Rinzai and Soto 


.392 8 


Nichiren Shoshu and Soka Gakkai 


.4 


tJainism 




See Manual at 291 


.49 


Sects and reform movements 




Class specific aspects of sects and reform movements in 294.41-294.48 


.492 


Svetambara 


.493 


Digambara 


.5 


Hinduism 




Class here Brahmanism 




See Manual at 291 




SUMMARY 




294.501-.509 Standard subdivisions 

.51- .53 Mythology, relations, doctrines, public worship 
.54 Religious experience, life, practice, moral theology 
.55 Sects and reform movements 
.56-. 57 Leaders, organization, missions, religious education 
.59 Sources 



.506 Organizations 

Class management in 294.56, religious organizations in 294.565 
.507 Education, research, related topics 

Class here Hinduism as an academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on religious education, religious education 
for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and practice in 
294.57 

.509 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

.509 013 3999-1000 B.C. 

Class here religion of Vedic period 

.51-. 53 Mythology, relations, doctrines, public worship 

Add to base number 294.5 the numbers following 291 in 291.1-291.3, e.g., 
attitude toward science 294.5175 

tAdd as instructed under 292-299 



219 



294 Dewey Decimal Classification 294 

.54 Religious experience, life, practice, moral theology 

.542-. 544 Religious experience, life, practice 

Add to base number 294.54 the numbers following 291.4 in 
291.42-291.44, e.g., Hindu yogic meditation 294.543 

Class public worship in 294.53 
For moral theology, see 294.548 
.548 Moral theology 

Including conscience, dharma, duties, sins, vices, virtues 

.548 6 Specific moral issues 

Add to base number 294.5486 the numbers following 17 in 172-179, 
e.g., morality of family relationships 294.54863; however, virtues and 
vices are classed in 294.548 

.55 Sects and reform movements 

Class Buddhism in 294.3, Jainism in 294.4, Sikhism in 294.6; a specific 
aspect of a sect or reform movement with the subject, e.g., doctrines of 
Vishnuism 294.52 

.551 Early 

.551 2 Vishnuism 

Example: International Society for Krishna Consciousness 
.551 3 Shivaism 

Including Lingayats 
.551 4 Shaktaism 

Class here Tantric Hinduism 

.551 5 Ganapataism 

.551 6 Shanmukaism 

.551 7 Sauraism 

.555 Ramakrishna movement 

.556 Reformed Hinduism 

.556 2 Brahma Samaj 

.556 3 Arya-Samaj 

.56-. 57 Leaders, organization, missions, religious education 

Add to base number 294.5 the numbers following 291 in 291.6-291.7, e.g., 
the role of the guru 294.561 

Class Hinduism as an academic subject in 294.507 

.59 Sources 

.592 Sacred books and scriptures 



220 



294 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 294 

.592 1 Vedic literature 



> 294.592 12-294.592 15 The Vedas 

Class here Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas 

Class comprehensive works on the Vedas in 294.5921, Upanishads in 
294.59218, Vedic religion in 294.509013 

.592 12 Rigveda 

.592 13 Samaveda 

.592 14 Yajurveda 

.592 15 Atharvaveda 

.592 18 Upanishads 

.592 2 Ramayana 

.592 3 Mahabharata 

For Bhagavad Gita, see 294.5924 

.592 4 Bhagavad Gita 

.592 5 Puranas 

.592 6 Dharmasastras 

Including Code of Manu 

.593 Oral traditions 

.594 Laws and decisions 

.595 Sources of sects and reform movements 

Example: Hindu tantras 

.6 tSikhism 

See Manual at 291 

295 f Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism) 

Class Mithraism in 299.15 

296 Judaism 

See Manual at 291 

SUMMARY 

296.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Sources 

.3 Doctrinal, moral, social theology 

.4 Traditions, rites, public services 

.6 Leaders, organization, religious education 

.7 Religious experience, life, practice 

.8 Sects and movements 

tAdd as instructed under 292-299 

221 



296 Dewey Decimal Classification 296 

.06 Organizations 

Class management in 296.6, religious organizations in 296.67 
.07 Education, research, related topics 

Class here Judaism as an academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on Judaic religious education, religious 
education for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and 
practice in 296.68 

.1 Sources 

Class Judaic theology based on these sources in 296.3 

For Tor ah and sacred scripture (Old Testament), see 221 





SUMMARY 


296.12 


Talmudic literature 


.14 


Midrash 


.15 


Sources of specific sects and movements 


.16 


Cabalistic literature 


.17 


Early rabbinical writings to 1400 


.18 


Halakah (Legal literature) 


.19 


Aggadah (Nonlegal literature) 



> 296. 12-296. 14 Talmudic literature and Midrash 

Class here individual tractates and treatises 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows (but do not add for individual 
tractates and treatises, e.g., translations of Pirke Avot 296.123 [not 296.12305]): 
001-009 Standard subdivisions 

04 Hebrew and Aramaic texts 

Including textual criticism 

Class texts accompanied by commentaries in 07 

05 Translations 

Add to 05 notation 1-9 from Table 6, e.g., literature in English 

0521 

Class texts accompanied by commentaries in 07 

06 Interpretation and criticism (Exegesis) 

Add to 06 the numbers following 220.6 in 220.601-220.68, 
e.g., historical criticism 067 

For textual criticism, see 04; commentaries, 07 

07 Commentaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 
Including texts accompanied by commentaries 

Class comprehensive works in 296.1 

. 1 2 *Talmudic literature 

.123 *Mishnah 

*Add as instructed under 296.12-296.14 



222 



296 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 296 

. 1 24 *Palestinian Talmud (Jerusalem Talmud, Talmud Yerushalmi) 

. 1 25 *Babylonian Talmud 

Often called simply the Talmud 

. 1 26 Tosefta and Baraita 

.1262 Tosefta 

.1263 *Baraita 

. 1 27 Specific types of Talmudic literature 

.1274 *Halakah 

.1276 *Aggadah 

.14 *Midrash 

.141 *Halakah 

.142 *Aggadah 

.15 Sources of specific sects and movements 

. 1 55 Qumran community 

Class here comprehensive works on the Dead Sea Scrolls 

Class Old Testament texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls in 221.44, 
pseudepigrapha in the Dead Sea Scrolls in 229.91 

.16 Cabalistic literature 

Example: Zohar 

Class here comprehensive works on cabala 

The text of the Zohar and other religious cabalistic literature is classed here 
even if the editor introduces and annotates it from an occult or Christian 
point of view 

Class Judaic mystical experience in 296.712, Judaic mystical movements in 
296.8; cabalism associated with a specific religion with the religion, e.g., 
Christian cabalism 230-280 

See also 135.4 for cabala as a source of occult knowledge 

.17 Early rabbinical writings to 1400 

.172 Of Maimonides 

.179 Responsa 

. 1 8 Halakah (Legal literature) 

Class here comprehensive works on Judaic law 

Class Torah in 222.1, Talmudic Halakah in 296.1274, Midrashic Halakah in 
296.141, Jewish law relating to secular matters in 340.58 

. 1 82 Work of Joseph Caro 

*Add as instructed under 296.12-296.14 



223 



296 Dewey Decimal Classification 296 

. 1 9 Aggadah (Nonlegal literature) 

Class here comprehensive works on Aggadah 

Class Talmudic Aggadah in 296.1276, Midrashic Aggadah in 296.142 
See also 296.437 for Passover Haggadah 
.3 Doctrinal, moral, social theology 

Class here the Thirteen Articles of Faith 



296.31-296.34 Doctrinal theology (Dogma) 

Class here Biblical theology, apologetics, polemics 

Class comprehensive works in 296.3 

See Manual at 220 

.3 1 God and spiritual beings 

.311 God 

Including God's special relation to the Jewish people 

.315 Angels 

.316 Devils (Demons) 

.32 Humankind 

Including creation, sin, salvation, repentance, atonement, soul 

For eschatology, see 296.33 

.33 Eschatology 

Including death, resurrection, immortality, messianism 

.34 Creation 

For creation of humankind, see 296.32 

.38 Moral and social theology 

.385 Moral theology 

Including Biblical precepts, conscience, duties, sins, vices, virtues 

Class guides to conduct of life in 296.74 

.385 6 Specific moral issues 

Add to base number 296.3856 the numbers following 17 in 172-179, 
e.g., morality of family relationships 296.38563; however, virtues and 
vices are classed in 296.385 



224 



296 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 296 

.387 Social theology and interreligious relations and attitudes 

Attitude toward other religions, attitude toward and influence on secular 
matters 

Add to base number 296.387 the numbers following 291.17 in 
291.171-291.178, e.g., attitude toward science 296.3875 

.4 Traditions, rites, public services 

Description, interpretation, conduct, texts of rites and public services 

Class here family celebrations and services, hymns, liturgy, music, prayers, 
responsive reading, symbolism 

Class comprehensive works on worship in 296.72 

.41 Sabbath 

.42 Sermons and homiletics 

Class sermons on a specific subject with the subject, e.g., social theology 
296.387 

.43 Festivals, holy days, fasts 

For Sabbath, see 296.41 
.43 1 Rosh Hashanah (New Year) 

.432 Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) 

.433 Sukkoth (Feast of Tabernacles) 

.435 Hanukkah (Feast of the Dedication) 

.436 Purim (Feast of Lots) 

.437 Pesach (Passover) 

Class here Passover Haggadah, Seder service 
.438 Shabuoth (Feast of Weeks, Pentecost) 

.439 Other 

Examples: Lag b'Omer, Tishah b'Ab 
.44 Rites and customs for specific occasions 

Example: synagogue dedication 
.442 Special rites for male Jews 

.442 2 Berith milah (Circumcision) 

.442 3 Pidyon haben (Redemption of first-born male) 

.442 4 Bar mitzvah 

.443 Special rites for female Jews 

Example: bath mitzvah 
.444 Marriage and divorce rites and traditions 



225 



296 Dewey Decimal Classification 296 

.445 Burial and mourning rites and traditions 

.6 Leaders, organization, religious education 

.61 Leaders 

Role, function, duties 

Example: rabbis 

See Manual at 291 : Biography 
.65 Synagogues and congregations 

Role and function 

Class history of a specific synagogue in 296.8 
.67 Organization and organizations 

Examples: associations, institutions, polity 

Class here theory and history of organizations other than synagogues and 
congregations 

Class laws and decisions in 296.18 

For synagogues and congregations, see 296.65 

.673 Young Men's Hebrew Associations 

.675 Young Women's Hebrew Associations 

.68 Religious education 

Including afternoon weekday schools, parochial schools, Sunday and 
Sabbath schools 

Class Judaism as an academic subject in 296.07 

.7 Religious experience, life, practice 

.7 1 Religious experience 

Examples: conversion, moral renewal and commitment 
.712 Mysticism 

Class cabalistic literature in 296.16, Judaic mystical movements in 296.8 
.72 Worship 

Including devotional texts 

Class here comprehensive works on worship; description, interpretation, 
criticism, history, practical works on prayer, meditation, contemplation 

Class public worship, family celebrations and services in 296.4 
.73 Observance of dietary laws 



226 



296 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 296 

.74 Religious life and practice 

Including asceticism 

For moral theology, see 296.385; worship, 296. 72; observance of 
dietary laws, 296. 73 

.8 Sects and movements 

Class specific aspects of sects and movements in 296.1-296.7 

.81 Ancient 

Examples: Essenes, Hellenistic movement, Karaites, Sadducees, Samaritans, 
Zealots 

.812 Pharisees 

.815 Qumran community 

.82 Medieval 

Example: Sabbatianism 

.83 Modern 

.832 Orthodox Judaism 

.833 Mystical Judaism 

.833 2 Hasidism 

.833 22 Habad Lubavitch Hasidism 

.834 Reform movements 

.834 2 Conservative Judaism 

.834 4 Reconstructionist Judaism 

.834 6 Reform Judaism 

297 Islam and religions originating in it 

See Manual at 291 

SUMMARY 

297.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Sources, social theology, relations, attitudes of Islam 

.2 Islamic doctrinal theology (Aqaid and Kalam) 

.3 Islamic public worship and other practices 

.4 Islamic religious experience, life, practice 

.5 Islamic moral theology 

.6 Islamic leaders and organization 

.7 Islamic missions, religious education, religious wars 

.8 Islamic sects and reform movements 

.9 Religions originating in Islam 

.06 Organizations 

Class management in 297.6, religious organizations in 297.65 



227 



297 Dewey Decimal Classification 297 

.07 Education, research, related topics 

Class here Islamic religion as an academic subject 

Class comprehensive works on Islamic religious education, religious 
education for the purpose of encouraging believers in religious life and 
practice in 297.7 

.1 Sources, social theology, relations, attitudes of Islam 



297.12-297.14 Sources 

Class comprehensive works in 297.1 
.12 Sacred books and scriptures 

.122 Koran 

.122 1 Origin and authenticity 



297.122 4-297.122 5 Texts 

Class comprehensive works in 297.122, texts accompanied by commentaries 
in 297.1227 

.1224 Arabic texts 

Class here textual criticism 

.1225 Translations 

Add to base number 297.1225 notation 1-9 from Table 6, e.g., the 
Koran in English 297.122521 

.122 6 Interpretation and criticism (Exegesis) 

Add to base number 297.1226 the numbers following 220.6 in 
220.601-220.68, e.g., historical criticism 297.12267 

For textual criticism, see 297. 1224; commentaries, 297. 1227 

.1227 Commentaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 
Including texts accompanied by commentaries 

.122 8 Special nonreligious subjects treated in the Koran 

. 122 9 Individual suras and groups of suras 

Origins, authenticity, texts, criticism, interpretation, commentaries, 
special subjects 

.124 Hadith (Traditions) 

Use 297.124001-297.124009 for standard subdivisions 

. 1 24 1 - . 1 24 08 Generalities 



Add to base number 297.1240 the numbers following 297.122 in 
297.1221-297.1228, e.g., origins 297.12401 



228 



297 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 297 



> 297.124 1-297.124 8 Specific Hadith 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 

001-009 Standard subdivisions 

01-09 Generalities 

Add to the numbers following 297.122 in 
297.1221-297.1228, e.g., historical criticism 067 

Class comprehensive works in 297.124 

.124 1 *A1-Bukhari 

.1242 *AbuDaud 

.1243 *Muslim 

.1244 *A1-Tirmidhi 

.1245 *A1-Nasai 

.1246 *IbnMajah 

. 1 24 7 Other Sunni Hadith 

. 1 24 8 Hadith of other sects 

.13 Oral traditions 

Class Hadith in 297.124 
.14 Laws and decisions (Sharia) 

Religious and ceremonial 

Tawhid relocated to 297.211 

Class Islamic law relating to secular matters (Fiqh) in 340.59 

.19 Mythology, social theology, relations, attitudes 

.197 Social theology and interreligious relations and attitudes 

Attitude toward other religions, attitudes toward and influence on secular 
matters 

Add to base number 297.197 the numbers following 291.17 in 
291.171-291.178, e.g., attitude toward Judaism 297.1972 

.2 Islamic doctrinal theology (Aqaid and Kalam) 

Class doctrines concerning Muhammad the Prophet in 297.63 

.204 Doctrines of specific sects 

Add to base number 297.204 the numbers following 297.8 in 
297.81-297.87, e.g., doctrines of Kadarites 297.20435 

.21 God and spiritual beings 

.211 God 

Including Tawhid [formerly also 297.14], miracles, revelation 

♦Add as instructed under 297.1241-297.1248 

229 



297 Dewey Decimal Classification 297 



.215 


Angels 


.216 


Devils (Demons) 


.22 


Humankind 



Including creation, faith, fall, grace, intercession, predestination and free 
will, repentance, salvation, sin, soul 

Class creation of the universe in 297.24 

For eschatology, see 297.23 

.23 Eschatology 

Including day of judgment, death, eternity, future life, heaven, hell, 
intermediate state, punishment, resurrection, rewards 

.24 Other doctrines 

Examples: caliphate, creation of the universe, imamat, prophets prior to 
Muhammad 

Class caliphs, imams as leaders in 297.61, caliphate, imamat in Islamic 
organization in 297.65 

.29 Apologetics and polemics 

Apologetics: systematic argumentation in defense of the divine origin and 
authority of Islam 

Polemics: refutation of alleged errors in other systems 

.291 Polemics against pagans and heathens 

.292 Polemics against Judaism 

.293 Polemics against Christianity 

.294 Polemics against Hinduism 

.295 Polemics against other religions 

.297 Polemics against rationalists, agnostics, atheists 

.298 Polemics against scientists and materialists 

.3 Islamic public worship and other practices 

Use 297.3001-297.3009 for standard subdivisions 

.301-.307 Specific sects 

Add to base number 297.30 the numbers following 297.8 in 
297.81-297.87, e.g., Shiite rites 297.302 

.32 Divination 

Examples: omens, oracles, prophecies 
.33 Occultism 

Including amulets, talismans, charms, witchcraft 



230 



297 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 297 

.35 Sacred places 

Examples: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem 
.36 Sacred times 

Examples: Fridays, Ramadan 

Including comprehensive works on Ramadan 

Class the annual fast of Ramadan as a religious obligation in 297.53 
.38 Rites and ceremonies 

Conduct and texts 

Class comprehensive works on worship in 297.43, five religious obligations 
in 297.51-297.55 

.4 Islamic religious experience, life, practice 

Class here Sufism 

Add to base number 297.4 the numbers following 291.4 in 291.42-291.44, e.g., 
comprehensive works on worship 297.43; however, class the five religious 
obligations in 297.51-297.55 

Class public worship in 297.38; specific aspects of Sufism with the aspect, e.g., 
Sufi orders 297.65 

For moral theology, see 297.5 

.5 Islamic moral theology 

Including conscience, duties, sins, vices, virtues 
For jihad (holy war), see 297. 72 



297.51-297.55 Five religious obligations (Pillars of the Faith) 
Class comprehensive works in 297.5 
.5 1 Profession of faith (Shahada) 

.52 Prayer five times daily (Salat) 

.53 Annual fast of Ramadan 

Class comprehensive works on Ramadan in 297.36 
.54 Almsgiving (Zakat) 

.55 Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) 



231 



297 Dewey Decimal Classification 297 

.6 Islamic leaders and organization 

.61 Leaders and their work 

Examples: ayatollahs, caliphs, imams, ulama 

For Muhammad, see 297.63; Muhammad' s family and companions, 
297.64 

See Manual at 291 : Biography 

.63 Muhammad the Prophet 

.64 Muhammad's family and companions 

.65 Organization and organizations 

Examples: caliphate, imamat; associations, congregations, mosques, parties, 
Sufi orders 

Class doctrines about the caliphate and imamat in 297.24, history of specific 
congregations and mosques in 297.8 



.7 


Islamic missions, religious education, religious wars 




Class Islam as an academic subject in 297.07 


72 


Jihad (Holy war) 


8 


Islamic sects and reform movements 




Religions originating in Islam relocated to 297.9 




Class specific aspects of sects and reform movements in 297.1-297.7 




For Sufism, see 297.4 


81 


Sunnites 


811 


Hanafites 


812 


Shafiites 


813 


Malikites 


814 


Hanbalites and Wahhabis 


82 


Shiites 


821 


Twelvers (Ithna Asharites) 


822 


Seveners (Ismailites) 




Examples: Mustalians, Nizaris 


824 


Zaydites 


83 


Other 


835 


Kadarites 


837 


Murjiites 


85 


Druzes 


86 


Ahmadiyya movement 




232 



297 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 297 

.87 Black Muslim movement 

Examples: American Muslim Mission, Nation of Islam, World Community 
of Islam in the West 

.9 Religions originating in Islam [formerly 297.8] 

Class Sikhism in 294.6 
.92 Babism 

.93 tBahai faith 

See Manual at 291 

(298) (Permanently unassigned) 

(Optional number used to provide local emphasis and a shorter number for a 
specific religion other than Christianity; prefer the number for the specific religion 
elsewhere in 292-299; or optional number used for Christianity if option A under 
292-299 is chosen. Other options are described at 292-299) 

299 Other religions 

Examples: Urantia, modern revivals of long dormant religions 

(Options for giving local emphasis and shorter numbers for a specific religion are 
described at 292-299) 

If a religion not named in the schedule claims to be Christian, class it in 289.9 even 
if it is unorthodox or syncretistic 

Class syncretistic religious writings of individuals expressing personal views and 
not claiming to establish a new religion or to represent an old one in 291 

SUMMARY 

299.1- .4 Of Indo-European, Semitic, North African, North and West Asian, 
Dravidian origin 

.5 Of East and Southeast Asian origin 

.6 Originating among Black Africans and people of Black African descent 

.7 Of North American native origin 

.8 Of South American native origin 

.9 Of other origin 

.1-.4 Of Indo-European, Semitic, North African, North and West Asian, 
Dravidian origin 

Not otherwise provided for 

Add to base number 299 the numbers following —9 in notation 91-94 from 
Table 5, e.g., Druidism 299.16 

.5 Of East and Southeast Asian origin 

See Manual at 291 . 09 vs. 294, 299. 5 
.5 1 Of Chinese origin 

tAdd as instructed under 292-299 



233 



299 Dewey Decimal Classification 299 



.512 




tConfucianism 

Class Four books of Confucius in 181.09512 
See Manual at 291 


.514 




tTaoism 

See Manual at 291 


.54 




Of Tibetan origin 
Class here Bon 


.56 




Of Japanese and Ryukyuan origin 


.561 




fShintoism 

See Manual at 291 


.57-. 


59 


Other 



Add to base number 299 the numbers following —9 in notation 957-959 
from Table 5, e.g., Caodaism 299.592 

.6 Originating among Black Africans and people of Black African 

descent 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two 
or more subdivisions of 299.6 in the one coming first in the schedule, e.g., 
rituals of Yorubas 299.64 (not 299.68333) 

For Black Muslims, see 297. 87 

.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class religions in specific areas in Africa in 299.69 

.62 Mythology and mythological foundations 

Class myths on a specific subject with the subject, e.g., on a god 299.63 

See Manual at 398. 2 vs. 291 . 13 

.63 Doctrines 

Including gods, goddesses, other supernatural beings 

.64 Rituals and ceremonials 

.65 Practices 

Example: witchcraft 

For rituals and ceremonials, see 299. 64 

.67 Specific cults 

Examples: Ras Tafari movement, Umbanda, voodooism 

Class voodooism as an occult practice without regard to its religious 
significance in 133.4 

tAdd as instructed under 292-299 



234 



299 Comparative religion and non-Christian religions 299 

.68 Of specific groups and peoples 

Add to base number 299.68 the numbers following —96 in notation 
961-969 from Table 5, e.g., religion of Yorubas 299.68333 

Class national groups which predominate in specific areas in Africa in 
299.69, in other specific areas in 299.609 

.69 Of specific areas in Africa 

Add to base number 299.69 the numbers following —6 in notation 61-69 
from Table 2, e.g., religions of West Africa 299.696 

.7 Of North American native origin 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class religions in specific areas in North America in 299.79 

.72-. 77 Specific aspects 

Add to base number 299.7 the numbers following 299.6 in 299.62-299.67, 
e.g., snake dances 299.74 

.78 Of specific groups and peoples 

Add to base number 299.78 the numbers following —97 in notation 
971-979 from Table 5, e.g., Hopi religion 299.784 

.79 Of specific areas in North America 

Add to base number 299.79 the numbers following —7 in notation 71-79 
from Table 2, e.g., religions of Indians of Mexico 299.792 

.8 Of South American native origin 

.809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Religions of specific areas in South America relocated to 299.89 

.82-. 87 Specific aspects 

Add to base number 299.8 the numbers following 299.6 in 299.62-299.67, 
e.g., gods and goddesses 299.83 

.88 Of specific groups and peoples 

Add to base number 299.88 the numbers following —98 in notation 
982-984 from Table 5, e.g., religion of Guaranis 299.883 

.89 Of specific areas in South America [formerly 299.809] 

Add to base number 299.89 the numbers following —8 in notation 81-89 
from Table 2, e.g., religions of Indians of the Amazon 299.891 1 

.9 Of other origin 

.92 Of other ethnic origin 

Aeta, Andamanese, Semang, Papuan, Australian, Malay, Basque, Elamite, 
Etruscan, Sumerian, Georgian, Ingush, Chechen, Circassian 



235 



299 Dewey Decimal Classification 299 

.93 Of eclectic and syncretistic origin 

Religions and applied religious philosophies of eclectic, syncretistic, 
universal nature 

Examples: Eckankar, Great White Brotherhood, New Age religions, New 
Thought, systems of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh and Meher Baba, United 
Church of Religious Science 

See also 289. 98 for Christian New Thought 
.932 Gnosticism 

Including Manicheism 

Class Christian Gnosticism in 273.1, Christian Manicheism in 273.2 
.933 Subud 

.934 Theosophy 

.935 Anthroposophy 

.936 Scientology 

Class dianetics in 158.9 



236 



300 



300 Social sciences 

Class here behavioral studies, social studies 

Use 300.1-300.9 for standard subdivisions 

Class a specific behavioral science with the subject, e.g., psychology 150; military, 
diplomatic, political, economic, social, welfare aspects of a war with the history of 
the war, e.g., the Vietnamese War 959.7043 

For language, see 400; history, 900 

See Manual at 150; 300; 300 vs. 600 





SUMMARY 


300.1- 


.9 Standard subdivisions 


301 


Sociology and anthropology 


302 


Social interaction 


303 


Social processes 


304 


Factors affecting social behavior 


305 


Social groups 


306 


Culture and institutions 


307 


Communities 



.21 Tabulated and related materials 

Class statistics in 310 

Sociology and anthropology 

Class here interdisciplinary works on society 

Class a specific topic in sociology and anthropology in 302-307; social problems 
and social welfare in 361-365, a specific aspect of society not provided for in 
302-307 with the subject, e.g., general history 900 

For criminal anthropology, see 364.2; educational sociology, 370. 19; physical 
anthropology, 573 

See Manual at 301 ; 301 vs. 361-365; 361.1 vs. 362.042, 301 

[.019] Psychological principles 

Relocated to 302 

.7 Nonliterate societies 

Use of this number for kinds of societies discontinued; class in 301 

[.72] Nonliterate 

Number discontinued; class in 301.7 



237 



301 Dewey Decimal Classification 301 

[.74] Advanced 

Number discontinued; class in 301 



302-307 Specific topics in sociology and anthropology 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two 
or more subdivisions of this schedule in the one coming last in the schedule, 
e.g., social deterioration during civil wars 303.64 {not 303.45); however, class 
the effect of one factor on another with the factor affected, e.g., the effect of 
climate on social change 303.4 {not 304.25) 

Class comprehensive works in 301 

See Manual at 150 vs. 302-307; 155.92 vs. 158.2, 302-307; 156 vs. 
302-307; 302-307; 320 vs. 302- 307 



302 Social interaction 



Class here the psychological principles of sociology [formerly also 301.019], 
interpersonal relations, social psychology 

Class the social psychology of a specific situation with the situation, e.g., of ethnic 
groups 305.8 

See also 155.92 for the effect of social environment upon individuals, 158.2 for 
individual aspects of interpersonal relations 

See Manual at 150 vs. 302- 307; 155. 92 vs. 158.2, 302-307; 156 vs. 302-307 



302.01-.09 


auiviiviAni 

Standard subdivisions 


.1 


General topics 


.2 


Communication 


.3 


Social interaction within groups 


.4 


Social interaction between groups 


.5 


Relation of the individual to society 



.015 195 Statistical mathematics 

Class here sociometry [formerly 302.072] 

See Manual at 519.5, Tl— 015195 vs. 001. 422, Tl-072 
[.019] Psychological principles 

Do not use; class in 302 
.072 Research 

Sociometry relocated to 302.015195 
.1 General topics 

.12 Social understanding 

Including attribution, risk perception 

For social learning, see 303.32; perception of norms, 303.37 



238 



302 Social sciences 302 

.13 Social choice 

Including attraction, influence 
.14 Social participation 

Examples: cooperation, voluntarism 

Including communalism, competition, encounter groups, sensitivity training 

Class here social acceptance, social adjustment, social skills, success 
See also 302.4 for inter group aspects of participation 
. 1 5 Social role (Role theory) 

Including role conflict 

.17 Social dysfunctions 

Dysfunctions affecting a substantial portion of society, e.g., mass hysteria, 
crazes 

Examples: apathy, fear, panic 

Class here social psychoanalysis 

Class dysfunctional responses of individuals to society in 302.542 

.2 Communication 

Including semiotics 

Class here interdisciplinary works on communication [formerly 001.5], mass 
communication 

For information theory, see 003.54 

.22 Kinds 

.222 Nonverbal communication 

Examples: symbols, drumbeats, smoke signals; gestures and body 
language; flower language 

Class here means of nonverbal communication [formerly 302.23], 
interdisciplinary works on nonlinguistic (nonstructured) communication 

Class comprehensive works on means of verbal and nonverbal 
communication in 302.23; manual language for the deaf in 419; symbols 
in a specific subject with the subject, using notation 0148 from Table 1, 
e.g., symbols in electrical engineering 621.30148 

For iconography, see 704.9; insignia, 929 

.224 Verbal communication 

Class media in 302.23 

For language, see 400 

.224 2 Oral 

For conversation, see 302.346 



239 



302 Dewey Decimal Classification 302 

.224 4 Written 

Class here literacy, illiteracy 

See also 301.7 for nonliterate societies 

.23 Media (Means of communication) 

Examples: signs, signboards 

Class here mass media, sociology of journalism 

Means of nonverbal communication relocated to 302.222 

Class the effect of mass media on a specific subject other than social groups 
with the subject, e.g., on social change 303.4833, on a company's 
advertising policy 659. 1 1 1 

.230 8 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Class here the effect of mass media on specific groups, on social 
stratification [both formerly 305] 

See Manual at 302.2308 

.232 Print media 

Class interdisciplinary works on the book in 002 
.232 2 Newspapers 

.232 4 Periodicals and journals 

.234 Motion pictures, radio, television 

Class here the electronic media 
.234 3 Motion pictures 

.234 4 Radio 

.234 5 Television 

.235 Telephony and telegraphy 

.24 Content 

Including gossip, rumor 

See also 070. 1 for the journalistic aspect of content 
.25 Failures and disruptions of communication 

For censorship, see 303.376 

.3 Social interaction within groups 

Class here group decision-making processes, group dynamics, negotiation 

.33 In abstract and temporary groups 

Examples: audiences, bus passengers, communities of interest, crowds, 
mobs 

Class media audiences in 302.23 



240 



302 Social sciences 302 

.34 In small (primary) groups 

Groups small enough for all members to engage in face-to-face relationships 
at one time 

Examples: committees, gangs, play groups 

Class here friendship 

Class the family in 306.85 

See also 362. 74 for predelinquent gangs, 364. 106 for gangs engaging in 
crime 

.346 Conversation 

Including conversational rhythm 

.35 In hierarchically organized (complex) groups 

Class here bureaucracies, organizational behavior 

See Manual at 658, T 1—068 vs. 302. 35 

.4 Social interaction between groups 

Including in- and out-groups 

Class social interaction between a specific group and other groups in 305 

.5 Relation of the individual to society 

See also 1 55 .92 for psychological effects of the social environment upon the 
individual 

.52 Relation through reference groups 

.54 Response of individuals 

Including ambition 

Class here aggression, dysfunctional responses, individualism 

See also 302.17 for mass manifestations of social dysfunction 

For conformity, see 303.32 

.542 Deviation 

Class here madness considered as a form of interaction of individuals 
with society 






.544 


Alienation 


.545 


Isolation 


303 


Social processes 




For social interaction, see 302; factors affecting social behavior, 304 




SUMMARY 




303.3 Coordination and control 
.4 Social change 
.6 Conflict 



241 



303 Dewey Decimal Classification 303 

.3 Coordination and control 

Class here power, policy formulation 

Class coordination and control in and through specific institutions in 306 

.32 Socialization 

Including social learning 

Class here conformity 

Class interdisciplinary works on child development in 305.231 

For education, see 370 

.323 By the family 

.323 1 By the father 

.323 2 By the mother 

.324 By the school 

.325 By religious organizations 

.327 By other instrumentalities 

Examples: peer groups, play groups, recreational agencies 

.33 Social control 

For socialization, see 303.32; social control through specific means, 
303.34-303.38 



303.34-303.38 Social control through specific means 

Class comprehensive works in 303.33, socialization through specific means of 
control in 303.32 

.34 Leadership 

Including influence, cooperation 

.342 Persuasion 

By individuals 

Class here interdisciplinary works on persuasion 

Class specific aspects of persuasion with the subject, e.g., persuasion by 
media, 302.23, by propaganda 303.375; individual psychology of 
persuasion 153.852 

.35 Utilitarian control 

Use of rewards and incentives 
.36 Coercion 

Examples: authority, punishment, restraint, threat 

See also 364.6 for the treatment and punishment of offenders 



242 



303 Social sciences 303 

.37 Normative methods 

Including perception of norms 

For public opinion, see 303.38 

.372 Customs and belief systems 

Class here values, social ethics, social justice 

See also 361 . 61 for values in social policy towards welfare problems 

See Manual at 303.372 vs. 1 70 

.375 Propaganda 

.376 Censorship 

See Manual at 303.376 vs. 363.31, 791.4 

.38 Public opinion 

Class here attitudes, attitude formation and change 

Class propaganda in 303.375; public opinion on a specific subject with the 
subject, e.g., public opinion on racial stereotypes 305.8, on the political 
process 324 

See also 302. 12 for social understanding 

.385 Prejudice 

Class here social stereotypes and stereotyping 

Class prejudices held by racial, ethnic, national groups in 303.387; by 
occupational and miscellaneous social groups in 303.388; prejudices 
regarding a specific group in 305 

.387 Opinions held by racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 303.387 notation 1-9 from Table 5, e.g., opinions of 
Canadians 303.38711 

.388 Opinions held by occupational and miscellaneous groups 

Add to base number 303.388 notation 04-99 from Table 7 e.g., opinions 
of dentists 303.3886176; then add 0* and to the result add notation 1-9 
from Table 2, e.g., the opinions of dentists in France 303.3886176044 

.4 Social change 

Use 303.4 for social evolution in the broadest sense, as the sum total of good 
and bad (progressive and regressive), fast and slow changes taking place over 
time. Use 303.42 for detailed analysis of gradual (evolutionary) change as such. 
Use 303.44 for the study of social evolution considered as constant upward 
progress or improvement. 

Class social change in a specific aspect of society with the subject in sociology, 
e.g., changes in religious institutions 306.6 

[.401 12] Forecasting and forecasts 

Do not use; class in 303.49 

''Use 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 

243 



303 Dewey Decimal Classification 303 

.42 Gradual (Evolutionary) change 

.43 Abrupt (Revolutionary) and disruptive change 

.44 Growth and development 

Class here progress, specialization 

.45 Deterioration and decay 

.48 Causes of change 

.482 Contact between cultures 

Class here acculturation, assimilation; social effects of international 
assistance, of commerce 

Class intercultural education in 370.196 

.482 09 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 303.4821-303.4829 (not 
303.482091-303.482099) 

.482 1-.482 9 Contact between specific areas 

Add to base number 303.482 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., cultural 
exchanges with China 303.48251; then add 0* and again add notation 
1-9 from Table 2, e.g., cultural exchange between China and Japan 
303.48251052 

Give priority in notation to the nation most affected. If this cannot be 
determined, give priority to the one coming first in the sequence of 
area notations 

(Option: Give priority to the area requiring local emphasis, e.g., 
libraries in the United States class cultural exchange between the 
United States and France in 303.48273044) 

.483 Development of science and technology 

See Manual at 303.483 vs. 306.45, 306.46 
.483 2 Transportation 

.483 3 Communication 

Class here information technology 
.483 4 Computers 

Class here automation, microelectronics, robots 
*Use 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



244 



303 Social sciences 303 

.484 Purposefully induced change 

Including dissent, radicalism 

Class here social innovation, social reform, social reform movements 

Most innovation and reform is directed to a specific end and is classed 
with the subject, e.g., reform of banking 332.1 

Class the political aspects of reform movements in 322.44, the role of 
reform movements in addressing social problems in 361-365 

.485 Natural and manmade disasters 

Examples: earthquakes, pandemics, wars 

.49 Social forecasts 

Class here futurology, social forecasting 

Class forecasting in and forecasts of a specific subject with the subject, using 
notation 01 12 from Table 1, e.g., the future of the U.S. Democratic Party 
324.27360112 

.490 9 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 303.491-303.499 (not 
303.49091-303.49099) 

.491-. 499 Forecasts for specific areas 

Add to base number 303.49 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., the 
Communist bloc in the year 2000 303.491717 

.6 Conflict 

Class conflict in a specific area of social relations with the subject in sociology, 
e.g., racial conflict 305.8; conflicts as historical events in 900, e.g., the 
disturbances of May-June 1968 centered in Paris 944.0836 

.61 Civil disobedience 

Examples: hunger strikes, nonviolent action, passive resistance, sit-ins 

.62 Civil disorder 

For civil war and revolution, see 303.64 

.623 Riots 

.625 Terrorism 

See also 363.32 for the prevention of terrorism 

.64 Civil war and revolution 

Class terrorism in 303.625 



245 



303 Dewey Decimal Classification 303 

.66 War 

Including pacifism, sociology of war 

Class war as a cause of social change in 303.485, prevention of war in 
327.172, causes of war in 355.027, the art and science of warfare in 
355-359; military, diplomatic, political, economic, social, welfare aspects of 
a specific war with the history of the war, e.g., of the Vietnamese War 
959.7043 

For civil war, see 303. 64 

.69 Conflict resolution 

Inducing mediation 

Class here conflict management 

Class the resolution of specific kinds of conflict with the kind of conflict, 
e.g., of war 303.66 

304 Factors affecting social behavior 
.2 Human ecology 

Class here anthropogeography, ecological anthropology, human geography 

See Manual at 508 vs. 574, 910, 304.2 

.23 Geographical, space, time factors 

Including territoriality, time management 

Class aspects of time in specific settings with the subject in 302-307, e.g., in 
conversation 302.346, in leisure activities 306.4812 

.25 Weather and climatic factors 

.27 Biological factors 

Other than human 

.28 Environmental abuse 

Class here social consequences of the misuse of resources, of pollution 

Use of this number for human activity discontinued; class in 304.2 

Class interdisciplinary works on resources in 333.7, on pollution in 363.73 

See Manual at 363. 7 vs. 333. 72, 304. 28 

[.282] Pollution 

Number discontinued; class in 304.28 

.5 Genetic factors 

Class here sociobiology (biosociology), the study of the genetic bases of human 
social behavior 

Class a specific aspect of sociobiology with the subject in sociology, e.g., the 
sociobiology of conflict 303.6 

See also 574.5 for the sociobiology of plants and animals 
246 



304 Social sciences 304 

.6 Population 

Class here demography, demographic anthropology, population geography 

Class the population of communities in 307.2 

For movement of people, see 304.8 

.602 1 Statistics 

Class here comprehensive works on statistics of population [formerly 
also 312] 

.6 1 Characteristics of populations 

Example: density 

.62 Growth and decline 

See also 304. 63 for births, 304.64 for deaths, 304.8 for movement of 
people 

.63 Births 

Including birth intervals 

Class here comprehensive works on births and deaths 

For deaths, see 304. 64 

See also 304. 62 for the growth and decline of populations 

.632 Fertility 

.634 Family size 

.64 Deaths (Mortality) 

.645 Life expectancy 

Add to base number 304.645 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., life 
expectancy in Canada 304.64571 

[.65] Overpopulation 

Relocated to 363.91 

.66 Demographic effects of population control efforts 

Class population policy, comprehensive works on population control in 
363.9 

See Manual at 304. 66 vs. 363. 9 
[.662] Population quality 

Relocated to 363.92 
.663 Genocide 

[.664] Population quantity 

Relocated to 363.91 



247 



304 Dewey Decimal Classification 304 

.666 Family planning 

Class here birth control 

See also 363. 96 for family planning programs, 613. 9 for birth control 
techniques 

.667 Abortion 

.668 Infanticide 

.8 Movement of people 

For movement to, from, within communities, see 307.2 

.809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Internal movement in [formerly also 304.82] and emigration from 
specific areas 

Class emigration to specific areas in 304.83-304.89 

.81 Causes 

.82 International movement 

Internal movement relocated to 304.809 

Class international emigration in 304.809, international immigration in 
304.83-304.89 

See also 325 for political aspects of international movement 

.83-. 89 Migration 

Add to base number 304.8 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., migration to 
Australia 304.894; then add 0* and to the result add notation 1-9 from 
Table 2 for the place of origin, e.g., migration from the United States to 
Australia 304.894073 

*Use 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



248 



305 Social sciences 305 



305 Social groups 

General aspects: Social status, role, interactions, problems of social groups; 
discrimination against and conflict involving social groups 

Class here culture and institutions of specific groups other than indigenous racial, 
ethnic, national groups {formerly also 306.08]; subcultures of specific groups; 
consciousness-raising groups; social stratification, equality, inequality 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., black Roman Catholic 
middle-class male youths 305.235 (not 305.31, 305.55, 305.62, or 305.896) 

Persons by physical and mental characteristics 305.908 

Age groups 305.2 

Groups by sex 305.3- .4 

Social classes 305.5 

Religious groups 305.6 

Language groups 305.7 

Racial, ethnic, national groups 305.8 

Occupational and miscellaneous groups 305.9 
(except 305.908) 

The effect of mass media on specific groups, on social stratification, relocated to 
302.2308 

Class the role of specific groups in specific institutions in 306, e.g., women in 
political institutions 306.2082; specific problems of, welfare services to social 
groups in 362; a specific aspect of discrimination with the subject, e.g., 
discrimination in housing 363.51; opinions of specific groups in 303.38 

See Manual at 305 vs. 306, 909, 930-990 





SUMMARY 


305.2 


Age groups 


.3 


Men and women 


.4 


Women 


.5 


Social classes 


.6 


Religious groups 


.7 


Language groups 


.8 


Racial, ethnic, national groups 


.9 


Occupational and miscellaneous groups 



Age groups 

Class here comprehensive works on the generation gap 
For the generation gap within families, see 306.874 



249 



305 Dewey Decimal Classification 305 

.23 Young people 

Through age twenty 

Class here interdisciplinary works on children 

Class a specific aspect of children with the aspect, e.g., social welfare of 
children 362.7 

.23 1 Child development 

Class here interdisciplinary works on child development 

Class psychological development of children in 155.4, physical 
development in 612.65, socialization in 303.32 

.232 Infants 

Children from birth to age two 
.233 Preschool children 

Aged three to five 
.234 School children 

Aged six to eleven 
.235 Young adults 

Aged twelve to twenty 

Class here comprehensive works on young adults aged twelve to twenty 
and over twenty 

Class young adults over twenty in 305.242 

.235 5 Development 

Class here interdisciplinary works on the development of young 
adults 

Class psychological development of young adults in 155.5, physical 
development in 612.661 

.24 Adults 

Class adults of specific sexes in 305.3-305.4 

For late adulthood, see 305.26 

.242 Early adulthood 

Over twenty years of age 

Class comprehensive works on young adults, young adults aged twelve 
to twenty in 305.235 

.244 Middle adulthood 

Class here middle age 

.26 Late adulthood 

Class the sociology of retirement in 306.38 

See also 646. 79 for guides to retirement 

250 



305 Social sciences 305 

.3 Men and women 

Including transsexuality 

Class here interdisciplinary works on sex role, the sexes, gender identity; adult 
men and women 

Class sex psychology and psychology of the sexes in 155.3, men and women in 
late adulthood in 305.26; specific aspects of sex role and gender identity with 
the subject, e.g., psychology of gender identity 155.33; the relations between 
the sexes and within the sexes in 306.7-306.8; the relation of a specific sex to a 
specific subject with the subject, using notation 081-082 from Table 1, e.g., 
women in U.S. history 973.082 

For women, see 305.4 

.31 Men 

Class here interdisciplinary works on men, on males 

Class specific aspects of the sociology of men in 305.32-305.38, aspects not 
provided for in 305.3 with the subject, e.g., legal status of men 346.013 



305.32-305.38 Specific aspects of the sociology of men 

Class comprehensive works in 305.31 

.32 Social role and status of men 

Class here discrimination against men, men's movements, e.g., men's 
liberation movement 

.33 Men's occupations 

Add to base number 305.33 notation 09-99 from Table 7, e.g., male 
physicians 305.3361 

See also 331 for the economic aspects of men's occupations 

.38 Specific kinds of men 

Class kinds of men defined by occupation in 305.33 

.386-. 388 Belonging to various specific religious, language, racial, ethnic, 

national groups 

Add to base number 305.38 the numbers following 305 in 305.6-305.8, 
e.g., English-speaking men of South Africa 305.38721068 

.389 Miscellaneous groups 

Add to base number 305.389 the numbers following 305.90 in 
305.904-305.906, e.g., widowers 305.389654 



251 



305 Dewey Decimal Classification 305 

.4 Women 

Class here interdisciplinary works on women, on females 

Add to base number 305.4 the numbers following 305.3 in 305.32-305.38, e.g., 
widows 305.489654 

Class specific aspects of the sociology of women not provided for here with the 
subject outside sociology, e.g., women suffrage in 324.623, economic aspects of 
women's occupations in 331.4, the legal status of women 346.0134, women's 
education in 376 

.5 Social classes 

Class here class struggle 

Use of this number for equality and inequality discontinued; class in 305 

Class the theory of class struggle in Marxism in 335.41 1 

See Manual at 305. 9 vs. 305.5 

.5 1 General principles 

.5 1 2 Principles of stratification 

.512 2 Caste systems 

.513 Social mobility 

.52 Upper classes 

Class here aristocracy, elites 

Class intellectual elites in 305.552 

.522 By birth 

Class here prominent families 

.522 2 Royalty 

.522 3 Nobility 

.523 By economic status 

.523 2 Landowners with large estates and landed gentry 

.523 4 Wealthy 

For landowners with large estates, see 305.5232 

.524 By political status 

Examples: cabinet ministers, commissars, judges, legislative 
representatives 

.55 Middle classes (Bourgeoisie) 

Class laboring classes in 305.562 

.552 Intelligentsia 

Class here intellectual elites 



252 



305 Social sciences 305 

.553 Professional classes 

Examples: lawyers, nurses, soldiers, teachers 
.554 Managerial and entrepreneurial classes 

Class farmers in 305.555 
.555 Farmers 

Worker-managers of their own land 

Class agricultural labor in 305.563 
.556 White-collar classes 

Examples: bookkeepers, bureaucrats, clerks, shop assistants 

.56 Lower, alienated, excluded classes 

Class here minority groups, nomdominant groups 

Class specific minority or nondominant groups with the group, e.g. 
non-dominant ethnic groups 305.8 

.562 Laboring classes (Proletariat) 

Including blue-collar workers 

Class agricultural workers in 305.563, slaves in 305.567 
.563 Agricultural lower classes 

Examples: agricultural workers, serfs, sharecroppers 
.563 3 Peasants 

.567 Slaves 

.568 Alienated and excluded classes 

Examples: hippies, hoboes, tramps, untouchables 
.569 The impoverished 

Class problems of and service to the poor in 362.5 

.6 Religious groups 

Add to base number 305.6 the numbers following —2 in notation 21-29 from 
Table 7, e.g., Christian Scientists 305.685; then add 0* and to the result add 
notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g. Christian Scientists in France 305.685044 

Persons occupied with religion relocated to 305.92 

.7 Language groups 

Add to base number 305.7 notation 1-9 from Table 6, e.g., English-speaking 
people 305.721; then add 0* and to the result add notation 1-9 from Table 2, 
e.g., English-speaking people of South Africa 305.721068 

'Use 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



253 



305 Dewey Decimal Classification 305 

.8 Racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class here ethnology, cultural ethnology, ethnography [all formerly also 306, 
572]; race relations 

Use 305.8001-305.8009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 305.8 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., Chinese 
305.8951, Chinese in the United States 305.8951073 

Class unassimilated indigenous racial, ethnic, national groups in 306.08; 
physical ethnology in 572 

See also 909.04 for the comprehensive history of specific racial, ethnic, 
national groups 

See Manual at 306. 08 vs. 305. 8 

.9 Occupational and miscellaneous groups 

Use 305.9001-305.9009 for standard subdivisions 

Unless otherwise instructed, class complex subjects with aspects in two or more 
subdivisions of 305.9 in the number coming last, e.g., unemployed 
bibliographers 305.9091 (nor 305.90694) 

Class here occupational mobility 

See Manual at at 305. 9 vs 305.5 

.904 Persons by kinship characteristics 

Add to base number 305.904 the numbers following —04 in notation 
043-046 from Table 7, e.g., grandchildren 305.90442 

.906 Persons by cultural level, marital status, sexual orientation, special 

social status 

Add to base number 305.906 the numbers following —086 in notation 
0863-0869 from Table 1, e.g., homosexuals (including gay liberation 
movement [formerly also 306.766]) 305.90664, veterans 305.90697; 
however, class members nondominant socioeconomic groups in 305.56; 
nondominant religious groups in 305.6, of nondominant racial, ethnic, 
national groups in 305.8; offenders in 364.3; inmates of penal institutions 
in 365.6 

.908 Persons by physical and mental characteristics 

Add to base number 305.908 the numbers following —08 in notation 
081-082, from Table 7, e.g., gifted persons 305.90829 

.909- .999 Persons by occupation 

Add to base number 305.9 notation 09-99 from Table 7, e.g., persons 
occupied with religion 305.92 [formerly 305.6], postal workers 305.9383 

Class men's occupations in 305.33, women's occupations in 305.43 



254 



306 Social sciences 306 



306 Culture and institutions 

Culture: the aggregate of a society's beliefs, folkways, mores, science, technology, 
values, arts 

Institutions: patterns of behavior in social relationships 

General aspects: the roles, functions, and patterns within which the groups and 
members of a society conduct their lives 

Class here mass culture, cultural and social anthropology 

Ethnology, cultural ethnology, ethnography relocated to 305.8 

Class cultural exchange in 303.482, physical anthropology in 573, the history of a 
specific ethnic group in 900 

For customs and folklore, see 390 

See Manual at 305 vs. 306, 909, 930-990; 306.4 vs. 306 





SUMMARY 


;.oi-.09 


Standard subdivisions 


.1 


Subcultures 


.2 


Political institutions 


.3 


Economic institutions 


.4 


Cultural institutions 


.6 


Religious institutions 


.7 


Institutions pertaining to relations of the sexes 


.8 


Marriage and family 


.9 


Institutions pertaining to death 



.08 Indigenous racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class here culture and institutions, ethnology, race relations of indigenous 
groups living in distinct communities not integrated in the economic and 
social life of a nation 

Culture and institutions of specific groups other than indigenous racial, 
ethnic, national groups relocated to 305 

Class nonindigenous racial, ethnic, national groups in 305.8 

See Manual at 306. 08 vs. 305. 8 

.089 Specific indigenous racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 306.089 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., 
indigenous North American groups 306.08997, these groups in Mexico 
306.08997072 

.1 Subcultures 

Examples: counterculture, drug culture 

Use of this number for mass culture discontinued; class in 306 

Popular culture relocated to 306.4 

Class subcultures of specific groups in 305, drug usage considered as a social 
problem 362.29 



255 



306 Dewey Decimal Classification 306 

.2 Political institutions 

Institutions maintaining internal and external peace 

Class here comprehensive works on patronage, on client relationships; political 
sociology 

Class political science in 320, law in 340, public administration and military 
science in 350; patronage and client relationships in a specific institution with 
the institution, e.g., in systems of production 306.34, in art 306.47 

See Manual at 320 vs. 306. 2 



306.23-306.25 Governmental institutions 

Class comprehensive works in 306.2 

.23 Legislative institutions 

.24 Executive institutions 

Class military institutions in 306.27, police in 306.28 

.25 Judicial institutions 

.26 Political parties 

.27 Military institutions 

Class here military sociology 

See also 355 for military science 

.28 Police institutions 

See also 363.2 for police services 

.3 Economic institutions 

Social arrangements for production, distribution 

Class here economic anthropology; economic sociology; sociology of economic 
development, of consumption 

Class specific occupational groups in 305.9, economic institutions relating to 
housing in 307.336 

See also 305.5 for social classes, 330 for economics 
.32 Property systems 

Example: kinds of land tenure 
.34 Systems of production and exchange 

Class here the sociology of industrial conflict and relations 

See also 302.35 for organizational behavior, 303.482 for commerce 
(trade) as agent of social change 

.342 Capitalism (Free enterprise) 

See also 330. 122 for economic aspects 



256 



306 Social sciences 306 

.344 Cooperation 

See also 334 for economic aspects of cooperatives 

.345 Socialism 

Class interdisciplinary works on socialism in 335 

See Manual at 335 vs. 320. 53, 306.345 

.347 Syndicalism 

Class interdisciplinary works on syndicalism in 335.82 

See Manual at 335 vs. 320. 53, 306.345 

.349 Agricultural systems 

Including the plantation as a system of production 

Class here agricultural sociology [formerly also 307.72], land tenure 
systems 

Class agricultural production systems not involving the ownership of 
land in 306.364 

.36 Systems of labor 

Class here the sociology of work, industrial sociology 

Class sociology of industrial conflict and relations in 306.34, economic 
aspects of work in 331 

.361 General aspects 

Examples: absenteeism, quality of work life, unemployment 

.3613 Work ethic 

Effect of work ethic and its absence on systems of labor 

.361 5 Sexual division of labor 

.362 Slavery 

See also 305.567 for slaves as a social group 

.363 Indentured and contract labor 

.364 Agricultural systems of labor 

Class here agricultural occupations in general; systems of agricultural 
production not involving ownership of land, e.g., fishing, hunting, 
gathering systems 

Class agricultural slavery in 306.362, indentured and contract labor in 
agriculture in 306.363 

For agricultural shared return systems, see 306.365 

.365 Agricultural shared return systems 

Class here serfdom, sharecropping 



257 



306 Dewey Decimal Classification 306 

.366 Free labor systems 

Class free labor in agricultural systems in 306.364 

.368 Nonagricultural occupations 

Class here division of labor, occupations considered severally 

Class social groups denned by occupation in 305.909-305.999 

For sexual division of labor, see 306.3615; agricultural occupations 
in general, 306.364 

.38 Retirement 

See also 646. 79 for guides to retirement 

.4 Cultural institutions 

Class here popular culture [formerly 306.1] 

Including the sociology of witch crazes [formerly 900], magic, symbols, eating 
habits, body shape 

Class educational institutions, the sociology of education in 370.19; 
interdisciplinary works on witch crazes in 133.43 

For religious institutions, see 306. 6 

See Manual at 306.4 vs. 306 
.42 Sociology of knowledge 

Class here the sociology of the intellectual life, of information 

Class specific instances of the sociology of knowledge in 306.44-306.48 
.44 Language 

Class here sociolinguistics [formerly 401.9] 

See Manual at 401.43 vs. 4 12, 415, 306.44, 401.9 

.440 89 History and description with respect to racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class here ethnolinguistics {formerly 408.9] 

.446 Bilingualism and multilingualism 

Class here biculturalism and multiculturalism in the sense of the 
prevalence among residents in an area of divergent cultural traditions 
centered upon different languages 

Class the treatment of bilingualism and multilingualism in the context of 
language planning and policy formulation in 306.449 

Use 306.4 for biculturalism and multiculturalism in which the difference 
in language is not a central element 

See also 404.2 for linguistic aspects of bilingualism 



258 



306 Social sciences 306 



.449 Language planning and policy 



Class here the development of policies on language to solve the 
communication problems of a community that uses more than one 
language 

.449 09 Historical and persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in the 
modern world in 306.4494-306.4499 (not 
306.449094-306.449099) 

.449 4- .449 9 Treatment by specific continent, country, locality in the modern world 

Add to base number 306.449 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
language policy of India 306.44954 

.45 Science 

Class here works contrasting the scientific and the humanistic cultures 

See Manual at 303.483 vs. 306.45, 306.46 
.46 Technology 

See Manual at 303.483 vs. 306.45, 306.46 
.461 Medicine 

Class here the sociology of medicine, of health, of illness 

Class social aspects of medical welfare problems and services in 
362.1042 



.47 


Art 




Class the sociology of arts and crafts in 306.489 


.48 


Recreation 


.481 


General topics 




Examples: play, pleasure, wit and humor 


.4812 


Leisure 




Class here free time 


.482 


Gambling 


.483 


Sports 




Class gambling on athletic events in 306.482 


.484 


Music, dance, theater 


.485 


Television, radio, motion pictures 


.487 


Hobbies and games 




Class sports in 306.483, gambling on games in 306.482 


.488 


Reading 


.489 


Arts and crafts 



259 



306 Dewey Decimal Classification 306 

.6 Religious institutions 

To be classed here, the institutions must be considered from a secular, 
nonreligious viewpoint 

Class here sociology of religion 

Add to base number 306.6 the numbers following 2 in 230-290, e.g., Sunday 
school as a social institution 306.668, the synagogue as a social institution 
306.69665 

Use 306.63 for comprehensive works on Christian institutions 

Class general works on religious institutions in countries where a specific 
religion predominates in 306.609 unless viewed as representative of the specific 
religion 

See also 291.17 for social theology, 261 for Christian social theology 

.7 Institutions pertaining to relations of the sexes 

Class here interdisciplinary works on sex [formerly 612.6], sexual love, sexual 
relations 

Unwed parenthood relocated to 306.856 

For sexual ethics, see 176; problems and controversies concerning various 
sex relations, 363.4; sex offenses, 364. 153; sex customs, 392.6; sex hygiene, 
613.95; sex techniques, 613.96; sex practices viewed as treatable disorders, 
616.8583 

See Manual at 155.34 vs. 306. 7 

.73 General institutions 

Class here dating behavior 

Group sex relocated to 306.77 

For marriage, see 306. 81 

.732 Celibacy 

.734 Courtship 

See also 392.4 for customs of courtship 

.735 Cohabiting 

Former heading: Nonmarital relations 

Including menage a trois, free love 

.736 Extramarital relations 

[.737] Illegitimacy 

Relocated to 306.874 

.738 Homosexual marriage 



260 



306 Social sciences 306 



.74 Prostitution 

See also 331. 76130674 for prostitution as an occupation, 363.44 for 
prostitution as a social problem, 364. 1534 for prostitution as a crime 

.742 By females 

Class child prostitution in 306.745 
.743 By males 

Class child prostitution in 306.745 
.745 By children 

.76 Sexual orientation 

Class practices associated with specific orientations in 306.77 
.762 Neutral sexual orientation 

.764 Heterosexuality 

.765 Bisexuality 

.766 Homosexuality 

Gay liberation movement relocated to 305.90664 

.766 2 Male homosexuality 

.766 3 Female homosexuality (Lesbianism) 

.77 Sexual practices 

Examples: group sex [formerly 306.73], fetishism, transvestism 

See also 363 .47 for pornography as a social problem, 364.174 as an 
offense against public morals, 364. 153 as a sex crime 

.772 Masturbation 

.773 Sodomy 

For oral sex, see 306. 774 

.114 Oral sex 

.775 Sadism 

Class here sado-masochism 

For masochism, see 306. 776 

.116 Masochism 

[.777] Incest 

Relocated to 306.877 

[.778] Group sex 

Number discontinued; class in 306.77 

[.779] Bestiality 

Number discontinued; class in 306.77 

261 



306 Dewey Decimal Classification 306 

.8 Marriage and family 

See also 362.8286 for premarital and marriage counseling 

SUMMARY 



306.81 


Marriage 


.82 


Patterns in mate selection 


.83 


Types of kinship systems 


.84 


Types of marriage 


.85 


The family 


.87 


Intrafamily relationships 


.88 


Alteration of family arrangements 


.89 


Separation and divorce 



.81 Marriage 

Class here interdisciplinary works on marriage 

Class homosexual marriage in 306.738, patterns of mate selection 306.82, 
alteration of the marriage arrangements 306.88, other aspects of marriage 
with the subject, e.g., sexual techniques 613.96 

For types of marriage, see 306.84 

.82 Patterns in mate selection 

Examples: endogamy, exogamy 

Class courtship in 306.734 

See also 392.4 for the customs of mate selection, 646. 77 for practical 
guidance on choosing a mate and for dating behavior 

.83 Types of kinship systems 

Examples: matrilineal, patrilineal, totemic 
.84 Types of marriage 

Examples: common-law marriage, remarriage 

.842 By number of spouses 

.842 2 Monogamy 

.842 3 Polygamy and polyandry 

.843 Interreligious marriage 

Marriages in which the spouses belong to different religions or different 
branches of the same religion 

.845 Intercultural marriages 

Class here marriages between citizens of different countries 
.846 Interracial marriages 

Class here miscegenation 



262 



306 Social sciences 306 

.85 The family 

Including the nonconsanguinal family 

Class here interdisciplinary works on the family 

Class a specific aspect of the family with the subject, e.g., kinship systems 
306.83, achieving harmonious family relations 646.78 

For intrafamily relationships, see 306.87; alteration of family 
arrangements, 306.88 

See also 155. 924 for the psychological influence of the family on 
individual members 

.852 The rural family 

See also 307. 72 for rural sociology 
.853 The suburban family 

See also 307. 74 for suburban communities 
.854 The urban family 

See also 307. 76 for urban sociology 

.855 The nuclear family 

Class the single-parent family in 306.856 

.856 The single-parent family 

Class here unwed parenthood [formerly 306.7], divorced families with 
single-parent custody 

.857 The extended family 

Class kinship systems in the extended family in 306.83 

.858 The patriarchal family 

.859 The matriarchal family 

.87 Intrafamily relationships 

Example: in-law relationships 

Including birth order 

For alteration of family arrangements, see 306.88 

See also 362.82 for social services to families, 646. 78 for practical 
guides to harmonious family relationships 

.872 Husband- wife relationship 

See also 613. 96 for sexual techniques 



263 



306 Dewey Decimal Classification 306 

.874 Parent-child relationship 

Examples: illegitimacy [formerly 306.737], stepparent-stepchild 
relationship, adopted children, only child, youngest child 

Class here the generation gap within families 

Class comprehensive works on the generation gap in 305.2 

See also 649 for child rearing (parenting) 

.874 2 Father-child relationship 

Class here the sociology of fatherhood 

.874 3 Mother-child relationship 

Class here the sociology of motherhood 

.874 5 Grandparent-child relationship 

.875 Sibling relationships 

.875 2 Brother-brother relationship 

.875 3 Brother-sister relationship 

.875 4 Sister-sister relationship 

.877 Incest [formerly 306.777] 

.88 Alteration of family arrangements 

Examples: desertion, death 

For separation and divorce, see 306. 89 

.89 Separation and divorce 

Including the binuclear family, shared custody 

Class the parent-child relationship in divorced families in 306.874, divorced 
families with single-parent custody in 306.856 

.9 Institutions pertaining to death 

Class here interdisciplinary works on death 

Class specific aspects of death with the subject, e.g., the psychology of death 
155.937, funeral rites and ceremonies 393.9 

307 Communities 

See Manual at 307 



264 



307 Social sciences 307 



> 307.1-307.3 Specific aspects of communities 

Add to the notation for each term identified by * as follows: 
01-09 Standard subdivisions 
1 Specific kinds of communities 

Add to 1 the numbers following 307.7 in 307.72-307.77, e.g. 
cities 16 

Class comprehensive works in 307 

.1 ^Planning and development 

.12 *Planning 

See also 711 for the physical aspect of city planning 
See Manual at 711 vs. 307. 12 
.14 *Development 

Class here human settlement 

Class resettlement in 307.2, redevelopment in 307.34 
.2 ^Population 

Size, composition; movement to, from, within communities 
Including decentralization, resettlement 
.24 *Movement from rural to urban communities 

Class here the rural exodus 
.26 *Movement from urban to rural communities 

Class here the urban exodus 
.3 *Structure 

Class movement within communities in 307.24 
.32 *Physical setting 

.33 *Patterns of use 

.332 industrial use 

.333 *Commercial use 

.334 *Recreational use 

.336 *Residential use 

Including housing succession 
Class here housing patterns, sociology of housing 
See also 363.58 for housing programs 
See Manual at 307.336 vs. 307. 34, 363.5 
'Add as instructed under 307.1-307.3 



265 



307 Dewey Decimal Classification 307 

.336 2 *Neighborhoods 

Class ghettos in 307.3366 
.336 4 *Slums 

.336 6 *Ghettos 

.34 *Redevelopment 

Class community planning in 307.12 

See Manual at 307.336 vs. 307. 34, 363.5 
.342 *City core 

.344 *Slum clearance 

.346 *Parks and recreational facilities 

.7 Specific kinds of communities 

Class specific aspects of specific kinds of communities in 307.1-307.3 
.72 Rural communities 

Class here rural sociology, rural villages 

Including plantations considered as communities 

Agricultural sociology relocated to 306.349 

Class the plantation considered as a system of production in 306.349 
.74 Suburban communities 

.740 9 Historical and geographical communities 

Specific suburban communities relocated to 307.7609 
.76 Urban communities 

Class here urban sociology, interdisciplinary works on cities 

Class suburban communities in 307.74 

.760 9 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class here specific suburban communities {formerly also 307.7409], 
specific urban communities regardless of size [formerly also 
307.762-307.764] or kind {formerly also 307.766-307.768] 



> 307.762-307.764 Urban communities by size 

Class comprehensive works in 307.76 

Specific urban communities regardless of size relocated to 307.7609 
.762 Small urban communities 

Class here comprehensive works on villages 
For rural villages, see 307. 72 
*Add as instructed under 307.1-307.3 

266 



307 Social sciences 307 

.763 Medium-sized urban communities 

.764 Large urban communities 

Class here metropolitan areas as communities 
For medium-sized communities, see 307. 763 



> 307.766-307.768 Urban communities by kind 

Class comprehensive works in 307.76 

Specific urban communities regardless of kind relocated to 307.7609 

.766 Mining and industrial towns 

Class company towns in 307.767 

.767 Company towns 

.768 New towns 

.77 Self-contained communities 

.772 Tribal communities 

Class tribal communities considered in the context of culture and 
institutions of indigenous racial, ethnic, national groups in 306.08 

.774 Communes 

Class kibbutzim in 307.776 
.776 Kibbutzim 

[308] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 16 

[309] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 18 

310 General statistics 

Interdisciplinary collections of quantitative data 

Class statistics of a specific subject, other than general statistics of a place, with the 
subject, using notation 021 from Table 1, e.g., statistics on deaths by crimes of 
violence 364.15021 

See also 001.4225 for analysis of statistical data, 001 .4226 for presentation of 
statistical data 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class general statistics of specific continents, countries, localities in modem 
world in 314-319 (not 310.94-310.99) 






267 



311 Dewey Decimal Classification 311 

[311] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 17 

[312] Statistics of populations (Demographic statistics) 

Comprehensive works relocated to 304.6021; statistics of a specific demographic 
topic to the topic with use of notation 021 from Table 1, e.g., statistics on deaths by 
crimes of violence 364.15021 

[313] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 14 



> 314-319 General statistics of specific continents, 

countries, localities in modern world 

Add to base number 31 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., statistics of France 
314.4 

Class comprehensive works in 310 

314 *Of Europe 

315 *Of Asia 

316 *Of Africa 

317 *Of North America 

318 *Of South America 

319 *Of other parts of the world *Of Pacific Ocean Islands 

320 Political science (Politics and government) 

For law, see 340; public administration and military science, 350 
See also 306.2 for sociology of political institutions and processes 
See Manual at 320; 320 vs. 302-307; 320 vs. 306.2; 320 vs. 909, 930-990 

SUMMARY 

320.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1-.9 [Structure and functions, ideologies, situation and conditions, and related 

topics] 

321 Systems of governments and states 

322 Relation of the state to organized groups and their members 

323 Civil and political rights 

324 The political process 

325 International migration and colonization 

326 Slavery and emancipation 

327 International relations 

328 The legislative process 

*Add as instructed under 314-319 



268 



320 Political science (Politics and government) 320 







SUMMARY 




320.01- 


-.09 Standard subdivisions 




.1 


The state 




.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 
.8 
.9 


Comparative government 

Structure and functions of government 

Political ideologies 

Policy formulation 

Local government 

Political situation and conditions 


01 


Philosophy and theory 


on 




General theory; systems 



Class here nature, legitimacy, role of government [all formerly 320.2]; 
political justice, political change 

Class persons treatment of general theory in 320.092, specific theories in 
the sense of ideologies in 320.5; theories on specific aspects of 
government with the aspect, e.g., the social contract as a theory of the 
origin of the state 320.1 1 



See Manual at 320. 01 1 vs. 320. 5 

.0113 Systems analysis 

The word "systems" here refers only to concepts derived from 003, 
e.g., systems theory, models 

Add to base number 320.01 13 the numbers following 003 in 
003.1-003.8, e.g., computer modeling and simulation 320.01 133, 
forecasting and forecasts 320.01132; however, class forecasting and 
forecasts for a specific period or area in 320.9 

.014 Language (Terminology) and communication 

Class here political persuasion and propaganda 

Class interdisciplinary works on persuasion in 303.342, on propaganda in 
303.375 

.019 Psychological aspects 

Including political decision making 

Class political persuasion and propaganda in 320.014 

.02- .08 Standard subdivisions 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of political science (politics 

and government) as a discipline 

Class historical and geographical treatment of politics and government, 
forecasting and forecasts in a specific period or area in 320.9 



.092 Political philosophers and scientists 



Biography of political thinkers identified with specific ideologies 
relocated to 320.5 



269 



320 Dewey Decimal Classification 320 

.1 The state 

Class systems by which states are organized in 321 

See Manual at 320 

.101 Philosophy and theory 

Class theories of origin of the state in 320. 1 1 

. 1 1 Theories of origin 

Class here the social contract 

.12 Territory 

Class here geopolitics 

Class geopolitics in international relations in 327.101, territory in 
international law in 341.42, history of territorial changes in 91 1 

.15 Sovereignty 

Class here national self-determination 

Class states with restricted sovereignty in 321.08 

Use of this number for elements discontinued; class in 320. 1 

[.156] Population 

Number discontinued; class in 320. 1 

[.157] Sovereignty 

Number discontinued; class in 320.15 

[.17] Emerging states 

Number discontinued; class in 320. 1 

[.2] Government 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on government discontinued; class 
in 320 

Nature, legitimacy, role of government relocated to 320.01 1 

.3 Comparative government 

Class comparison of a specific subject with the subject, e.g., comparison of 
committee systems in different legislatures 328.365 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class a comparison of two governments, if neither predominates, with 
the one coming first in Table 2 



270 






320 Political science (Politics and government) 320 

.4 Structure and functions of government 

Class here civics 

Relation of local government to higher levels of government relocated to 320.8 

Class analysis of systems by which government is structured in 321 

For comparative government, see 320.3 

See Manual at 350. 354 vs. 320.4, 320. 9 

.404 Separation of powers 

Class here relation of executive branch to other branches [formerly also 
351.0037], branches of government 

Class separation of powers in specific areas in 320.41-320.49, cabinet 
system of executives in 321.8043, legislative control and oversight of 
executive branch in 328.3456 

For legislative branch, see 328; judicial branch, 347; executive 
branch, 350 

.404 9 Vertical separation of powers 

Class here relation of a central government with regional subordinate 
jurisdictions 

Class systems of relating federal to regional governments in 321.023 

For relation of local government to higher levels of government, 
see 320.8 

.409 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 320.41-320.49 

.41 -.49 Geographical treatment 

Class here systems of state and government in specific states 

Add to base number 320.4 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., structure of 
government in Cuba 320.47291; then to the result add standard subdivisions 
as modified under 320.4, e.g., separation of powers in Cuba 320.4729104 

.5 Political ideologies 

Class here biography of political thinkers identified with specific ideologies 
[formerly 320.092] 

Except as provided under 320.53209, use notation 09 from Table 1 for variants 
of basic ideologies formulated and practiced in specific nations, e.g., Titoism 
320.532309497, Nazism 320.5330943, apartheid 320.560968 

Class ideologies respecting a specific aspect of state or government with the 
subject, e.g., respecting revolution 321.094 

See Manual at 320.011 vs. 320. 5; 320.5 vs. 320. 9, 324 



271 



320 Dewey Decimal Classification 320 

.5 1 Liberalism 

.512 Traditional liberalism 

Ideologies and theories stressing rationalism, individualism, limited 
government 

Including libertarianism 

See also 320.52 for conservatism 

.513 Modern liberalism 

Ideologies and theories stressing responsibility of the state for the welfare 
of its citizens 

.52 Conservatism 

Ideologies and theories stressing limits of human reason and virtue, value of 
tradition, caution in effecting social change 

See also 320.512 for traditional liberalism 

.53 Collectivism and fascism 

Class here the new left, radicalism, totalitarianism, comprehensive works on 
authoritarianism 

Class religiously oriented authoritarianism in 320.55 

See Manual at 335 vs. 320. 53, 306.345 



320.531-320.532 Specific collectivist ideologies 

Class comprehensive works in 320.53 

.531 Socialism 

Nonauthoritarian systems 

See also 320.532 for authoritarian systems of socialism 

.531 2 Non- and quasi-Marxian socialism 

Examples: Christian socialism, Fabian socialism 

.531 5 Marxian socialism (Social democracy, Democratic socialism) 

.532 Communism 

Class here comprehensive works on Marxian systems of collectivism, 
authoritarian systems of socialism 

Class nonauthoritarian Marxian socialism in 320.5315 

.532 09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class communism as formulated and practiced in the Soviet Union 
in 320.5322, other systems as formulated and practiced in specific 
nations in 320.532309, e.g., Maoism 320.53230951 



272 



320 Political science (Politics and government) 320 

.532 2 Marxism-Leninism 

Class here communism as formulated and practiced in the Soviet 
Union 

Class variant forms of communism in 320.5323 

For Trotskyism, see 320.5323 

.532 3 Variant forms of communism 

Systems of communism, of Marxism-Leninism, other than ones 
accepted in Soviet Union 





Including Trotskyism 


.533 


Fascism 


.54 


Nationalism 




Class here ethnic nationalism, "pan" movements 


.540 956 94 


Zionism {formerly 956.54001] 


.549 


Regional nationalism 






Nationalism not centered around either a single language or a single 
existing state, e.g., Pan-Slavism (320.5490947) 

.55 Religiously oriented theories and ideologies 

Example: theocracy 

For Christian socialism, see 320.5312 

.56 Racism 

Ideologies based on the assumption of racial superiority 

See also 320.5330943 for Nazism 

.57 Anarchism 

.6 Policy formulation 

Class here planning, formulation of programs and proposals, policy studies 

Class a specific aspect of policy formulation with the aspect, e.g., formulating 
political party programs 324.23, legislative lobbying 328.38, policy making in 
public administration 35 1 .0072; policy formulation and public policy in specific 
subjects with the subject, e.g., policies for economic development 338.9, social 
policy 361.61 






273 



320 Dewey Decimal Classification 320 

.8 Local government 

Class here relation of local government to higher levels of government 
[formerly 320.4], boundaries, forms, kinds, structure and function 

Class systems of relating local government to higher levels of government when 
considered in areas larger than a nation in 321.01 

See also 352 for local administration 

.83 Intermediate levels 

Government levels between national, state, or large provincial government 
and local municipalities 

Examples: counties, districts, arrondissements, provinces with limited areas 

.84 Rural government 

.85 City government 

Including incorporation 

Class here urban government 

See also 352.003 for administrative aspects of municipal incorporation 

.854 Forms of government 

Examples: commission, council-manager, mayor-council 

.859 Annexation 

See also 352.006 for administrative aspects of annexation 

.9 Political situation and conditions 

Class here historical and geographical treatment of politics and government; 
history, description, critical appraisal of political institutions and forms 

Use 320.9001-320.9008 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 320.9 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., political 
conditions in Egypt 320.962 

Class general political history in 900 

See Manual at 320; 320 vs. 909, 930-990; 320.5 vs. 320. 9, 324; 350-354 
vs. 320. 4, 320.9 

321 Systems of governments and states 

Class here method of selection of chief executive [formerly also 351.0034], kinds 
of states 

Unless other instructions are given, use 321 only for considerations of "system" or 
"kind," and only for areas broader than a specific state. Use 320.4 for structure 
and functions of governments of any system or kind, and for the system or systems 
of any specific state 

Use 321.001-321.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class interdisciplinary works on systems which have corresponding political and 
economic manifestations in 330.1 and 335 



274 



32 1 Political science (Politics and government) 32 1 

.01 Systems of relating the parts to the whole 

Example: unitary systems (systems in which full control is vested in central 
governments) 

Class systems of relating the whole to the parts in nation states in 321.05, in 
ideal states in 321.07 

For federal systems, see 321.02; empires, 321.03; proposed regional 
and world unions, 321.04 

.02 Federal systems 

Class here confederations 

Class proposed regional and world federations in 321.04 

.023 Systems of relating federal and regional governments 

Class systems of relating federal and regional governments in specific 
nations in 320.4 

.03 Empires 

Systems in which a group of nations are governed by a single sovereign 
power 

Class here specific empires 

See also 325.32 for imperialism as a policy of extending dominion 

.04 Proposed regional and world unions 

Unitary or federal 

Class here specific proposed regional and world unions, interdisciplinary 
works on supranational states 

For empires, see 321.03 

.05 Nation states 

States considered as political embodiments of racial or ethnic groups 

The terms "national state" or "nation" used to cover any sovereign state 
are classed in 320. 1 

.06 Small states 

Including city-states, ministates 

See also 320. 85 for cities as local governments, 327. 101 for 
international role of small states 

.07 Ideal states (Utopias) 

Including anarchy as an ideal system 

Class proposed regional and world unions in 321.04 

.08 States with restricted sovereignty 

Examples: mandates, protectorates 



275 



321 Dewey Decimal Classification 321 

.09 Change in system of government 

Including coup d'etat 

Class here change in system of government in specific nations 

Use 321 .09 only for the process of change. For the preceding and following 
system or systems in general, use a number for the system or systems in 321; 
for the preceding and following system or systems in a specific nation, use 
notation for the nation in 320.4 

.094 Revolution 

Class interdisciplinary works on revolution in 303.64 

.1 Systems of government among nonliterate peoples, ancient and 

medieval systems of government 

.12 Systems of government among nonliterate peoples 

Ancient and modem 

Class here systems of government among nonliterate people in specific areas 
. 1 4 Ancient and medieval systems of government 

Class feudal system in 321.3, pure democracy in 321.4, elitist systems in 

321.5 



321.3-321.9 Systems of government defined by source or exercise of 
authority 

Class comprehensive works in 32 1 

.3 Feudal system 

.4 Pure democracy 

.5 Elitist systems 

Examples: aristocracy, oligarchy, plutocracy, theocracy 

Autocracy relocated to 321.6 
.6 Absolute monarchy 

Class here autocracy [formerly 321.5] 

Class ancient absolute monarchy in 321.14 

.8 Democratic systems 

For pure democracy, see 321.4 

.804 Systems of selecting chief executives 

.804 2 Presidential system 

A system in which the real executive power is exercised by a 
president chosen independently of the legislature 



276 



321 Political science (Politics and government) 321 

.804 209 73 In United States 

Class here method of selection of president {formerly 
also 353.034], methods of selection of governors 
{formerly also 353.9134] 

.804 209 74-. 804 209 79 In specific states of United States 



Class here methods of selection of governors {formerly 
also 353.97 with use of notation 034 from table at 
353.97-353.99] 



For Hawaii, see 321 . 804209969 
.804 209 969 In Hawaii 



Class here method of selection of governor {formerly 
also 353.9969034] 



.804 3 Cabinet system 






A system in which the real executive power is exercised by a cabinet 
of ministers chosen by the legislature and responsible to it 

.86 Republics 

Class selection of executives in 321.804 
.87 Limited monarchies 

Class selection of executives in 321.804 
.9 Authoritarian systems 

For elitist systems, see 321.5; absolute monarchy, 321.6 
.92 Communist 

.94 Fascist 

Including Nazi system 

322 Relation of the state to organized groups and their members 

Relation of the state to groups other than regular political parties 

Class groups organized for a specific purpose not provided for here with the 
purpose, e.g., groups organized to promote political rights 323.5 

.1 Religious organizations and groups 

Class here church and state 

See Manual at 322. 1 vs. 261. 7, 291.177 
.2 Labor movements and groups 

Including general strikes 

Class general strikes directed primarily toward employers, or focused upon 
limited economic objectives in 331.8925 

See also 323.3223 for relation of the state to the unorganized working class 

.3 Business and industry 



277 



322 Dewey Decimal Classification 322 

.4 Political action groups 

Class here protest groups; nonelectoral tactics used by political action groups, 
e.g., civil disobedience, passive resistance; specific kinds of confrontations 
between such groups and constituted authorities, e.g., riots 

Class interdisciplinary works on conflicts and their resolution in 303.6, political 
action committees (U.S. fund-raising groups) in 324.4 

.42 Revolutionary and subversive groups 

Class here revolutionary and subversive activity of political parties, military 
and direct action branches of such parties 

Class comprehensive works on parties and international movements engaged 
in both nonviolent political activity and revolutionary activity in 324 

.420 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here specific revolutionary and subversive groups irrespective 
of political persuasion or stated goals, e.g., Palestine Liberation 
Organization 322.42095694, Ku Klux Klan 322.420973 

See also 909 and 930-990 for the impact of revolutionary and 
subversive groups on general history 

.43 Pressure groups 

Groups striving for immediate and relatively limited goals 

Class the role of pressure groups in the political process in 324.4; specific 
pressure groups with their goal, e.g., a group working for better law 
enforcement 363.23 

.44 Reform movements 

Groups seeking to change a substantial social function 

Use of this number for protest movements discontinued; class in 322.4 

Class a specific reform movement with the social function it seeks to reform, 
e.g., the woman suffrage movement 324.623, welfare reform 361.68 

See Manual at 361 . 23-361 .24 vs. 322 . 44 

.5 Military organizations (Armed forces) 

323 Civil and political rights 

Class here the relation of the state to its residents; individual freedom, human 
rights, rights of mankind 

Class relation of the state to political parties and related organizations in 324, e.g., 
to political parties 324.204; law of civil rights in 342.085; welfare aspects of 
human rights in 361.614 

For relation of the state to organized groups and their members, see 322 



278 






323 Political science (Politics and government) 323 



SUMMARY 

323.01-. 09 [Standard subdivisions, citizen participation, resistance and repression] 

.1 Civil rights of nondominant aggregates, political rights of nondominant 

aggregates 

.3 Civil and political rights of other social aggregates 

.4 Specific civil rights; limitation and suspension of civil rights 

.5 Political rights 

.6 Citizenship and related topics 

.01 Philosophy and theory 

Class here natural rights [formerly 323.401] 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Participation of citizens in governmental processes 

Class here participatory democracy 

Class citizen participation in a specific issue with the issue, e.g., 
participation in public school evaluation 379.154 

.044 Resistance and repression 

Class limitation and suspension of civil rights in 323.49 

[.08] History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class civil and political rights of nondominant aggregates in 
323.1, of other social aggregates in 323.3 

.1 Civil rights of nondominant aggregates [formerly also 323.423], 

political rights of nondominant aggregates 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on the relation of the state to 
social aggregates discontinued; class in 323 

Class specific nondominant aggregates other than members of racial, ethnic, 
national groups in 323.3; specific civil rights of specific nondominant 
aggregates in 323.4, specific political rights in 323.5 

.109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
323.13-323.19 (not 323.1093-323.1099) 

. 1 1 Members of racial, ethnic, national groups 

.110 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class comprehensive works on members of racial, ethnic, national 
groups in specific areas in 323.13-323.19 (not 323.1 1093-323.099); 
members of specific racial, ethnic, national groups in specific places 
in 323.111-323.119 



279 



323 Dewey Decimal Classification 323 

. 1 1 1 - . 1 1 9 Members of specific racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 323.1 1 notation 1-9 from Table 5, e.g., relation of 
the state to Jews 323.1 1924, to Afro- Americans 323.1 196073 

(Option: Class relation of the state to North American native races in 
970.5 rather than 323.1 197, to South American native races in 980.5 
rather than 323.1 198; prefer 323.1 197 and 323.1 198) 

Class members of specific racial, ethnic, national groups who are also 
members of other social aggregates in 323.3 

. 1 3- . 19 Comprehensive treatment of nondominant aggregates, of racial, ethnic, 
national aggregates by specific continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 323.1 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., relation of the 
Soviet state to national minorities 323.147 

Class treatment of specific racial, ethnic, national groups in specific 
continents, countries, localities in 323.1 1 1-323.1 19; of other specific 
nondominant social aggregates in specific continents, countries, localities in 

323.3 

.3 Civil and political rights of other social aggregates 

Other than members of racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class a specific civil right of a specific social aggregate in 323.4, specific 
political rights in 323.5 

.32 Socioeconomic classes 

Add to base number 323.32 the numbers following —086 in notation 
0862-0869 from Table 1, e.g., the working class 323.3223, intellectuals 
323.3231 

.34 Women 

Class women of specific socioeconomic classes in 323.32 

.35 Age groups 

Class age groups of a specific socioeconomic class in 323.32, women of a 
specific age group in 323.34 

.352 Young people 

Class here children 
.353 Middle-aged adults 

Use of this number for adults discontinued; class in 323 

.354 Adults in later stage of life 

.4 Specific civil rights; limitation and suspension of civil rights 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 323.01-323.09 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on civil rights discontinued; class 
in 323 



280 






323 Political science (Politics and government) 323 

[.401] Natural rights 

Relocated to 323.01 

.42 Equal protection of laws 

.422 Procedural rights 

Examples: habeas corpus, trial by jury 

[.423] Civil rights of nondominant aggregates 

Relocated to 323.1 

.43 Personal security 

Including right to bear arms 

Class right to privacy in 323.448 

.44 Freedom of action (Liberty) 

Class here intellectual freedom 

For rights of assembly and association, see 323.47; right of petition, 
323.48 

.442 Freedom of conscience and religion 

.443 Freedom of speech 

.445 Freedom of publication 

Including right to information 

Class here freedom of information, freedom of press 

.448 Right to privacy 

.448 2 Freedom from government surveillance 

Surveillance by interception of mail, electronic monitoring, other 
means 

Class governmental databases in 323.4483 

.448 3 Freedom from misuse of information in databases 

In governmental and private databases 

.46 Economic rights (Property) 

Including employment rights, freedom of contract 

Class here property rights 

See Manual at 323.46 vs. 361 . 614 

Al Rights of assembly and association 

.48 Right of petition 

Class here comprehensive works on rights of petition and assembly 

For right of assembly, see 323.47 



281 



323 Dewey Decimal Classification 323 

.49 Limitation and suspension of civil rights 

Including harassment through abuse of laws, e.g., detention of dissidents for 
alleged mental health problems 

Class limitation and suspension of specific rights in 323.42-323.48 

[.490 8] History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class limitation and suspension of rights of nondominant 
aggregates in 323.1, of other social aggregates in 323.3 

.5 Political rights 

Examples: rights to be represented, to hold office 

Voting rights relocated to 324.62 

Class right of assembly in 323.47, of petition in 323.48; exercise of political 
rights in 324 

[.508] History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class political rights of nondominant aggregates in 323.1, of 
other social aggregates in 323.3 

.6 Citizenship and related topics 

.62 Acquisition of citizenship 

For acquisition of citizenship by marriage, see 323.636 
.622 By birth 

.623 By naturalization 

.629 By other ways 

Examples: by adoption, land purchase, length of residence 
.63 Relation of the state to aliens and persons with citizenship problems 

.631 Aliens 

Including asylum 

Class naturalization of aliens in 323.623 
.632 Stateless persons 

.634 Persons with dual nationality 

.636 Married people of differing nationality 

Including acquisition of citizenship by marriage 
.64 Expatriation and repatriation 

.65 Duties and obligations of citizens 

Including loyalty 
.67 Passports and visas 



282 






324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

324 The political process 

Class here elections 

See Manual at 320 vs. 909, 930-990; 320. 5 vs. 320. 9, 324 

SUMMARY 

324.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 International party organizations, auxiliaries, activities 

.2 Political parties 

.3 Auxiliary organizations 

.4 Interest and pressure groups 

.5 Nomination of candidates 

.6 Election systems and procedures; suffrage 

.7 Conduct of election campaigns 

.9 Historical and geographical treatment of elections 

.025 Directories of persons and organizations 

Class here lists and directories of elected officials {formerly also 351.22] 

Class lists and directories of elected officials of specific jurisdictions in 
324.9 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical and geographical treatment of elections in 324.9 

.1 International party organizations, auxiliaries, activities 

Not directly controlled by specific national parties 

Class revolutionary and subversive activities, direct action branches of party 
organizations in 322.42 

See Manual at 324.1 vs. 324.2, 324.209, 324.21 






324.13-324.17 International organizations, auxiliaries, activities of parties 
identified primarily by position on right-to-left spectrum 

Class comprehensive works in 324. 1 ; organizations, auxiliaries, activities of 
parties not primarily identified by position on right-to-left spectrum in 324.18 

.13 Of rightist parties 

Including international anticommunist leagues and their activities, 
monarchist parties 

.14 Of conservative parties 

.15 Of centrist parties 

.16 Of liberal parties 

For social democratic parties, see 324.172 



283 



324 Dewey Decimal Classification 324 

.17 Of leftist and labor oriented parties 

Including First International 

.172 Of social democratic parties 

. 1 74 Of nonauthoritarian socialist parties 

Including Second and Socialist Internationals 

For social democratic parties, see 324.172 

.175 Of communist parties 

Including Third (Communist) and Fourth (Trotskyist) Internationals, 
Cominform 

.18 Other parties 

Regardless of position on rightist to leftist spectrum 

Examples: environmentalist, libertarian parties 

. 1 82 Religious parties 

. 1 83 Nationalist parties 

.2 Political parties 

Class revolutionary and subversive activities, direct action branches of parties 
in 322.42, international organizations and activities of parties in 324.1, auxiliary 
organizations in 324.3 

See Manual at 324. 1 vs. 324. 2, 324.209, 324.21 

[.202 3] Politics as a profession, occupation, hobby 

Do not use; class in 324.22 

.204 Relation of political parties to state and government 

Including political patronage 

.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here treatment in continents and regions in modern world larger 
than countries [formerly 324.24-324.29] 

Class treatment in specific countries and parts of countries in modern 
world in 324.24-324.29 {not 324.2094-324.2099) 

See Manual at 324. 1 vs. 324. 2, 324.209, 324.21; 324.24-324.29 and 
324.29 



284 



324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

.21 Kinds of parties 

Class here organization, membership, finance of parties 

Treatment in specific countries and parts of countries in modern world of 
organization, membership, finance of parties in general relocated to 
324.24-324.29 

Add to base number 324.21 the numbers following in notation 02-08 from 
table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., centrist parties 324.215 

Class leadership of specific kinds of parties in 324.22; programs and 
ideologies of specific kinds of parties in 324.23; specific parties and kinds of 
parties in a specific country or part of a country in modern world in 
324.24-324.29 

For leadership, see 324.22; campaign finance, 324. 78 

See Manual at 324. 1 vs. 324. 2, 324.209, 324.21 

.22 Leadership 

Including selection of leaders 

Class here politicians as a type of person; poHtics as a profession, 
occupation, hobby 

Treatment in specific countries and parts of countries in modem world of 
leadership of parties in general relocated to 324.24-324.29 

Class leadership of specific parties and kinds of parties in a specific country 
or part of a country in modern world in 324.24-324.29 

For nomination of candidates, see 324.5 

.23 Programs and ideologies 

Class here platforms, campaign literature and propaganda, and works about 
them 

Add to base number 324.23 the numbers following in notation 02-08 from 
table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., programs of centrist parties 324.235 

Treatment in specific countries and parts of countries in modern world of 
programs and ideologies of parties in general relocated to 324.24-324.29 

Class programs and ideologies of specific parties and kinds of parties in a 
specific country or part of a country in modern world in 324.24-324.29; 
campaign literature and propaganda on a specific subject with the subject, 
e.g., on United States participation in the Vietnamese War 959.7043373 



285 



324 Dewey Decimal Classification 324 

.24-. 29 Parties in specific countries in modem world 

Class here treatment in specific countries and parts of countries of 
organization, membership, finance of parties in general [formerly 324.21]; of 
leadership of parties in general [formerly 324.22], of programs and 
ideologies of parties in general [formerly 324.23], of auxiliary organizations 
and nominations of specific parties 

Except where specifically instructed to the contrary below, add to base 
number 324.2 notation 4-9 from Table 2 for specific country, e.g., parties of 
France 323.244; then add further as follows: 
001-009 Standard subdivisions 

02 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 
Class comprehensive works on historical parties in 324.212 

>03-08 Recent parties 

Parties founded or remaining in existence since 1945 
Class comprehensive works on parties in specific countries 
in base number for the country in 324.24-324.29, 
comprehensive works on specific kinds of parties in 324.21 

>03-07 Recent parties identified primarily by position on right-to-left 
spectrum 

Class comprehensive works in base number for the country 
in 324.24-324.29, other recent parties not primarily 
identified by position on right-to-left spectrum in 08 
See Manual at 324.24-324.29 

03 Rightist parties 

Including monarchist parties 

Sectionalist parties relocated to 08, nationalist parties to 083 
038 Fascist and Nazi parties 

04 Conservative parties 

05 Centrist parties 

06 Liberal parties 

For social democratic parties, see 072 

07 Leftist and worker parties 
072 Social democratic parties 

074 Nonauthoritarian socialist parties 

For social democratic parties, see 072 

075 Communist parties 

08 Other recent parties 

Not primarily identified by position on right-to-left 
spectrum 

Examples: sectionalist [formerly 03], environmentalist, 
libertarian, separatist parties 
See Manual at 324. 24-324. 29 

082 Religious parties 

083 Nationalist parties [formerly 03] 

(Option: Arrange specific parties of a specific country alphabetically, 
e.g., Labour Party of United Kingdom 324.241) 

Treatment of parties in continents and regions in modern world larger than 
countries relocated to 324.209 

(continued) 



286 



324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

.24-. 29 Parties in specific countries in modern world (continued) 

Class comprehensive works on parties in 324.2, on specific kinds of parties 
in 324.21, on party leadership in 324.22, on party programs and ideologies 
in 324.23; treatment in specific countries of party auxiliary organizations in 
general in 324.309, of party nominations in general in 324.509 

See Manual at 324. 24-324.29 and 324.209; 324. 24-324. 29 

Special developments follow for selected specific countries whose party 
systems deviate from the above pattern 





SUMMARY 


324.241 


Parties of United Kingdom 


.268 


Parties of Republic of South Africa 


.271 


Parties of Canada 


.273 


Parties of United States 


.274-.279 


Parties of states of United States and District of Columbia 


.294 


Parties of Australia 


.296 9 


Parties in Hawaii 



.241 Parties of United Kingdom 

Use 324.241001-324.241009 for standard subdivisions 

.24102 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 

Class here parties of Great Britain before union with Ireland, of 
England and Wales before union with Scotland 



.241 04 


Conservative Party 


.241 06 


Liberal Party 


,241 07 


Labour Party 


.241 09 


Other parties 



Add to base number 324.24109 the numbers following in 03-08 
from table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., Communist Party 
324.2410975 

.268 Parties of Republic of South Africa 

Use 324.268001-324.268009 for standard subdivisions 

.268 02 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 



287 



324 Dewey Decimal Classification 324 



324.268 03-324.268 08 Recent parties {formerly also 324.26809] 
Parties founded or remaining in existence since 1945 
Class comprehensive works in 324.268 



324.268 03-324.268 07 Recent parties identified primarily by position on 
right-to-left spectrum 

Class comprehensive works in 324.268, other recent parties not primarily 
identified by position on right-to-left spectrum in 324.26808 

.268 03 Rightist parties 

National party relocated to 324.268083 
.268 038 Fascist and Nazi parties 

.268 04 Conservative parties 

Union Party relocated to 324.26808 
.268 05 Centrist parties 

United Party relocated to 324.26808 
.268 06 Liberal parties 

Including Liberal Party [formerly 324.26807] 
For social democratic parties, see 324.268072 
.268 07 Leftist and worker parties 

Liberal Party relocated to 324.26806 
.268 072 Social democratic parties 

.268 074 Nonauthoritarian socialist parties 

For social democratic parties, see 324.268072 
.268 075 Communist parties 

.268 08 Other recent parties 

Not primarily identified by position on right-to-left spectrum 

Examples: Union Party [formerly 324.26804], United Party 
[formerly 324.26805]; environmentalist, libertarian, sectionalist, 
separatist parties 

.268 082 Religious parties 

.268 083 National parties 

Example: National Party [formerly 324.26803], African 
National Congress 

[.268 09] Other parties 

Relocated to 324.26803-324.26808 



288 



324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

[.268 2- .268 7] Parties of provinces of South Africa 

Numbers discontinued; class in 324.268 

.27 1 Parties of Canada 

Use 324.271001-324.271009 for standard subdivisions 

.27102 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 

.271 04 Progressive Conservative Party 

.271 05 Social Credit Party 

.27106 Liberal Party 

.271 07 New Democratic Party 

.27109 Other parties 

Add to base number 324.27109 the numbers following in 03-08 
from table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., nationalist parties 
324.2710983 

.271 1-.271 9 Parties of provinces and territories of Canada 

Add to base number 324.271 the numbers following — 71 in notation 
711-719 from Table 2 for province or territory, e.g., parties in 
Quebec 324.2714; then to the result add the numbers following 
324.271 in 324.271001-324.27109, e.g., Parti quebecois 
324.2714098 

.273 Parties of United States 

Class parties in specific states and the District of Columbia in 
324.274-324.279 

.273 2 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 

Examples: American ("Know-Nothing") Party, Free Soil Party 

.273 22 Federalist Party 

.273 23 Whig Party 

Including National Republican Party 

.273 26 Jeffersonian Republican Party 

Including Antifederalist Party 

.273 27 Populist and progressive parties 

Example: Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party 

See also 324.2737 for the Progressive Party (1948) 

.273 3 Nationalist parties of the right 

Example: American Independent Party 

Including sectionalist parties, e.g., States' Rights Party (Dixiecrats) 

.273 38 American Nazi Party 

289 



324 Dewey Decimal Classification 324 



.273 4 


Republican Party 


.273 6 


Democratic Party 




Including Democratic Republican Party 


.273 7 


Leftist and worker parties 




Examples: Progressive Party (1948), So 
Workers Party 


.273 75 


Communist Party 


.273 8 


Other recent parties 



Examples: environmentalist, libertarian, prohibitionist, religious, 
separatist parties 

See also 324.2733 for sectionalist parties 

.274-. 279 Parties of states of United States and District of Columbia 

Add to base number 324.27 the numbers following —7 in notation 74-79 
from Table 2 for state or District of Columbia, e.g., parties in California 
324.2794; then add 0*, and to the result, except for New York, add the 
numbers following 324.273 in 324.27301-324.2738, e.g., Republican 
Party in California 324.279404 

Class comprehensive works in 324.273 

For parties in Hawaii, see 324.2969 

A special development for New York follows 

.274 7 Parties in New York 

Use 324.2747001-324.2747009 for standard subdivisions 

.274 702 Historical parties 

Add to base number 324.274702 the numbers following 
324.2732 in 324.27322-324.27327, e.g., Whig Party 
324.2747023 

.274 703 Conservative Party 

.274 704 Republican Party 

.274 706 Democratic Party 

.274 707 Liberal Party 

.274 709 Other parties 

Add to base number 324.274709 the numbers following in 
03-08 from table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., Communist Party 
324.27470975 

: Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



290 



324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

.294 Parties of Australia 

Use 324.294001-324.294009 for standard subdivisions 

.294 02 Historical parties 

Parties existing prior to 1945 and no longer in existence 

.294 04 Country Party 

.294 05 Liberal Party 

.294 06 Democratic Labour Party 

.294 07 Labour Party 

.294 09 Other parties 

Add to base number 324.29409 the numbers following in 03-08 
from table under 324.24-324.29, e.g., Communist Party 
324.2940975 

.294 1-.294 8 Parties in states and territories of Australia 

Add to base number 324.294 the numbers following —94 in notation 
941-948 from Table 2 for state or territory, e.g., parties in New South 
Wales 324.2944; then to the result add the numbers following 
324.294 in 324.294001-324.29409, e.g., Labour Party in New South 
Wales 324.294407 

.296 9 Parties in Hawaii 

Use 324.2969001-324.2969009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 324.2969, and to the result add the numbers 
following 324.273 in 324.2732-324.2738, e.g., Democratic Party in 
Hawaii 324.296906 

.3 Auxiliary organizations 

Organizations attached to political parties, e.g., political clubs, women's 
organizations, youth groups, sports clubs, communist front organizations 

Class revolutionary and subversive action arms of political parties in 322.42, 
auxiliary organizations of international party organizations in 324. 1 , of specific 
parties in 324.24-324.29 

.4 Interest and pressure groups 

Class here the influence and activities of groups in extragovernmental 
processes; political action committees (PACs, U.S. fund-raising groups); 
comprehensive works on executive- and legislative-branch lobbying 

Class comprehensive works on interest groups in 322.4, on pressure groups in 
322.43; legislative-branch lobbying in 328.38, lobbying for a specific goal with 
the goal, e.g., for penal reform 364.6 






291 



324 Dewey Decimal Classification 324 

.5 Nomination of candidates 

Class here selection of convention delegates, campaigns for nomination 

Use 324.5 for works on campaigns for nomination and their results (e.g., 
delegate counts and primary returns) only if two or more parties are involved. 
Use 324.24-324.29 if only one party's nomination is involved; 324.9 if both 
nomination and election campaigns are involved; 930-990 if there is emphasis 
on the effect of the nomination campaign on general history 

Class nomination procedures of specific parties in 324.24-324.29 
.52 By caucuses and co-option 

.54 By primaries 

.56 By nominating conventions 

See also 324. 21 for convention finance 
.6 Election systems and procedures; suffrage 

Example: procedures for contested elections 

Class here comprehensive works on systems and procedures for nominations 
and elections 

Class conduct of election campaigns in 324.7 

For nomination of candidates, see 324.5 

See Manual at 324.6 vs. 342.07 
.609 Historical, geographical, persons treatment [all formerly 324.9] 

.62 Suffrage 

Class here voting rights {formerly also 323.5], qualifications for voting 

.623 Women's suffrage 

.63 Electoral systems 

Examples: direct and indirect elections, electoral colleges, proportional 
representation 

.64 Registration of voters 

.65 Voting procedures 

Former heading: Polling 

Example: absentee voting 

Including ballots and ballot systems, counting and certification of votes, 
election officials, voting machines 

.66 Election frauds 

Class irregularities in campaign finance in 324.78 
.68 Recall 

Removal of an official from office by popular vote 



292 



324 Political science (Politics and government) 324 

.7 Conduct of election campaigns 

Former heading: Practical politics 

Class conduct of nomination campaigns in 324.5 

.72 Strategy 

Including citizen participation 

For use and effect of media, see 324. 73 

.73 Use and effect of media 

.78 Campaign finance 

See also 324. 21 for party finance 

.9 Historical and geographical treatment of elections 

Class here campaigns, election returns and results, studies of voting behavior 

Historical, geographical, persons treatment of election systems and procedures 
relocated to 324.609 

Class platforms, campaign literature and propaganda, and works about them in 

324.23 

.90 1- .905 Historical periods 

Add to base number 324.90 the numbers following —090 in notation 
0901-0905 from Table 1, e.g., election campaigns in the 19th century 
324.9034 

.91-. 99 Geographical treatment 

Add to base number 324.9 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., political 
campaigns in the United Kingdom 324.941; then to the result add historical 
period numbers from appropriate subdivisions of 930-990, e.g., the election 
campaign of 1966 in the United Kingdom 324.9410856. In all cases use one 
0* except 00* for North America and South America, e.g., the election of 
1964 in the United States 324.9730923, elections in South America between 
the World Wars 324.980033 

325 International migration and colonization 

Including involuntary population transfer, population exchange 

Class interdisciplinary works on international movement of people in 304.82 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in modern world 
in 325.4-325.9 {not 325.094-325.099) 

.1 Immigration 

. 109 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class immigration in specific continents, countries, localities in modern 
world in 325.4-325.9 {not 325.1094-325.1099) 

: Use extra 0s for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



293 



325 Dewey Decimal Classification 325 

.2 Emigration 

.209 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
325.23-325.29 {not 325.2093-325.2099) 

.21 Political refugees 

Class here displaced persons 

.210 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

When treatment is of refugees from one country in another country, 
class in country of origin, e.g., Polish political refugees in Canada 
325.21094380971 

.23-. 29 Emigration from specific continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 325.2 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., emigration from 
Japan 325.252, emigration from Japan to the United States 325.2520973 

.3 Colonization 

Class here the exercise of political dominion over distant territories 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class colonization in specific places in modern world in 325.4-325.9 
{not 325.3094-325.3099), colonization by specific countries in 
325.33-325.39 {not 325.3093-325.3099) 

.3 1 Colonial administration and policy 

Class public administration of specific colonies in 354 

.310 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class administration of and policy with respect to already acquired 
colonies in 325.313-325.319 {not 325.31093-325.31099); 
comprehensive works on colonial policy of specific countries in 
325.33-325.39 {not 325.31093-325.31099); internal administration 
of specific colonies in 354 

.3 1 3- .3 19 Administration of and policy in respect to already acquired colonies 

Add to base number 325.31 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., policies of 
the United Kingdom in its colonies 325.3141, policies of the United 
Kingdom in its Indian empire 325.31410954 

.32 Imperialism 

Class comprehensive works on foreign policy in 327 



294 



325 Political science (Politics and government) 325 

.33-. 39 Colonization by specific countries 

Class here comprehensive works on colonial policy of specific countries 

Add to base number 325.3 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., colonization by 
the United Kingdom 325.341, colonization by the United Kingdom in West 
Africa 325.3410966 

Class colonial policy of specific countries with respect to already acquired 
colonies in 325.31 

.4- .9 International migration to and colonization in specific continents, 
countries, localities in the modern world 

Class here comprehensive works on treatment of international migration and 
colonization limited by specific places 

Add to base number 325 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., migration to Israel 
325.5694 

Class emigration to specific continents, countries, localities from specific 
continents, countries, localities in 325.23-325.29; colonization in specific 
continents, countries, localities by specific countries in 325.33-325.39 

326 Slavery and emancipation 

Class interdisciplinary works on slavery in 306.362 

327 International relations 

Class interdisciplinary works on relations among countries in 303.482, imperialism 
as national policy in 325.32, military science in 355; international relations with 
respect to a specific subject with the subject, e.g., trade negotiations between 
Germany and Japan 382.0943052 

See Manual at 341 vs. 327 

[.01] Philosophy and theory 

Do not use; class 327.101 

.06 Organizations 

Class organizations established by two or more governments in 341.2 

[.068] Management 

Do not use; class in 351.89 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class here diplomatic history, international relations of or in specific areas 
or blocs, e.g., international relations in the Middle East 327.0956, foreign 
relations of the Communist bloc 327.091717 

Class foreign relations and diplomatic history of specific nations in 
327.3-327.9 {not 327.093-327.099) 

.092 Persons 

Diplomats relocated to 327.2092 



295 



327 Dewey Decimal Classification 327 

.1 Generalities of international relations 

Class here foreign policy, imperialism in international relations, international 
politics, power politics 

Unless otherwise instructed, class generalities of international relations of 
specific nations in 327.3-327.9 

.101 Philosophy and theory of international relations 

Including the role and position of small states, the economic bases of 
international relations 

Class here geopolitics in international relations, the nature of power in 
international relations 

Class comprehensive works on geopolitics in 320.12 

[.101 1] Geopolitics 

Number discontinued; class in 327.101 

. 1 1 Specific means of attaining foreign policy goals 

Use of this number for international politics discontinued; class in 327.1 

For espionage and subversion, see 327. 12; propaganda and war of 
nerves, 327. 14; diplomacy, 327.2 

.111 Economic activities 

Example: foreign aid 

Class boycotts and sanctions in 327.1 17 
.112 Balance of power system 

.114 Spheres of influence 

.116 Alliances 

Class here collective security 
.117 Use of force and threats of force 

Including boycotts and sanctions 

Class war of nerves in 327.14, war in 355.02 

. 1 2 Espionage and subversion 

Class here interdisciplinary works on espionage, subversion, intelligence 
gathering 

Class military espionage and subversion in 355.343 

. 1 20 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here comprehensive works on espionage and subversion in 
specific nations 

Class espionage and subversion by specific nations in 
327.123-327.129 



296 



327 Political science (Politics and government) 327 

. 1 23- . 1 29 Espionage and subversion by specific nations {formerly 

327.3-327.9] 

Add to base number 327.12 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., espionage 
by France 327.1244, then add 0* and to the result add notation 1-9 from 
Table 2, e.g., espionage by France in the Communist bloc 
327.124401717 

. 1 4 Propaganda and war of nerves 

Including disinformation activities 

Class interdisciplinary works on propaganda in 303.375, comprehensive 
works on political propaganda in 320.014 

. 1 6 International conflict 

Class war in 355.02, of conflict involving specific means of attaining foreign 
policy goals in 327.1 1 

See also 327.17 for peaceful resolution of conflict 

. 1 7 International cooperation 

Class here internationalism, resolution of conflict 

Activities of nongovernmental organizations, movements, and individuals of 
specific nations are classed here, not with the foreign relations of specific 
nations in 327.3-327.9 

Class international organizations in 341.2 

.172 Promotion of peace and international order 

.174 Disarmament and arms control 

.2 Diplomacy 

Use 327.2 for the methods and style of diplomacy (including protocol); 327 for 
the substance and content of diplomatic relations 

Class laws and rules governing diplomatic conduct in 341.33; customs of 
diplomacy in 399 

.202 5 Directories 

Class here diplomatic lists [formerly also 35 1 .892] 

.209 2 Persons treatment of diplomats [formerly also 327.092] 

Persons treatment of nonambassadorial diplomats of specific nations 
relocated to 327.3-327.9 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



297 



327 Dewey Decimal Classification 327 

.3- .9 Foreign relations of specific nations 

Class here persons treatment of nonambassadorial diplomats of specific nations 
{formerly 327.2092] 

Add to base number 327 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., foreign relations of 
Brazil 327.81; then, for the relations between that nation and another nation or 
region, add 0* and to the result add notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., relations 
between Brazil and France 327.81044, between Brazil and the Arab world 
327.810174927 

Give priority in notation to the nation emphasized. If the emphasis is equal, give 
priority to the one coming first in the sequence of area notations 

(Option: Give priority in notation to the nation requiring local emphasis, e.g., 
libraries in the United States class foreign relations between the United States 
and France in 327.73044) 

Espionage and subversion by specific nations relocated to 327.123-327.129 

328 The legislative process 

Class here the legislative branch 

See Manual at 320 vs. 909, 930-990 

.068 Management 

Class here public administration of legislative branch 

Class public administration of legislative branch of specific jurisdiction 
in 328.4-328.9, using standard subdivision notation 0068 from table 
under 328.4-328.9 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class the legislative process in specific jurisdictions in modern world in 
328.4-328.9 (not 328.094-328.099) 

.1 Rules and procedures of legislative bodies 

Including rules and procedures for reporting legislative sessions, e.g., television 
coverage 

Class comprehensive rules of order in 060.42; rules and procedures of 
committees of legislative bodies in 328.3653; rules and procedures of specific 
legislative bodies in the modern world in 328.4-328.9, using notation 05 from 
the add table under 328.4-328.9, e.g., rules of Canadian Parliament 328.7105 

.2 Initiative and referendum 

Use of this number for the legislative function discontinued; class in 328 
.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment in specific jurisdictions in the modern world in 
328.24-328.29 (not 328.2094-328.2099) 

.24-. 29 Treatment in specific jurisdictions in the modern world 

Add to base number 328.2 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., initiative in 
California 328.2794 

c Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 

298 



328 Political science (Politics and government) 328 

.3 Legislative bodies 

Use of this number for the legislative branch discontinued; class in 328 

Class legislative bodies of specific jurisdictions in the modern world in 
328.4-328.9, using notation 07 from the add table under 328.4-328.9 







SUMMARY 




328.301- 


-.309 Standard subdivisions and legislative reform 




.31 


Upper houses 




.32 


Lower houses 




.33 


Members and membership 




.34 


Powers, privileges, restrictions 




.35 


Sessions 




.36 


Internal organization and discipline 




.37 


Enactment of legislation 




.38 


Lobbying 




.39 


Forms of legislative bodies 


.304 




Special topics 


304 2 




Legislative reform 



Class reform of the basis of representation in 328.334, of internal 
organization in 328.36 

.306 Organizations and management 

Class auxiliary legislative organizations in 328.361 

.306 01 Interparliamentary unions 

.306 8 Management 

Class management of members' offices in 328.331068 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class legislative bodies of specific jurisdictions in modern world in 
328.4-328.9 (not 328.3094-328.3099) 

.3 1 Upper houses 

Class comprehensive works on upper and lower houses in 328.3, a specific 
aspect of upper houses with the aspect, e.g., treaty making power 328.346 

.32 Lower houses 

Class a specific aspect of lower houses with the aspect, e.g., basis of 
representation 328.334 

.33 Members and membership 

Including qualifications, terms of office 

Class comprehensive persons treatment of members in 328.092, persons 
treatment of members of specific legislative bodies in the modern world in 
328.4-328.9 

.33 1 Work and activity of individual members 

Class here constituency services, work of members' offices 



299 



328 Dewey Decimal Classification 328 

.333 Compensation 

.334 Basis of representation 

.334 5 Election districts 

Other than districts used in proportional representation 

Class here apportionment and reapportionment, redistricting 
[.334 52-. 334 54] Apportionment and reapportionment, redistricting 

Numbers discontinued; class in 328.3345 
.334 55 Gerrymandering 

.334 7 Proportional representation 

.34 Powers, privileges, restrictions 

. 34 1 General powers 

For treaty and war powers, see 328.346 
.341 2 Financial power 

Power over appropriation, borrowing and lending, currency, taxation 
.341 3 General economic and public welfare powers 

.345 Extralegislative powers 

Including control and oversight of the judicial branch 
.345 2 Investigative power 

Including ombudsman role 

Class interdisciplinary works on ombudsmen in 351.91 
.345 3 Judicial power 

Example: power to impeach 
.345 4 Electoral power 

.345 5 Power over appointments 

.345 6 Control and oversight of executive branch [formerly also 35 1 .0075] 

Class here general relations with executive branch 

Class cabinet system of executives in 321.8043, control of foreign 
relations in 328.346 

For ombudsman role, see 328.3452 

.346 Treaty and war powers 

Class here control of foreign relations 

.347 Personal privileges and immunities of legislators 

For personal immunities, see 328.348 

.348 Personal immunities of legislators 



300 



328 Political science (Politics and government) 328 

.349 Restrictions on legislative power 

Examples: constitutional restrictions, checks exercised by other branches 
and by the electorate 

.35 Sessions 

Class a specific aspect of legislative sessions with the aspect, e.g., internal 
organization of a session 328.36 

.36 Internal organization and discipline 

For rules, see 328. 1 

.361 Auxiliary organizations 

Bodies set up to provide information, other assistance to legislative 
bodies 

Class legislative reference bureaus in 027.65 
.362 Officers and leaders 

Class party organization in legislative bodies in 328.369 

.365 Committees 

Class committee hearings and reports on a specific subject with the 
subject, e.g., general reports on military affairs 355; however, if the 
hearings and reports emphasize proposed legislation, class with the 
subject in law, e.g., hearings on bills governing armed services 343.013 

[.365 2] Organization, jurisdiction, membership 

Number discontinued; class in 328.365 

.365 3 Rules 

Including rules of specific committees, of specific types of 
committees 

.365 7 Specific types of committees 

Examples: standing, special, select, interim, joint, conference 
committees 

Class rules of specific types of committees in 328.3653, committees 
of specific subject jurisdiction in 329.3658 

.365 8 Committees of specific subject jurisdiction 

Examples: education, foreign relations, rules committees 

Class rules of committees of specific subject jurisdiction in 328.3653 

.366 Discipline of members 

.369 Party organization in legislative bodies 

Class here opposition, opposition parties, party caucuses 



301 



328 Dewey Decimal Classification 328 

.37 Enactment of legislation 

Including repeal of legislation 

See also 328.365 for committee procedures 
.372 Origin 

Submission by members, by executive, by outside interests 
.373 Drafting 

.375 Passage 

Including votes and voting procedures 
.377 Enactment of resolutions 

.378 Enactment of specific types of legislation 

Examples: public and private laws 

For enactment of resolutions, see 328.377; enactment of budgets, 
351.7223 

.38 Lobbying 

.39 Forms of legislative bodies 

Examples: unicameral, bicameral 

Class upper houses in 328.31, lower houses in 328.32 

.4- .9 The legislative process in specific jurisdictions in the modern world 

Add to base number 328 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., the legislative process 
in Canada 328.71; then add further as follows: 

001-008 Standard subdivisions 

[009] Historical and persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 09 

01 Journals and calendars 

02 Debates 

03 Abstracts 

04 Other documents 

Class here series of miscellaneous parliamentary papers and 
documents 

05 Rules and procedures 

Including legislative manuals 

Class committee rules in 07653 
07 The legislative body 

Add to 07 the numbers following 328.3 in 328.304-328.39, 

e.g., specific committees 07658 
09 Historical and persons treatment 

Class initiative and referendum in specific jurisdictions in the modem world in 
328.24-328.29 

[329] [Unassigned] 

Most recently used in Edition 18 



302 



330 Economics 330 



330 Economics 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g. 
finance as an economic factor in international economics 332.042 {not 337) 



Cooperatives 


334 


Public finance 


336 


Factors of production 


331-333 


Production, Commerce (381-382), Transportation 




(385-388) 


338 


Macroeconomics and related topics 


339 


International economics 


337 


Socialism and related systems 


335 



Class economics of communication in 384, of transportation in 388 
For commerce, see 380. 1 
See Manual at 650 vs. 330 

SUMMARY 

330.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Systems and theories 

.9 Economic situation and conditions 

331 Labor economics 

.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Labor force and market 

.2 Compensation and other conditions of employment 

.3 Workers of specific age groups 

.4 Women workers 

.5 Special categories of workers other than by age or sex 

.6 Categories of workers by racial, ethnic, national origin 

.7 Labor by industry and occupation 

.8 Labor unions (Trade unions), labor-management (collective) bargaining 
and disputes 

332 Financial economics 

.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Banks and banking 

.2 Specialized banking institutions 

.3 Credit and loan institutions 

.4 Money 

.5 Other mediums of exchange 

.6 Investment and investments 

.7 Credit 

.8 Interest and discount 

.9 Counterfeiting, forgery, alteration 



303 



330 Dewey Decimal Classification 330 

333 Land economics 

.001-. 009 Standard subdivisions 

.01-. 08 [Theories and land surveys] 

.1 Public ownership and control of land and other natural resources 

.2 Ownership and control of land and natural resources by nongovernmental 

collectivities 
.3 Individual (Private) ownership and control of land and natural resources 

.4 Absentee ownership 

.5 Renting and leasing land and natural resources 

.7 Natural resources and energy 

.8 Subsurface resources 

.9 Other natural resources 

334 Cooperatives 

.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Building and housing 

.2 Banking and credit 

.5 Consumer cooperatives 

.6 Production 

.7 Benefit societies 

335 Socialism and related systems 

.02 Utopian systems and schools 

.1 Systems of English origin 

.2 Systems of French origin 

.3 Systems of American origin 

.4 Marxian systems (Marxism) 

.5 Democratic socialism 

.6 Fascism 

.7 Christian socialism 

.8 Other systems 

.9 Voluntary socialist and anarchist communities 

336 Public finance 

.001-.008 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .09 [Governmental level; revenue; historical, geographical, persons 

treatment] 
.1 Nontax revenues 

.2 Taxes and taxation 

.3 Public borrowing, debt, expenditure 

.4-.9 Public finance of specific continents, countries, localities in modern world 

337 International economics 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

.1 Multilateral economic cooperation 

.3- .9 Foreign economic policies and relations of specific jurisdictions and groups 

of jurisdictions 



338 


Production 


.001 


-.009 Standard subdivisions 


.01- 


.09 [General topics] 


.1 


Agriculture 


.2 


Extraction of minerals 


.3 


Other extractive industries 


.4 


Secondary industries and services 


.5 


General production economics 


.6 


Organization of production 


.7 


Business enterprises and their structure 


.8 


Combinations 


.9 


Economic development and growth 



304 



330 Economics 330 

339 Macroeconomics and related topics 
.2 Distribution of income and wealth 

.3 National product, wealth, income accounts and accounting 

.4 Factors affecting national product, wealth, income 

.5 Macroeconomic policy 

.01 Philosophy and theory 

Class theories in 330.1 

.015 1 Mathematical principles 

See also 330. J 543 for mathematical economics as a school of 
thought 

.015 195 Statistical mathematics 

Class here econometrics [formerly 330.028] 

See Manual at 519.5, Tl— 015195 vs.001.422, 71-072 

.02 Miscellany 

.028 Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, 

materials 

Econometrics relocated to 330.015195 
.03-. 08 Standard subdivisions 
.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of economics as a discipline 

Class economic situation and conditions in 330.9 
.1 Systems and theories 

.12 Systems 

. 1 22 Free enterprise economy 

Usually synonymous with capitalism 

Including open economy (the economy of an area in which trade with 
other areas is unrestricted) 

Class laissez-faire economic theory in 330.153 
See also 382. 7 for trade barriers and restrictions 
. 1 24 Planned economies 

Class socialism and related systems in 335 
. 1 26 Mixed economies 

Example: welfare state systems 

Including interventionism 

See also 330. 1556 for welfare economics as a school of economic 
thought 



305 



330 Dewey Decimal Classification 330 

. 1 5 Schools of economic thought 

Example: Chicago school of economics 

Including supply-side economics 

.151 Pre-classical schools 

For physiocracy, see 330. 152 

.1512 Ancient and medieval theories 

.151 3 Mercantilism 

.152 Physiocracy 

Class here the school of Quesnay 

. 1 53 Classical economics 

Class here the school of Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Mill, Bastiat, Say; 
laissez-faire economic theory 

See also 330. 157 for neoclassical school 

. 1 54 Methodological schools 

Schools based on employment of specific methods of analysis 

.1542 Historical school 

Class here the school of Roscher, Knies, Hildebrand, Schmoller, 
Biicher, Knapp 

. 1 54 3 Mathematical economics 

Class here the schools of Coumot, Dupuit, Pareto 

Class mathematics applied to economics as a whole in 330.0151 

See also 330. 157 for the marginal utility school 

.155 Miscellaneous schools 

Only those named below 

Including ethical, institutional, romantic, social justice schools; 
universalism; single-tax school 

Neoclassical school relocated to 330.157 
.155 6 Welfare economics school 

.156 Keynesianism 

.157 Marginal utility school 

Variant names: neoclassical [formerly also 330.155], Austrian school 

Class here the school of W.S. Jevons, Menger, Walras, Wieser, 
Bohm-Bawerk, Von Mises 

See also 330. 1543 for the mathematical economics school of 
Coumot, Dupuit, Pareto 



306 






330 Economics 330 

(. 1 59) Socialist and related schools 

(Optional number; prefer 335) 

Add to base number 330.159 the numbers following 335 in 335.1-335.9, 
e.g., Marxian systems 330.1594 

. 1 6 Theories of wealth 

. 1 7 Theories of property 

.9 Economic situation and conditions 

Class here works describing situation and conditions at both the macroeconomic 
(aggregate) level and the microeconomic level (level of the individual unit, such 
as the household or firm) 

Class policies to promote economic growth and development in 338.9, 
macroeconomic policies in 339.5 

.901-.905 Historical periods 

Add to base number 330.90 the numbers following —090 in notation 
0901-0905 from Table 1, e.g., economic situation in 1960-1969 
330.9046 

.91-. 99 Geographical treatment (Economic geography) 

(Option: Class in 910.133) 

Add to base number 330.9 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., economic 
situation and conditions in France 330.944; then add 0* (except 00 for North 
and South America) and to the result add historical period numbers from 
appropriate subdivisions of 930-990, e.g., economic situation and 
conditions in France under Louis XIV 330.944033, in the United States 
during Reconstruction period 330.97308, in South America in 20th century 
330.98003 






> 331-333 Labor, financial, land economics 

Class comprehensive works on labor, financial, land economics in 330; 
comprehensive works on labor, capital, land considered as factors of production 
in 338.01 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



307 



331.702 


331.3-.6 


331.1 


331.2 


331.8 


331.7 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

331 Labor economics 

Class here industrial relations, interdisciplinary works on labor 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
compensation of women in banking 331.42813321 {not 331.2813321 or 
331.7613321) 

Choice of vocation 

Labor force by personal characteristics 

Labor force and market 

Compensation and other conditions of employment 

Labor unions (Trade unions), labor-management 

(collective) bargaining and disputes 
Labor by industry and occupation 

{except 331.702) 

Class economic conditions of laboring classes in 330.9, full employment policies in 
339.5 

See also 305.562 for sociology of laboring classes, 306.36 for sociology of 
labor, 350. 1 for personnel management in government, 658.3 for 
comprehensive works on personnel management 

See Manual at 331 vs. 331. 8; 658.3 vs. 331 

SUMMARY 

331.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Labor force and market 

.2 Compensation and other conditions of employment 

.3 Workers of specific age groups 

.4 Women workers 

.5 Special categories of workers other than by age or sex 

.6 Categories of workers by racial, ethnic, national origin 

.7 Labor by industry and occupation 

.8 Labor unions (Trade unions), labor-management (collective) bargaining 
and disputes 

.01 Philosophy and theory 

.01 1 Rights and position of labor 

Examples: right of labor to what it produces, right to earn a living 

Including relation of labor to capital 

Do not use for systems theory, analysis, design; class in 331.01 

Class open shop, right-to-work in 331.8892 

.0112 Industrial democracy 

Determination of a company's policies affecting the welfare of its 
workers by joint action of management and worker representatives 

Class role of labor unions in industrial democracy in 331.88, producer 
cooperatives in 334.6, guild socialism in 335.15, syndicalism in 
335.82, worker control of industry in 338.6 

See also 658.3152 for employee representation in management 
discussed from the managerial viewpoint 

308 



331 Economics 331 

.0 1 2 Satisfactions and dissatisfactions of labor 

Do not use for classification of occupations; class in 331.70012 

.0 1 3 Freedom, dignity, value of labor 

.04 Industrial relations in specific industries and occupations and specific 

groups of industries and occupations 

.041 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here industrial relations in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.041 notation 001-999, e.g., industrial relations 
in clerical occupations 331.04165137 

.042- .049 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.04 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
industrial relations in chemical industries 331.046 

.1 Labor force and market 

Comprehensive works on employment and unemployment are classed in this 
number; however, works that merely give the number and characteristics of 
employed and unemployed workers without discussing the labor market are 
classed in 33 1 . 1 1 . If in doubt, prefer 331.1 

SUMMARY 

331.11 Labor force 

.12 Labor market 

.13 Maladjustments in labor market 

. 1 1 Labor force 

All who are employed or available for employment 

Class here human resources, man- and womanpower, labor supply, size of 
labor force 

Comprehensive works on labor force and labor market are classed in 331.1. 
Works that discuss the labor force only in relation to the demand for labor 
are classed in 331.12. Employment and labor actively employed are classed 
in 331.125 

See also 331.123 for demand (need, requirements) for labor, 331.8732 
for union membership 

.111 Geographical distribution 

Examples: urban, rural 

.114 Qualifications and personal characteristics 

.114 2 Qualifications 

Including innate physical and mental capacity 

.114 22 By level of skills 

Examples: skilled, semiskilled, unskilled 



309 



33 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 33 1 

. 1 14 23 By level of education 

. 1 14 24 By level of experience 

.1 14 3 Personal characteristics 

Class workers with specific characteristics in 331.3-331.6 
.117 Systems of labor 

See also 306.36 for social aspects of systems of labor 

.117 2 Free labor 

.117 3 Compulsory labor 

.117 32 State labor (Drafted workers) 

.117 34 Slave labor 

.118 Labor productivity 

.119 Labor force in specific industries and occupations and groups of 

industries and occupations 

Class comprehensive works on labor in specific industries and 
occupations and groups of industries and occupations in 331.7 

. 1 1 9 04 Special topics 

.119 042 Labor force in general categories of occupations 

Examples: civilian, governmental (public service), 
nongovernmental, nonagricultural, service, white-collar 
occupations 

.119 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Add to base number 331.1 191 notation 001-999, e.g., labor force in 
stenography 331.1 1916513741; however, class labor force in general 
categories of occupations, e.g., governmental (public service) 
occupations, in 331.1 19042 

. 1 1 9 2- . 1 1 9 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.1 19 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., labor force in automobile manufacturing 331.1 19292 



310 



331 Economics 331 

. 1 2 Labor market 

The activities of and opportunities for buying and selling labor 

Class here supply of labor in relation to demand 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on labor force and labor 
market discontinued; class in 331.1 

For maladjustments in labor market, see 331.13 







SUMMARY 




331.120 4 


Special topics 




.120 42 


Government policy on the labor market 




.123 


Demand (Need, Requirements) for labor 




.124 


Job vacancies (Openings, Opportunities) 




.125 


Labor actively employed 




.126 


Turnover 




.127 


Mobility of labor 




.128 


Placement 




.129 


Labor market by industry and occupation 


120 4 




Special topics 


120 42 




Government policy on the labor market 



General aspects: developing, utilizing, employing needed labor 

Here are classed government labor policies and programs 
discussed in terms of broader purposes than just combating 
unemployment, e.g., public service employment as a 
countercyclical measure to provide both jobs for the unemployed 
and assistance to distressed areas and state and local governments. 
Works about government labor policies and programs that discuss 
them solely in terms of prevention and relief of unemployment are 
classed in 331.1377 

Class policies designed to secure full employment through fiscal 
and monetary policy in 339.5; policy with respect to a specific 
aspect of labor force and market with the subject, e.g., assistance 
in finding jobs 33 1 . 1 28 

See also 362.85 for social programs for laboring classes, 370 
for education 

. 1 23 Demand (Need, Requirements) for labor 

Class job vacancies (openings, opportunities) in 331.124, shortages and 
surpluses in 33 1 . 1 36 

.123 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here demand (need, requirements) for labor in service industries 
and occupations 

Add to base number 331.1231 notation 001-999, e.g., demand for 
teachers 331.12313711 

.123 2-. 123 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.123 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., demand for carpenters 331.12394 

311 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.124 Job vacancies (Openings, Opportunities) 

. 1 24 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here job vacancies (openings, opportunities) in service 
industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.1241 notation 001-999, e.g., opportunities 
in librarianship 331.124102 

.124 2-. 124 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.124 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., opportunities in paper manufacture 331.12476 

. 1 25 Labor actively employed 

That portion of the total available supply of labor employed at any given 
time 

Including types of employment 

Class here utilization of human resources, employment, comprehensive 
works on employment and compensation 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on employment and 
unemployment discontinued; class in 331.1 

Class compensation in 331.21 

See also 331.126 for turnover, 331.137 for unemployment 

.125 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here labor actively employed in service industries and 
occupations 

Add to base number 331.1251 notation 001-999, e.g., labor actively 
employed in education 331.125137 

.125 2-. 125 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.125 the numbers following 6 in notation 
620-690, e.g., labor actively employed in the plumbing industry 
331.125961 



.126 


Turnover 


.127 


Mobility of labor 


.127 09 


Historical and persons treatment 




Class geographical treatment in 331.1279 


.127 2 


Interoccupational mobility 


.127 9 


Geographical mobility 


.127 91 


International mobility 




Example: brain drain 



312 



331 Economics 331 



. 1 27 93- . 1 27 99 Within specific countries and lesser areas 

Add to base number 33 1 .1279 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
mobility of labor within Canada 331.127971 

Class mobility between countries and continents in 331.12791 

.128 Placement 

Formal and informal arrangements for matching people and jobs 

Class here employment agencies, job banks, labor exchanges, sources of 
job information 

Class lists of job openings in 331.124 

See also 362 for employment services viewed as a solution to social 
problems; 650. 14 for success in, techniques of job hunting 

. 1 29 Labor market by industry and occupation 

Class specific aspects of labor market by industry and occupation in 
331.123-331.128 

.129 04 Special topics 

. 1 29 042 Labor market by general categories of occupations 

Examples: civilian, governmental (public service), 
nongovernmental, nonagricultural, service, white-collar 
occupations 

.129 1 Labor market by industries and occupations other than extractive, 

manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 331.1291 notation 001-999, e.g., labor market in 
stenography 331.12916513741; however, class labor market in 
general categories of occupations, e.g., governmental (public service) 
occupations, in 331.129042 

.129 2-. 129 9 Labor market by extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and 

occupations 

Add to base number 331.129 the numbers following 6 in notation 
620-690, e.g., labor market in automobile manufacturing 331.129292 

. 1 3 Maladjustments in labor market 

Including underemployment, underemployed 

. 1 33 Discrimination in employment 

General aspects: history, description, extent 

Class here equal employment opportunity programs 

Class discrimination in relation to a specific aspect of industrial relations 
with the subject, e.g., discrimination as a factor affecting compensation 
331.2153, discrimination by unions 331.8732 

See also 351 .104 for personnel policies on discrimination in 
government, 658.3 for comprehensive works about personnel policies 
on discrimination 



313 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

. 1 36 Labor shortages and surpluses 

. 1 37 Unemployment 

Class here unemployed 

. 1 37 04 Kinds of unemployment 

See Manual at 331.13704 vs. 33 1.1 372 

.137 041 Structural unemployment 

Unemployment resulting from changes in the overall 
environment, principally changes in population, government 
policies, technology, and consumer tastes, but not from a 
general economic recession 

Class technological unemployment in 33 1 . 1 37042 
.137 042 Technological unemployment 

Including unemployment due to automation 

.137 044 Seasonal unemployment 

. 1 37 045 Frictional unemployment 

Irreducible minimum of people out of work because of need or 
desire to change jobs 

. 1 37 047 Cyclical unemployment 

Unemployment due to economic fluctuations 

[.137 09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 331.1379 



331.137 2-331.137 7 Specific elements of unemployment 
Class comprehensive works in 331.137 
. 1 37 2 Causes of unemployment 

Class macroeconomic causes in 339 

See Manual at 331. 13704 vs. 331. 1372 
. 1 37 3 Effects of unemployment 

.1374 Distribution and incidence of unemployment 

.1377 Prevention and relief of unemployment 



Class a specific measure of prevention or relief with the subject, e.g., 
work sharing 331.2572, economic stabilization 339.5, welfare 362.85 

See also 331.12042 for government labor policies with broader 
purposes than just combating unemployment 



314 






331 Economics 331 



.1378 Unemployment among general classes of labor, in specific industries and 

occupations, in specific groups of industries and occupations 

Class specific elements regardless of class, industry, occupation in 
331.1372-331.1377 

. 1 37 804 General classes of unemployed 

Persons with various degrees of education, skill, experience 

Class unemployed persons having specific personal 
characteristics in 331.3-331.6 

.137 81 Unemployment in industries and occupations other than extractive, 

manufacturing, construction 

Class here unemployment in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.13781 notation 001-999, e.g., 
unemployment in clerical occupations 331.1378165137 

.137 82-. 137 89 Unemployment in extractive, manufacturing, construction industries 

and occupations 

Add to base number 331.1378 the numbers following 6 in 
620-690, e.g., unemployment in the automobile industry 
331.1378292 

.1379 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 331.1379 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., 
unemployment in the United States 331.137973 

Class historical and geographical treatment of specific elements of 
unemployment in 331.1372-331.1377, of unemployment among 
general classes of labor and in specific industries and occupations in 
331.1378 

.2 Compensation and other conditions of employment 

Collective bargaining on compensation and other conditions of employment is 
classed in 33 1 .89, but the compensation and other conditions that result from 
such bargaining are classed here 

See also 658.312 for compensation and other conditions of employment 
discussed from the managerial viewpoint 

SUMMARY 

331.204 In specific industries and occupations and specific groups of 

industries and occupations 
.21 Compensation 

.22 Compensation differentials 

.23 Guaranteed-wage plans 

.25 Other conditions of employment 

.28 Compensation in specific industries and occupations and specific groups 

of industries and occupations 
.29 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of compensation 

.204 In specific industries and occupations and specific groups of 

industries and occupations 



315 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.204 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here compensation and other conditions of employment in 
service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.2041 notation 001-999, e.g., compensation 
and other conditions of employment in clerical occupations 
331.204165137 

.204 2-. 204 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.204 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., compensation and other conditions of employment in chemical 
industries 331.2046 

.21 Compensation 

Class here wages, comprehensive works on wage-price policy 

Class wage -price controls to combat inflation in 332.415, price policy in 
338.52, wage-price policy as a factor in economic stabilization 339.5 

For compensation differentials, see 331 .22; fringe benefits, 331 .255; 
compensation in specific industries and occupations, 331.28 

.210 1 Theories 

Examples: bargain theory, marginal productivity theory, national 
income theory, subsistence theory ("iron law"), wages fund theory 

[.210 9] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 331.29 

.215 Factors affecting compensation 

Including methods of determination, e.g., intra- and interindustry 
comparison; criteria used in determination, e.g., cost of living as a 
compensation determinant 

Class minimum wage policies in 331.23 

See also 332.415 for wage-price controls to combat inflation, 339.5 
for wage control as a factor in economic stabilization 

.215 3 Discrimination and anti-discrimination policies 

Class here comparable worth, equal pay for equal work 

.2 1 6 Methods of compensation 

.2162 Time payments 

Examples: hourly, weekly, monthly, annual periods 
Class guaranteed-wage plans in 331.23 

.2164 Incentive compensation 

Examples: stock ownership and purchase plans [formerly 331.255], 
transfer of stock and stock options to employees, profit-sharing; 
bonuses, group incentives; piecework, combined time- and piecework 

Class tips in 331.2166 
316 



331 Economics 331 

.216 6 Other compensation 

Examples: professional and subcontracting fees, tips, weighting 

.22 Compensation differentials 

Differences among industries, occupations, regions 

Including comparison among firms in the same industry 

Class determination of compensation, factors affecting compensation in 
331.215 

See also 331.29 for general surveys of compensation in an area, not 
emphasizing differences 

.23 Guaranteed-wage plans 

Including minimum wage 

Class guaranteed minimum income in 362.582 

.25 Other conditions of employment 

Examples: economic aspects of physical working conditions, e.g., space, 
ventilation, working facilities; quality of work life 

Including telecommuting 

.252 Pensions 

Including retirement age 

Class here retirement benefits, interdisciplinary works on pensions 

Class comprehensive works on administration of pensions in 658.3253, 
pensions provided by unions in 331.8735, annuities resulting from 
retirement and estate planning in 332.02401, public administration of 
pensions for government (public service) employees in 351.5, pensions 
(annuities) provided through insurance in 368.37, government pension 
plans for the population at large in 368.43 

Pensions for government (public service) employees are classed in 
331.2529135 

.252 2 Pension reform 

Including preservation and transfer of vested rights in pensions 

.252 9 Pensions in specific industries and occupations and groups of industries 

and occupations 

.252 91 In industries and occupations other than mining, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here pensions in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.25291 notation 001-999, e.g., veterans' 
pensions 331.25291355 {formerly 355.1151], pensions for 
government employees in general 331.2529135 

.252 92-. 252 99 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 33 1 .2529 the numbers following 6 in 
620-690, e.g., pensions in construction trades 331.252924 

317 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.255 Fringe benefits 

Examples: health and welfare programs, insurance, unemployment 
compensation 

Class here interdisciplinary works on fringe benefits 

Class transfer of stock and stock options in 331.2164, fringe benefits 
provided by unions in 331.8735, fringe benefits for veterans of military 
service and their survivors in 362.86, benefits provided through insurance 
in 368.3, benefits provided through government-sponsored social 
insurance in 368.4, comprehensive works on administration of employee 
benefits in 658.325 

Stock ownership and purchase plans relocated to 331.2164 

For pensions, see 331.252 
.257 Hours 

.257 2 Work day and week 

Including job sharing, work sharing, part-time employment 

Class here flexible working hours, shift work 

.257 22 Work week 

Including compressed work schedules, e.g., four-day forty-hour 
week 

.257 23 Work day 

Example: eight-hour day 

For rest periods, see 331.2576 
.257 4 Night, holy day, Sunday, holiday work 

See also 331.2572 for shift work 
.257 6 Leave and rest periods (breaks) 

Examples: paid vacations and holidays 
.257 62 Sick leave 

.257 63 Special-purpose leave 

Examples: educational and paternity leave, sabbaticals 

Class maternity leave in 331.44 



318 






331 Economics 331 

.259 Training, worker security, regulation of worker conduct 

.259 2 Training 

Class here interdisciplinary works on vocational training 

Class vocational training conducted by an educational system at the 
secondary level in 373.2, at the adult level in 374.013; managerial 
aspects of training by the employer in 658.3124 

.259 22 Apprenticeship 

Class apprentices as a special class of workers in 331.55, work 
experience as part of education in 371.38 

.259 24 Retraining 

.259 6 Worker security 

Examples: employment security, job tenure 

Including right to organize, rights of transfer and promotion, seniority 
.259 8 Regulation of worker conduct 

Including absenteeism, discipline 

.28 Compensation in specific industries and occupations and specific groups 

of industries and occupations 

Class specific elements of compensation in specific industries and 
occupations in 331.21-331.23 

.281 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here compensation in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.281 notation 001-999, e.g., compensation of 
bankers 331.2813321 

.282-. 289 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.28 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
compensation in the mining industry 331.2822, average factory 
compensation 331.287 

.29 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of compensation 

Add to base number 331.29 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., 
compensation in Australia 331.2994 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of specific elements of 
compensation in 331.21-331.23, of compensation in specific industries and 
occupations in 331.28 

General surveys of compensation in an area are classed here, but surveys 
that emphasize the differences in compensation among industries, 
occupations, and regions are classed in 331 .22. If in doubt, prefer 331.29 

Wage-price policies of specific jurisdictions are classed here; but if the 
policies are discussed in relation to stabilizing the economy, they are classed 
in 339.5 



319 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 



331.3-331.6 Labor force by personal characteristics 

Class here labor force and market, compensation and other conditions of 
employment, specific industries and occupations, labor unions, 
labor-management bargaining with respect to special classes of workers 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two 
or more subdivisions of this schedule in the number coming first in the 
schedule, e.g., young Chinese women 331.344089951 {not 331.4 or 331.6251) 

Class comprehensive works in 331.1 143; choice of vocation for persons with 
specific personal characteristics in 331.702; employment services as a form of 
social service to persons with specific personal characteristics in 362.6-362.8, 
e.g., sheltered employment for aged people 362.64 

.3 Workers of specific age groups 

.31 Children 

Through age thirteen 
.34 Young people 

Through age thirty-five 

For children, see 331.31; young people in specific industries and 
occupations, 331.38 

.341 -.342 Specific aspects of employment of young people 

Add to base number 331.34 the numbers following 331 in 331.1-331.2, 
e.g., training of young workers in 331.342592 

Class specific aspects of employment of specific kinds of young people 
in 331.344-331.346 

.344-346 Employment of specific kinds of young people 

Add to base number 331.34 the numbers following 331 in 331.4-331.6, 
e.g., Afro- American youth 331.346396073; however, class apprentices in 
331.55 

.347 Persons aged 14 through 20 

Class specific aspects of employment of persons aged 14 through 20 in 
331.341-331.342, employment of specific kinds of persons aged 14 
through 20 in 331.344-331.346 

.348 Persons aged 21 through 35 

Class specific aspects of employment of persons aged 21 through 35 in 
331.341-331.342, employment of specific kinds of persons aged 21 
through 35 in 331.344-331.346 



320 



331 Economics 331 

.38 Young people in specific industries and occupations and specific groups 

of industries and occupations 

Children and young adults 

Class specific aspects of employment of young people in specific industries 
and occupations in 331.341-331.342, employment of specific kinds of 
young people in specific industries and occupations in 331.344-331.346 

.381 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here young people in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.381 notation 001-999, e.g., young people in 
clerical occupations 331.38165137 

.382-. 389 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.38 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
young textile workers 331.3877 

.39 Other age groups 

.394 Middle-aged workers 

.398 Older workers 

Former heading: Aged 65 and over 

.398 8 In specific industries and occupations and specific groups of industries 

and occupations 

.398 81 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here older workers in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.39881 notation 001-999, e.g., older 
workers in clerical occupations 331.3988165137 

.398 82-. 398 89 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.3988 the numbers following 6 in 
620-690, e.g., older agricultural workers in 331.39883 

.4 Women workers 

See also 305.43 for sociological aspects of women s occupations 

.4 1 - .42 Specific aspects of employment of women 

Add to base number 331.4 the numbers following 331 in 331.1-331.2, e.g., 
discrimination against women 331.4133, compensation of women in 
banking 331.42813321 

Class specific aspects of employment of married women in 331.43, of 
working mothers in 331.44; women with respect to labor unions and 
collective bargaining in 331.47 

.43 Married women 

Class working mothers in 33 1 .44 



321 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.44 Working mothers 

Including expectant mothers, maternity leave 

.47 Labor unions (trade unions) and labor-management (collective) 

bargaining 

Add to base number 331.47 the numbers following 331.8 in 331.87-331.89, 
e.g., women in labor unions 331.478 

.48 Women workers in specific industries and occupations and specific 

groups of industries and occupations 

Class specific aspects of employment of women in specific industries and 
occupations in 331.41-331.42, married women in specific industries and 
occupations in 331.43, working mothers in specific industries and 
occupations in 331.44 

.481 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here women in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.481 notation 001-999, e.g., women in 
advertising 331.4816591 

.482- .489 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.48 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
women pulp and paper workers 331.4876 

.5 Special categories of workers other than by age or sex 

For categories of workers by racial, ethnic, national origin, see 331.6 
.5 1 Prisoners and ex-offenders 

Examples: political and war prisoners 
.52 Veterans 

Class here nonmilitary labor of former members of the armed forces 

See also 33 1 . 25291 355 for pensions received because of military service, 
331.7.61355 for military labor 

.54 Workers in special economic situations 

Class here economically disadvantaged workers not provided for elsewhere 

.542 Contract workers 

.544 Migrant and casual workers 

Migrant workers: workers who regularly shift from one work area to 
another throughout the year, e.g., agricultural workers following seasonal 
planting and harvests in various areas 

Standard subdivisions are added for migrant workers alone 

See also 331.62 for immigrant and alien workers 



322 






331 Economics 331 



.55 Apprentices 

[Formerly also 607.33 or with the specific subject with use of notation 073 
from Table 1 ] 

Class training of apprentices in 33 1 .25922 

.59 Workers with physical and mental disabilities 

Example: developmentally disabled workers 

Standard subdivisions are added for workers with physical and mental 
disabilities and for workers with physical disabilities alone 

Add to base number 331.59 the numbers following —087 in notation 
0871-0875 in Table 1, e.g., workers with impaired vision 331.591 

.6 Categories of workers by racial, ethnic, national origin 

.62 Immigrants and aliens 

See also 331.544 for migrant workers 

.620 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here immigrant and alien workers in specific areas, e.g., 
immigrant workers in Canada 331.620971 

Class immigrant and alien workers from specific jurisdictions in 
331.621-331.629 

.621-. 629 Immigrants and aliens by place of origin 

Add to base number 331.62 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., immigrant 
workers from China 331.6251; then, for area located, add 0* and again 
add notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., immigrant workers from China in 
California 331.62510794 

See also 331.6209 for immigrant and alien workers in specific areas 

.63 Native-born nonindigenous ethnic groups 

Use 331.63001-331.63009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 331.63 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., 
Afro- Americans 331.6396073, Afro- American workers in Alabama 
331.63960730761 

.69 Indigenous ethnic groups 

Use 331.69001-331.69009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 331.69 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., Black South 
Africans in South Africa 331.69968, North American native peoples in 
North America 331.6997 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



323 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.7 Labor by industry and occupation 

Including professional relationships 

Use 331.7001-331.7009 for standard subdivisions 

Class professional relationships in a specific industry or occupation with the 
industry or occupation, using notation 023 from Table 1, e.g., professional 
relationships in law 340.023 

.702 Choice of vocation 

Class here choice of vocation for persons with specific personal 
characteristics, e.g., veterans; interdisciplinary works describing 
vocations and occupational specialties; interdisciplinary works on career 
opportunities and vocational counseling 

Class studies of vocational interest in 158.6; vocational counseling in 
schools in 371.425; job hunting in 650.14; descriptions of, career 
opportunities in, choice of vocation with regard to specific vocations and 
occupational specialties with the subject, using notation 023 from 
Table 1, e.g., accounting 657.023 

.702 3 For persons at specific educational levels 

.7 1 Professional and managerial occupations 

Class specific professional and managerial occupations in 331.761 
.712 Professional 

.714 Managerial 

.76 Specific industries and occupations 

Class specific groups of occupations in 331.79 

.761 Industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Add to base number 331.761 notation 001-999, e.g., labor in the banking 
industry 331.7613321; however, class governmental (public service) 
occupations in 331.795 

.762-. 769 Extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.76 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
food processing 331.7664 

.79 Specific groups of occupations 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in 
two or more subdivisions of 331.79 in the one coming last, e.g., white-collar 
governmental (public-service) occupations 331.795 {not 331.792) 

Class agricultural occupations in 331.763 

For professional and managerial occupations, see 331 . 71 

.792 White-collar occupations 

.793 Service occupations 



324 



331 Economics 331 

.794 Industrial occupations 

Including the work of artisans and supervisors; skilled, semiskilled work 
For unskilled work, see 331. 798 
.795 Governmental (public service) occupations 

Occupations of elected and appointed civil servants 

.798 Unskilled work 

.8 Labor unions (Trade unions), labor-management (collective) 

bargaining and disputes 

Class here interdisciplinary works on labor movements 

Class comprehensive works on industrial democracy in 331.01 12; specific 
aspects of the labor movement with the aspect, e.g., political activities of labor 
movements 322.2 

See Manual at 331 vs. 331 . 8 

SUMMARY 

331.87 Labor union organization 

.88 Labor unions (Trade unions) 

.89 Labor-management (Collective) bargaining and disputes 

.87 Labor union organization 

See also 331.88 for comprehensive works about labor unions 
.871 Constitutions, bylaws, rules 

.872 Levels of organization 

Examples: locals, nationals, federations 
.873 Specific aspects of union organization 

Example: discipline of members 

.873 2 Membership and membership policies 

Including discrimination by unions 

Class discrimination by unions against workers with specific personal 
characteristics in 331.3-331.6, e.g., discrimination against women 

331.47732 

.873 3 Officers and leaders 

.873 5 Benefits, funds, property 

.874 Union elections and conventions 



325 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.88 Labor unions (Trade unions) 

Class here unions organized along religious lines, e.g., Christian trade 
unions 

For labor union organization, see 331.87 

See also 322.2 for political activities of labor unions, 658.3153 for the 
managerial viewpoint on labor unions 

.880 1 Theory of unions 

Examples: countermonopoly theory; theories of unions as instruments 
of class struggle, as instruments of industrial democracy, as 
instruments for worker control of industry 

Including anti-union theories 

See also 331.0112 for industrial democracy, 338.6 for worker 
control of industry 

.880 4 Special topics 

.880 4 1 White-collar unions 

.880 42 Blue-collar unions 

.880 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of labor unions 

.880 91 Treatment by areas, regions, places in general 

Class here international unions 

Class international unions with members from only two countries 
in 331.88094-331.88099, using the comprehensive notation from 
Table 2 for the two countries, e.g., unions with United States and 
Canadian workers in 331.88097 

.881 Labor unions (Trade unions) in specific industries and occupations 

and specific groups of industries and occupations 

.881 1 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here labor unions (trade unions) in service industries and 
occupations 

Add to base number 331.881 1 notation 001-999, e.g., teachers' 
unions 331.881 13711 

.881 2-. 881 9 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331 .881 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., garment workers' unions 331.88187 

.883 Kinds of unions 

Class specific kinds of unions in specific industries and occupations in 
331.881 

For revolutionary unions, see 331.886 



326 



331 Economics 331 



.883 2 Craft unions 

Unions of workers practicing a specific trade or occupation regardless 
of the industry in which they are employed 

Class semi-industrial unions in 331.8833 

.883 3 Industrial unions 

Unions in a specific industry or group of industries regardless of craft 
or occupation practiced 

Class here semi-industrial unions (those representing many but not all 
of the workers in an industry, e.g., a union that represents all except 
the maintenance workers) 

.883 4 Company unions 

Unaffiliated labor unions of the employees of a single firm 

,886 Revolutionary unions 

Example: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 

.889 Union security arrangements 

.889 2 Shop arrangements 

Examples: closed shop, open shop, union shop 

Including preferential hiring, right to work, sole bargaining rights 

Class right to work as a government measure to deal with 
labor-management (collective) bargaining and disputes in 331.898 

.889 4 Control of hiring and layoffs 

Examples: hiring halls, licenses, control of apprenticeships 

.889 6 Dues checkoff, make-work arrangements (featherbedding), control of 

grievance procedures 

Use of this number for other union security measures discontinued; 
class in 331.889 

.89 Labor-management (Collective) bargaining and disputes 

Here is classed the process of collective bargaining on compensation and 
other conditions of employment; however, the compensation and other 
conditions that result are classed in 331.2 

See also 658.3154 for works treating collective bargaining from the 
managerial viewpoint 

See Manual at 331 vs. 331 . 8 





SUMMARY 


331.890 4 


In specific industries and occupations and specific groups of 




industries and occupations 


.891 


Procedures 


.892 


Strikes 


.893 


Other labor measures 


.894 


Management measures 


.898 


Government measures 



327 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 



.890 4 In specific industries and occupations and specific groups of industries 

and occupations 

.890 41 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here labor-management (collective) bargaining and disputes 
in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.89041 notation 001-999, e.g., 
labor-management bargaining in hospitals 331.890413621 1 

.890 42-. 890 49 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.8904 the numbers following 6 in 
620-690, e.g., labor-management bargaining and disputes in the 
garment industry 331.890487 

.891 Procedures 

.891 2 Preliminaries 

Examples: organizing, winning recognition, negotiation of contract 
.891 4 Conciliation measures 

.891 42 Mediation 

.891 43 Arbitration 

.891 5 Negotiation during life of contract 

Including cancellation of labor contracts 
.892 Strikes 

See also 331.8914 for conciliation measures 

.892 01 Theory of strikes 

Including right to strike, general theories about effects of strikes 

Effects of strikes on specific things are classed with the thing, e.g., 
effect of strikes on profitability of mining industries 338.23 

[.892 09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 331.8929 

.892 1 Strike votes 



328 



331 Economics 331 









331.892 2-331.892 6 Kinds of strikes 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, 
e.g., union-authorized general strikes 331.8925 {not 331.8922) 

General strikes 331.8925 

Sympathetic strikes 331.8923 

Protest stoppages, sit-down strikes 33 1 .8926 

Unauthorized (Wildcat) strikes 33 1 .8924 

Union-authorized strikes 331.8922 

Class comprehensive works in 331.892, specific kinds of strikes in specific 
industries and occupations in 331.8928 

.892 2 Union-authorized strikes 

Former heading: Organized 

Not otherwise provided for 

Examples: economic, jurisdictional strikes 

Class here official strikes 
.892 3 Sympathetic strikes 

.892 4 Unauthorized (Wildcat) strikes 

Not provided for elsewhere 

Class here unofficial strikes 
.892 5 General strikes 

Work stoppages throughout an area 

Class interdisciplinary works on general strikes in 322.2 
.892 6 Protest stoppages, sit-down strikes 

Use of this number for other strikes discontinued; class in 331.892 

Class protest stoppages throughout an area in 331.8925 

.892 7 Picketing 

.892 8 Strikes in specific industries and occupations and specific groups of 

industries and occupations 

.892 81 In industries and occupations other than extractive, manufacturing, 

construction 

Class here strikes in service industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.89281 notation 001-999, e.g., teachers' 
strikes 331.892813711 

.892 82-. 892 89 In extractive, manufacturing, construction industries and occupations 

Add to base number 331.8928 the numbers following 6 in 
620-690, e.g., strikes of rubber workers 331.8928782 



329 



331 Dewey Decimal Classification 331 

.892 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 331.8929 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., 
strikes in Great Britain 331.892941 

Class specific aspects of strikes in specific periods and places in 
331.8921-331.8927, strikes in specific industries and occupations in 
specific periods and places in 331.8928 

.893 Other labor measures 

Examples: boycotts, injunctions, political action, sabotage 
Class here comprehensive works on labor violence 
Class violence in strikes in 331.892 

.894 Management measures 

Examples: blacklisting, white-listing, injunctions, labor espionage, 
lockouts, political action, yellow-dog contracts 

.898 Government measures 

Example: right-to- work policy 

Class comprehensive works on right to work in 331.8892 

For conciliation measures, see 33 1.89 J 4 

.898 2 Strike requirements 

Examples: purpose, notice, cooling-off periods, exhaustion of other 
means 

.898 4 Use of troops 

332 Financial economics 

For public finance, see 336 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15; 339 vs. 332, 336 



.024 







SUMMARY 


332.01- 


.09 


Standard subdivisions 


.1 




Banks and banking 


.2 




Specialized banking institutions 


.3 




Credit and loan institutions 


.4 




Money 


.5 




Other mediums of exchange 


.6 




Investment and investments 


.7 




Credit 


.8 




Interest and discount 


.9 




Counterfeiting, forgery, alteration 




Personal finance 



Class management of personal expenditure in 640.42, a specific aspect of 
personal finance not provided for here with the subject, e.g., investment 
332.678, consumer information 381.33 



See Manual at 332. 024 vs. 640. 42 
.024 00 1 - .024 007 Standard subdivisions 

330 



332 Economics 332 

.024 008 Personal finance with respect to groups of persons 

[.024 008 1-.024 008 8] Personal finance with respect to specific miscellaneous kinds of 

persons 

Do not use; class in 332.02403-332.02499 

.024 009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

.024 01 Increasing income, net worth, financial security 

Including financial independence; estate planning; planning for 
retirement, e.g., Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and 
Keogh plans 

Class works on increasing income, net worth, financial security for 
specific classes of persons in 332.02403-332.02499 

.024 02 Personal financial problems 

Examples: debt management; coping with depression, inflation 

Class special problems for specific classes of persons in 
332.02403-332.02499 

.024 03- .024 99 Personal finance for specific classes of persons 

Add to base number 332.024 notation 03-99 from Table 7, e.g., 
personal finance for single people 332.0240652 

.04 Special topics 

.041 Capital 

Class international aspects of capital in 332.042 

.041 2 Working capital 

Examples: cash, short-term money claims, inventories 

.041 4 Fixed (Investment) capital 

Instruments of production with economic life span measured in years, 
e.g., factories, machinery; and funds invested in them 

For land, see 333 

.041 5 Capital formation and saving 

Class here interdisciplinary and general economic studies of the ways, 
means, and problems of raising money for investment in capital assets 

Class capital formation discussed in relation to production in specific 
kinds of industries in 338.1-338.4, financing of firms in 338.6041, 
savings and investment as a factor affecting national income in 339.43 

[.041 506 8] Management 

Do not use; class in 658.1522 



331 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.041 52 Self-financing 

Use by an individual of his own savings, or by an enterprise of its 
retained profits, for investment in own business 

Class here procurement of capital from internal sources 

See also 658. 15226 for managerial aspects of self-financing 

.041 54 External sources of capital 

.042 International finance 

Including international capital movements 

Class international banks and banking in 332.15, exchange of currencies 
in 332.45, international exchange of securities in 332.65, international 
investment in 332.673 

See also 337 for international economics 

.06 Organizations 

Class financial institutions and their management in 332. 1 

.1 Banks and banking 

Class here government guaranty of deposits; bank failures; comprehensive 
works on money and banking, on financial institutions and their functions 

Class credit unions in 334.22 

For specialized banking institutions, see 332.2; credit and loan institutions, 
332.3; money, 332.4; credit, 332. 7 

See Manual at 332. 7 vs. 332. 1 

. 1 1 Central banks 

Specific central banks are classed here, e.g., the U.S. Federal Reserve 
System 332.1 10973 

.112 Relation to monetary policy 

Including issuance of bank notes 

Purchase of government securities relocated to 332.1 14 

Class role of central bank in carrying out macroeconomic policy in 
339.53 

For reserve requirements, interest rates, see 332. 1 13; open market 
operations, 332. 114 

.113 Relation to private banks 

Including clearance, interest (discount) rates, loans, reserve requirements 
.114 Open-market operations 

Example: purchase of government securities [formerly also 332.1 12] 



332 



332 Economics 332 

. 1 2 Commercial banks 

Class here clearing banks, clearing houses 

Savings departments relocated to 332.1752 

Class clearing services in 332.178 

For multiple banking, see 332. 16; banking services of commercial 
banks, 332.17 

See Manual at 658. 15 and Tl—0681 
. 1 22 Incorporated banks 

Class here chartered banks 

.1223 National banks 

See also 332. 11 for central banks 

.1224 State and provincial banks 

. 1 23 Unincorporated (Private) banks 

.15 International banks and banking 

Class here international operations of commercial and other banks, the role 
of banks in international borrowing and debt 

See also 336.3435 for comprehensive works on international borrowing 
and debt 

. 1 52 For monetary stabilization and balance of payments 

Example: International Monetary Fund 

.153 For development of resources and production 

Examples: International Development Association, International Finance 
Corporation 

Class here comprehensive works on development banks 

Class development banks serving one country in 332.28 

.153 2 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) 

.1534 European Investment Bank 

.153 8 Interamerican Development Bank 

. 1 54 For promotion and facilitation of trade 

.155 For international settlements 

Example: Bank for International Settlements 

. 1 6 Multiple banking 

Examples: branch, chain, group, interstate banking; bank mergers, 
syndicates, holding companies 



333 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

. 1 7 Banking services of commercial banks 

Class here comprehensive works on services of banks 

Class services of specialized banking institutions in 332.2 

For international operations, see 332. 15 

See also 332. 7 for credit functions not limited to a specific type of 
financial institution 

.175 General banking services 

.1752 Deposits 

Examples: demand deposits (checking accounts); time deposits, e.g., 
certificates of deposit, savings accounts; NOW (negotiable order of 
withdrawal) accounts 

Including savings departments [formerly 332.12] 

.175 3 Loans 

.1754 Investments 

See also 3 32. 66 for investment banks and banking 

.178 Special banking services 

Examples: credit cards; debit and smart cards; safe-deposit services; trust 
services 

Including clearing services 

See also 332. 765 for works that discuss credit cards as offered by 
multiple types of institutions or without regard to type of institution 

.2 Specialized banking institutions 

Class international banks in 332.15, e.g., international development banks 
332.153; cooperative banking in 334.2 

For agricultural institutions, see 332.31; investment banking, 332.66 
.21 Savings banks 

Examples: government and stock savings banks 

Class here mutual savings banks 

Class comprehensive works on thrift institutions in 332.32 
For postal savings banks, see 332.22 
.22 Postal savings banks 

.26 Trust companies 

.28 Development banks serving one country 

Class banks for development of agriculture in 332.31 
See also 332. 153 for international development banks 



334 



332 Economics 332 

.3 Credit and loan institutions 

Included here are credit and loan functions of enterprises whose primary 
function is not credit and loan, e.g., retail stores, travel agencies. Credit and 
loan functions of insurance companies, however, are classed in 332.38 

.31 Agricultural institutions 

Example: land banks 

.32 Savings and loan associations 

Variant names: building and loan associations, home loan associations, 
mortgage institutions 

Class here comprehensive works on thrift institutions 

Class savings banks in 332.21, credit unions in 334.22 

.34 Loan brokers 

Examples: chattel-loan brokers, pawnbrokers, salary-loan brokers 

.35 Consumer and sales finance institutions 

.37 Industrial banks 

Financial institutions organized to extend loans to employees 

Class here labor banks 

For credit unions, see 334.22 

See also 332.35 for banks specializing in consumer loans 

.38 Insurance companies 

Credit and loan functions 

See also 368.0065 for interdisciplinary works on insurance companies 

.4 Money 

Class here comprehensive works on mediums of exchange 

Class comprehensive works on money and banking in 332.1, mediums of 
exchange other than money in 332.5 





SUMMARY 


332.401-.404 


[Theories; forms and units of moneyl 


.41 


Value of money 


.42 


Monetary standards 


.45 


Foreign exchange 


.46 


Monetary policy 


.49 


Historical, geographical, persons treatment of money and monetary 




policy 



.401 Theories 



Examples: circulation and velocity theory, equation of exchange theory, 
income and cash balance theories, quantity theory, supply and demand 
theory 



335 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.404 Forms and units of money 

.404 2 Gold and silver coins 

.404 3 Token coins 

Coins with an intrinsic value less than their nominal value 

Class here coins made of nonprecious metals 

.404 4 Paper money 

.404 8 Decimalization of currency 

[.409] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 332.49 

.41 Value of money 

Class here inflation, stagflation, deflation 

Class the personal financial problem of coping with changing value of 
money in 332.02402 

See also 331.1372 for effects of inflation on unemployment 

See Manual at 332.41 vs. 3 39.41, 339.42 
.414 Factors affecting fluctuations in value 

Examples: devaluation, variations in quantity 
For stabilization measures, see 332.415 
.415 Stabilization measures 

Including wage-price controls to combat inflation 

Class monetary policy in 332.46, fiscal policy in 336.3 

See also 339.5 for comprehensive works on economic stabilization 
policies 

.42 Monetary standards 

.420 4 Special topics 

.420 42 Official status of money 

Including credit money 

Class here legal tender 

See also 343.032 for monetary law 

[ .420 422- .420 424] Standard and credit money 

Numbers discontinued; class in 332.42042 



336 



332 Economics 332 



332.422-332.425 Commodity standards 

Systems in which value of monetary unit is kept equal to value of a designated 
quantity of a particular commodity or group of commodities 

Class comprehensive works in 332.42 

.422 Monometallic standards 

.422 2 Gold standards 

Examples: gold coin, gold bullion, gold exchange standards 

.422 3 Silver standards 

.423 Bimetallic standards 

Free concurrent coinage of two metals, without limitation as to quantity 
or ratio of the metals 

Class here bimetallic standards based on gold and silver 

.424 Symmetallic standards 

Coinage from an amalgam of two or more metals in a required 
proportion 

.425 Composite commodity standards 

Staple commodities in predetermined proportions 

.427 Fiat money 

Controlled and free forms of nonredeemable (inconvertible) currencies 
not kept equal to units of any commodity or group of commodities 

.45 Foreign exchange 

Exchange of one country's currency for another's 

Including the Eurocurrency and Eurodollar market, special drawing rights 

Class here currency convertibility, forward exchange, international monetary 
systems 

Class comprehensive works on international finance in 332.042, investment 
in Eurobonds in 332.6323, government Eurobonds in public finance in 
336.31, balance of payments in 382.17 

.452 With a gold standard 

Monetary units of exchanging countries defined in terms of gold, 
currencies freely convertible into gold, full freedom to import and export 
gold 

Including devaluation 

Class effect of devaluation on internal economy of devaluing country in 
332.414 



337 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.454 With a paper standard 

Monetary units of exchanging countries not defined in terms of gold or 
any other item of intrinsic value 

Class regulation of exchange in 332.4564 

.456 Exchange rates and their determination 

.456 09 Exchange rates of specific currencies and groups of currencies 

Add to base number 332.45609 notation 1-9 from Table 2 e.g., 
exchange rates of currency of United Kingdom 332.4560941; then 
add 0* and again add notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., exchange 
rate between currencies of United Kingdom and United States 
332.4560941073 

Give priority in notation to the currency of a jurisdiction or group 
of jurisdictions coming first in the sequence of area notations 
(Option: Give priority in notation to the currency of the 
jurisdiction requiring local emphasis, e.g., libraries in United 
States class exchange rate between currencies of United States 
and United Kingdom in 332.4560973041) 

.456 2 Determination by supply and demand 

Class here floating exchange rate 

.456 4 Determination by government regulation of exchange rates 

For determination by international agreement, see 332.4566 

.456 6 Determination by international agreement 

Class here international monetary policy, international monetary 
reform 

For International Monetary Fund, see 332. 152 

.46 Monetary policy 

Class here managed currency [formerly 332.56] 

Including minting policies and practices 

Class use of monetary policy for economic stabilization in 339.53, relation 
of central banks to monetary policy in 332.112 

[.460 9] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 332.49 

.49 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of money and monetary 

policy 

Add to base number 332.49 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., money and 
monetary policy in India 332.4954 

.5 Other mediums of exchange 

Including barter instruments 
* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



338 



332 Economics 332 

.55 Commercial paper 

Use of this number for barter instruments discontinued; class in 332.5 

Class comprehensive works on commercial paper, commercial paper as a 
credit instrument in 332.77 

.56 Social credit money 

Managed currency relocated to 332.46 

.6 Investment and investments 

Class here investment prospectuses [formerly also with the subject with use of 
notation 029 from Table 1], portfolio analysis and management 

Class description and analysis of business enterprises issuing securities in 
338.7-338.8 

[.60112] Forecasting and forecasts 

Do not use; class in 332.678 

SUMMARY 

332.604 Special topics 

.604 2 Investment for specific purposes 

.62 Brokerage firms 

.63 Forms of investment 

.64 Exchange of securities and commodities 

.65 International exchange of securities 

.66 Investment banks and banking 

.67 Investments by field of investment, kind of enterprise, kind of investor; 
investment guides 

.604 Special topics 

.604 2 Investment for specific purposes 

Examples: investment for hedges against inflation, for tax advantages 

.62 Brokerage firms 

Example: discount brokers 

Including investment counselors 

Class real estate brokerage in 333.33 
.63 Forms of investment 

Examples: art, coins, stamps 

Class here speculation in specific forms of investment [formerly also 
332.645] 

Class speculation in multiple forms of investment in 332.645, investment in 
specific kinds of businesses regardless of form in 332.67 

See also 332.0414 for comprehensive works on fixed (investment) 
capital, 332.62 for brokerage firms 



339 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.632 Securities, real estate, commodities 

Class here evaluation of growth potential, safety features, yield; 
speculation in securities; comprehensive works on financial futures 

Standard subdivisions are added for securities, real estate, commodities; 
for securities 

Class foreign exchange futures in 332.45; buying and selling procedures 
for securities and commodities in 332.64, for real estate in 333.33 

.632 04 Special topics 

.632 042 Evaluation techniques for securities, real estate, commodities 

Examples: analyzing corporate balance sheets, reading 
financial pages and ticker tapes 

.632 044 General types of securities 

Examples: corporate securities; fixed rate, variable rate 
securities; gilt-edged securities 

See Manual at 332. 632044 vs. 332.6323 

.632 2 Stocks (Shares) 

Including rights and warrants 

See Manual at 332. 6322 vs. 332.6323 

.632 21 Valuation 

Including dividends paid, price-earnings ratio 

For prices, see 332.63222 

.632 22 Prices 

.632 220 2 1 Tabulated and related materials 

Do not use for statistics; class in 332.63222 

.632 23 Common stock 

Class valuation in 332.63221, prices in 332.63222, speculation in 
332.63228 

Most works about penny stocks emphasize speculation and are 
classed in 332.63228 

.632 25 Preferred stock 

Class valuation in 332.63221, prices in 332.63222, speculation in 
332.63228 

.632 28 Speculation 

Examples: stock options, put and call transactions for stock [both 
formerly 332.6452], buying on margin, stock index futures 



340 



332 Economics 332 

.632 3 Bonds 

Class here interest rate futures and options, mortgage bonds and 
certificates 

See Manual at 332. 632044 vs. 332. 6323; 332. 6322 vs. 332. 6323 
.632 32 Government bonds, notes, certificates, bills 

Example: treasury bills 

For municipal bonds, see 332. 63233 

.632 33 Municipal bonds 

.632 34 Corporate bonds 

.632 4 Real estate 

See also 332. 72 for real estate finance, 333.33 for real estate 
business 



332.632 42-332.632 44 Types of investment in real estate 

Class comprehensive works in 332.6324 

.632 42 Land 

Class sale of real estate in 333.333 

.632 43 Buildings and other fixtures 

See also 643. 12 for how to select a home, 647. 92-647. 94 for 
management of multiple dwellings 

.632 44 Mortgages 

See also 332. 6323 for mortgage bonds and certificates 

.632 47 Real estate investment trusts 

Including real estate syndication 

.632 7 Investment company securities 

Including investment trusts, money market funds, mutual funds, unit 
trusts 

For real estate investment trusts, see 332. 63247 

.632 8 Commodities 

Class here commodity futures and options, speculation in 
commodities 

See also 332. 644 for exchange of commodities and commodities 
exchanges 



341 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.64 Exchange of securities and commodities 

Class here buying and selling of securities and commodities; organization, 
procedures, activities of organized exchanges 

See also 332. 632 for advice on investing in specific forms of securities 
and commodities, 332. 678 for general investment guides 

.642 Exchange of securities and securities exchanges 

Add to base number 332.642 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., exchange 
of securities in the Netherlands 332.642492 

When adding from Table 2 for a specific exchange, use the number for 
the primary area served by the exchange, e.g., New York Stock 
Exchange 332.64273, Pacific Stock Exchange 332.64279 

Class brokerage firms in 332.62, speculation in 332.632 

For over-the-counter market, see 332. 643; international exchange of 
securities, 332.65 

.643 Over-the-counter market 

.644 Exchange of commodities and commodities exchanges 

Class here commodity futures and options markets 

Class speculation in 332.6328 

.644 1 Products of agriculture 

Add to base number 332.6441 the numbers following 63 in 633-638, 
e.g., soybeans 332.6441334 

.644 2 Products of mineral industries 

Add to base number 332.6442 the numbers following 553 in 
553.2-553.9, e.g., copper 332.644243 

.645 Speculation 

Speculation in multiple forms of investment 

Examples: arbitrage, buying on margin, futures, hedging, put and call 
transactions 

Speculation in specific forms of investment relocated to 332.63 

Class guides to speculation in 332.678 

See also 332.45 for speculation in foreign exchange 

[.645 2] Put and call transactions 

Use of this number for put and call transactions for multiple forms of 
investment discontinued; class in 332.645 

Stock options, put and call transactions for stock relocated to 
332.63228 



342 



332 Economics 332 

.65 International exchange of securities 

Sale and purchase of securities offered by nationals of one jurisdiction to 
nationals of another jurisdiction 

Class international sale and purchase of specific kinds of securities in 
332.632 

.66 Investment banks and banking 

Investment banking: underwriting and sale of security issues 

Class here issuing houses 

Class international investment banks and banking in 332.15 

.67 Investments by field of investment, kind of enterprise, kind of investor; 

investment guides 

Class investment in specific forms of securities in 332.63, e.g., investment in 
railroad stocks 332.6322 (not 332.6722); specific aspects of investment in 
332.64-332.66, e.g., speculation by pension funds 332.645 (not 332.67254) 

.671 Investment in specific kinds of enterprises and by specific kinds of 

investors 

Add to base number 332.671 the numbers following 332.672 in 
332.6722-332.6725, e.g., investments by government agencies 
332.67152 

Class domestic investment in 332.672, international investment in 
332.673 

.672 Domestic investment 

.672 2 In specific kinds of enterprises 

Examples: insurance companies, railroads 

Including investment in small business 

Class investment in specific kinds of enterprises by specific kinds of 
investors in 332.6725 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15 

.672 5 By specific kinds of investors 

.672 52 By governments and their agencies 

.672 53 By private investors 

For investment by specific kinds of institutions , see 
332. 67254; by specific kinds of individuals , 332. 67255 

.672 54 By specific kinds of institutions 

Examples: by life insurance companies, pension funds 

Class investments by banks in 332.1754 
.672 55 By specific kinds of individuals 

Examples: by attorneys, physicians, middle-income investors 



343 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.673 International investment 

Class international investment banking in 332.15, specific forms of 
international investment in 332.63, history and description of 
international business ventures and subsidiaries in 338.88 

For international exchange of securities, see 332.65 

See also 658. 1 J 49 for initiation of international business enterprises 
(including subsidiaries) 

.673 09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here the advantages and disadvantages of establishing 
businesses in specific areas, investment in specific areas not 
originating in other specific areas 

Class the advantages and disadvantages of establishing businesses 
in specific areas resulting from government policy in 332.6732, 
investment originating in specific continents and countries in 
332.6733-332.6739 (not 332.673093-332.673099) 

See also 338.09 for works describing where in fact industry is 
located 

See Manual at 338. 09 vs. 338. 6042, 332. 67309, 346. 07, 
658. 11, 658.21, Tl- 068 

.673 1 By specific kinds of investors 

Class investment by specific kinds of investors originating in specific 
continents and countries in 332.6733-332.6739 

.673 12 By governments 

.673 14 By private investors 

Institutional and individual 

.673 2 Government policy 

Including international control 

.673 22 Incentives and obstacles in country of investment 

Add to base number 332.67322 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
incentives and obstacles in Brazil 332.6732281 

.673 24 Incentives and obstacles in country of investor 

Add to base number 332.67324 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
incentives and obstacles to overseas investment by British citizens 
332.6732441 

.673 3-. 673 9 Investment originating in specific continents and countries 

Add to base number 332.673 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., British 
foreign investments 332.67341; then, for place of investment, add 0* 
and to the result add notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., British foreign 
investments in Brazil 332.67341081 

Class policies of specific governments in 332.6732 

k Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



344 



332 Economics 332 

.678 Investment guides 

Including forecasting, formula plans, speculation 

Class guides to specific forms of investment in 332.63, to investment by 
type of investor, type of enterprise, field of investment in 332.67 

.7 Credit 

Class here comprehensive works on specific types of credit 

Class credit functions of specific types of financial institutions in 332.1-332.3 

For interest and discount, see 332. 8 

See Manual at 332. 7 vs. 332. 1 

.71 Agricultural credit 

.72 Real-estate finance and mortgages 

Class here discrimination in mortgage loans; mortgage delinquencies and 
defaults 

Class finance on farm real estate in 332.71 

See also 332.32 for mortgage institutions, 332. 6323 for mortgage 
bonds and certificates, 332. 63244 for mortgages as an investment 

.722 Home (Residential) finance 

.74 Other forms of credit 

.742 Commercial, mercantile, industrial 

Examples: export credit, small business loans 

.743 Personal loans 

Example: chattel mortgages 

Including consumer credit 

.75 Credit restrictions and collapse 

Class here bankruptcy 

.76 Credit instruments 

Examples: checks, debit cards, money orders 

Class certificates of deposit in 332.1752 

For commercial paper, see 332. 77 

.765 Credit cards 

Class here comprehensive works on credit cards 

Class credit cards issued by specific types of financial institutions in 
332.1, e.g., commercial banks 332.178 



345 



332 Dewey Decimal Classification 332 

.77 Commercial paper 

Examples: acceptances, drafts, promissory notes 

Including letters of credit 

Class here comprehensive works on commercial paper 

Class commercial paper as an exchange medium in 332.55 

.8 Interest and discount 

.82 Interest 

For usury, see 332. 83 

See also 332. 6323 for interest rate futures 

.83 Usury 

.84 Discount and rediscount 

.9 Counterfeiting, forgery, alteration 

See also 364. 133 for counterfeiting as a crime, 364. 1 63 for forgery as a 
crime, 737.4 for counterfeit coins, 769.55 for counterfeit paper money, 
769. 562 for counterfeit stamps 

333 Land economics 

Land: the sum total of natural and man-made resources over which possession of 
the earth gives control 

SUMMARY 

333.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

.01-. 08 [Theories and land surveys] 

.1 Public ownership and control of land and other natural resources 

.2 Ownership and control of land and other natural resources by 

nongovernmental collectivities 
.3 Individual (Private) ownership and control of land and other natural 

resources 
.4 Absentee ownership 

.5 Renting and leasing land and other natural resources 

.7 Natural resources and energy 

.8 Subsurface resources 

.9 Other natural resources 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

Class theories in 333.01 

.001 2 Classification 

Class land classification in 333.73012 

.002- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Theories 



346 



333 Economics 333 



.012 Rent 

Return produced by ownership of land after deduction of all outlays for 
labor and capital 

Including Ricardo's theory of earning power of land in terms of its 
marginal productivity 

See also 333.5 for renting and leasing land and natural resources 

.08 Land surveys 

Class here work of chartered surveyors (United Kingdom) 

Class specific kinds of land surveys with the topic, e.g., public land surveys 
333.18, land use surveys 333.7313 

See also 526. 9 for surveying techniques, 631 .47 for surveys that focus 
on agricultural use of soils 



333.1-333.5 Ownership and control of land and other natural 
resources 

Ownership: right to possession and use of land and other natural resources; 
right to transfer of possession and use 

Control limited to the kind of control that stems from ownership 

Class here ownership and control of specific kinds of natural resources 

Class comprehensive works in 333.3 

See also 333. 7-333. 9 for usage of land and other natural resources, for 
control of such usage not stemming from ownership 

See Manual at 333. 1-333.5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78; 333. 1-333.5 vs. 
346.043 

.1 Public ownership and control of land and other natural resources 

Public control of privately owned lands and other natural resources relocated to 
333.717, comprehensive works on land policy to 333.73 

See also 333.2 for ownership and control of land by peoples subordinate 
to another jurisdiction, 343. 02 for law of public property 

. 1 1 Acquisition and disposal of specific kinds of lands 

Examples: forests, highways and streets, recreational lands 
.13 Acquisition 

Examples: expropriation, purchase 

Including eminent domain 

Class here evaluation of lands for government acquisition 

Class acquisition of specific kinds of land in 333.1 1 
For nationalization, see 333. 14 
.14 Nationalization 



347 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

.16 Disposal 

Examples: grants, leases, sale 

Class disposal of specific kinds of land in 333.1 1 

. 1 8 Public land surveys 

See also 333. 08 for comprehensive works on land surveys, 333. 7313 
for surveys of public land use, 526. 9 for surveying techniques 

.2 Ownership and control of land and natural resources by 

nongovernmental collectivities 

Examples: common lands; open-field system; ownership and control of land by 
peoples subordinate to another jurisdiction, e.g., Amerindian lands in the United 
States 

Including enclosure of common lands 

For corporate ownership, see 333.324 

.3 Individual (Private) ownership and control of land and natural 

resources 

Including subdivision of private land 

Class here comprehensive works on land tenure, on ownership and control of 
land and other natural resources 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on ownership and use of land and 
other natural resources discontinued; class in 333 

For public ownership and control, see 333.1; ownership and control by 
nongovernmental collectivities, 333.2; absentee ownership, 333.4 

.31 Land reform 

Class here land redistribution, settlement and resettlement of people on the 
land 

Add to base number 333.31 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., land reform in 
Latin America 333.318 

See also 333.2 for enclosure of common lands 

.32 Types of tenure 

.322 Feudal tenure 

.323 Individual tenure 

For corporate ownership, see 333.324 
.323 2 Complete ownership (Fee simple) 

Full right to possession, use, transfer of possession and use 
.323 4 Qualified ownership 

Ownership with restrictions on use or transfer 

Examples: entails, life estates, time-sharing 



348 



333 Economics 333 

.324 Corporate ownership 

.33 Transfer of possession and right to use 

Including consolidation of holdings 

Class here comprehensive works on real estate business 

Class government acquisition and disposal in 333.1, land reform in 333.31 

For renting and leasing, see 333.5; real estate development, 333. 7315 

See also 332. 6324 for real estate investment, 332. 72 for real estate 
finance 

.332 Value and price of land 

Class here valuation (appraisal) 

Class value and price of specific kinds of land in 333.335-333.339; 
valuation for government acquisition and disposal in 333.1 1-333.16, for 
tax purposes in 352.72421 

.332 2 Real estate market 

Class here economic and social factors affecting exchange of real 
estate 

Class price in 333.3323 

.332 3 Price 

.332 302 1 Tabulated and related materials 

Do not use for statistics; class in 333.3323 

.333 Sale and gift 

Class sale and gift of specific kinds of land in 333.335-333.339 



333.335-333.339 Transfer of possession and use of specific kinds of land, 
other natural resources, real estate 

Except for additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to each term identified by * as follows: 

2 Value and price 

Class here valuation (appraisal) 

22 Real estate market 

Class here economic and social factors affecting exchange of 
real estate 
Class price in 23 

23 Price 

3 Sale and gift 

5 Renting and leasing 

Add to 5 the numbers following 333.5 in 333.53-333.56, e.g., 
share renting 563 

Class comprehensive works in 333.33 



349 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

.335 *Rural lands *Agricultural lands 

.335 563 Share and percentage renting 

Example: sharecropping [formerly also 333.563] 

.335 7 *Forest lands 

.336 industrial lands 

Including transportation space, e.g., airport space, railroad rights-of-way 

See also 333.338 for works that emphasize buildings and other 
fixtures 

.337 *Urban lands 

Residential and commercial lands 

For industrial lands, see 333.336 

See also 333.338 for works that emphasize buildings and other 
fixtures 

.338 Buildings and other fixtures *Residential buildings 

Examples: apartments, condominiums, mobile homes 

.338 7 *Commercial and industrial buildings 

.339 Other natural resources 

Appraisal, gift, leasing, renting, sale, market 

Examples: rights to use of minerals, water, air space 

[.38] Subdivision and development 

Number discontinued; class subdivision in 333.3 

Development relocated to 333.715 

.4 Absentee ownership 

.5 Renting and leasing land and natural resources 

Class renting and leasing specific kinds of land and natural resources in 
333.335-333.339 

.53 Tenancy 

Examples: tenancy for years (for a specified time period), tenancy from year 
to year, tenancy at will 

For landlord-tenant relations, see 333.54 

.54 Landlord-tenant relations 

.56 Types of renting 

.562 Cash renting 

.563 Share and percentage renting 

Sharecropping relocated to 333.335563 

*Add as instructed under 333.335-333.339 

350 



333 Economics 333 



.7 Natural resources and energy 

Aspects other than ownership 

Class here raw materials; interdisciplinary works on the environment, on waste 
resources 

Except for additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to notation for each term identified by * as follows: 

I General topics 

Class general topics of a specific kind of resource with the kind, 
e.g., control of usage of mountains as recreational areas 333.784 
(not 333.7817) 

I I Reserves (Stock, Supply) 

Quantity available for use 
Including shortages 

1 2 Requirements (Need, Demand) 

1 3 Consumption (Use, Utilization) 

Class consumption control in 17, specific uses in 333.7-333.9 
without adding notation 13 
137 Abuse and wastage 

Class here description of abused resources, consequences of 

abuse and wastage 

Class reclamation, rehabilitation, restoration of abused 

resources in 153; pollution in 363.73 

14 Impact studies 

Studies of actual impacts are classed with the thing affected, 
studies of projected impacts with the program or development 
being planned 

Class studies emphasizing abuse and wastage in 137 
> 1 5- 1 7 Management and control 

Class here citizen participation, planning, policy 

Class comprehensive works in 333.7-333.9 without adding 

from this table 

15 Development 

1 52 Improvement 

153 Reclamation, rehabilitation, restoration 

Class reclamation that is not restoration to a previous state 
in 152 
158 Subsidies 

16 Conservation and protection 

Class control of usage in 1 7 

17 Control of usage 

Examples: allocation, price control, rationing 

Including ways and means of efficient use 

Class control of specific uses in 333.7-333.9 without adding 

notation 17 

Class interdisciplinary works on consumption in 339.47; ownership of land and 
other natural resources in 333.1-333.5; natural resources other than land in 
333.8-333.9; economic geology in 553; other aspects of the environment with 
the aspect, e.g., environmental protection 363.7 

See Manual at 333. 7-333. 9: 363: 363. 6 vs. 333. 7 



351 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 





SUMMARY 


333.71 


General topics 


.72 


Conservation and protection 


.73 


Land 


.74 


Pasture (Grazing) lands 


.75 


Forest lands 


.76 


Rural lands Agricultural lands 


.77 


Urban lands 


.78 


Recreational and wilderness areas 


.79 


Energy 


General 


topics 



.71 

Add to base number 333.71 the numbers following 1 in notation 11-17 from 
table under 333.7, e.g., development 333.715 [formerly also 333.38], 
reclamation 333.7153 [formerly also 333.72], public control of privately 
owned lands and other natural resources 333.717 [formerly 333.1]; however, 
class conservation and protection in 333.72 

.72 Conservation and protection 

Reclamation relocated to 333.7153 

Class conservation of specific types of natural resources in 333.73-333.95 

See Manual at 363. 7 vs. 333. 72, 304. 28 

.73 Land 

Class here comprehensive works on land policy [formerly also 333.1], kinds 
of land by physical condition, e.g., humid land, mountainous land 

Class kinds of land by use in 333.74-333.78; shorelands and related areas in 
333.917; submerged lands, wetlands, in 333.918 

See Manual at 333. 1-333.5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78 

.73 1 General topics 

Add to base number 333.731 the numbers following 1 in notation 1 1-17 
from table under 333.7, e.g., real estate development 333.7315, 
comprehensive works on soil and water conservation 333.7316 

Class comprehensive works on real estate business in 333.33, soil and 
water conservation in rural lands in 333.7616, real estate development in 
urban lands in 333.7715, zoning of urban lands in 333.7717, water 
conservation in 333.91 16, pollution control in 363.73966 

.736 *Arid and *semiarid lands 

Class here desertification 

74 *Pasture (Grazing) lands 

See Manual at 333. 1-333.5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78 

*Add as instructed under 333.7 



352 



333 Economics 333 

.75 Forest lands 

Class here timber resources 

Add to base number 333.75 notation 11-17 from table under 333.7, e.g., 
supply of timber in nature 333.751 1, demand for timber 333.7512 [both 
formerly also 338.1749] 

Wood as a fuel relocated to 333.9539 

Class parks, recreational, wilderness areas in 333.78 

See Manual at 333. 1-333.5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78; 333. 75 vs. 338. 1749 

.76 *Rural lands * Agricultural lands 

Class rural recreational lands in 333.78 

Rural lands of a specific physical condition, if not devoted to a specific use, 
are classed in 333.73. For example, semiarid lands in general are classed in 
333.736; however, semiarid lands devoted to grazing are classed in 333.74 

For pasture lands, see 333. 74; forest lands, 333. 75 

See Manual at 333. 1-333. 5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78 

.765 *Mined lands * Surface-mined lands 

.77 *Urban lands 

Examples: civic, commercial, industrial, residential lands; highways and 
streets 

Class urban mined lands in 333.765, urban recreational lands in 333.78 

See Manual at 333. 1-333. 5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78 

[.772] Highways and streets 

Number discontinued; class in 333.77 

.78 *Recreational and wilderness areas 

Class wildlife and wildlife refuges in 333.95 

See also 363. 68 for park and recreation services 

See Manual at 333. 1-333. 5 vs. 333. 73-333. 78 

.782 * Wilderness areas 

For specific kinds of wilderness areas, see 333. 784 

See also 333. 95 for wildlife and wildlife refuges 

.783 *Parks 



*Add as instructed under 333.7 



353 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

.784 Specific kinds of recreational and wilderness areas 

Examples: coastlines, forests, mountains 



> 333.784 4-333.784 6 Recreational use of water 

Class here recreational use of land adjoining water, e.g., beaches, shores 

Class comprehensive works in 333.784 

See also 333. 91 for comprehensive works on uses of water and land 
adjoining it 

.784 4 Lakes 

.784 5 Rivers and streams 

.784 6 Reservoirs 

See also 333. 7844 for lakes 

.79 Energy 

Class here production of energy [formerly 338], interdisciplinary works on 
energy 

Power resources are classed here. A work that discusses only electric power 
is classed in 333.7932 

Class extraction of energy resources and comprehensive works on the 
economics of mineral fuels in 338.2; interdisciplinary works on mineral 
fuels in 553; specific forms of energy, specific energy resources not 
provided for here with the subject, e.g., fossil fuels 333.82, geothermal 
energy 333.88, hydroelectricity 333.914, wind energy 333.92, biomass as an 
energy resource 333.9539; noneconomic aspects with the aspect, e.g., 
energy management 658.2, fuel technology 662.6 

.791 General topics 

Add to base number 333.791 the numbers following 1 in notation 1 1-17 
from table under 333.7, e.g., energy development and production 
333.7915 

Class utilization of waste heat in 333.793 

.792 Primary forms of energy 

Resources used directly to perform work, to produce other forms of 
energy 

.792 3 fSolar energy 

Including electricity derived from solar energy, e.g., with 
photovoltaic cells 

Class distribution of electricity derived from solar energy in 333.7932 

.792 33 Financial aspects 

Including prices 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 15 for both development and generation of energy 



354 



333 Economics 333 

.792 4 fNuclear energy 

Class here electricity derived from nuclear energy 

Class distribution of electricity derived from nuclear energy in 
333.7932, nuclear fuels in 333.85 

.792 43 Financial aspects 

Including prices 

.793 Secondary forms of energy 

Energy produced through use of other resources 

Including cogeneration of electric power and heat, district heating 

Class secondary forms of energy derived from specific resources with the 
resource, e.g., electricity derived from nuclear energy 333.7924; 
economics of synthetic fuel production 338.4766266 

.793 2 t Electrical energy 

Including rural electrification {formerly 621.393], distribution of 
electrical energy regardless of resource from which the electricity was 
derived 

Class here electricity derived from fossil fuels [formerly 333.82], 
electrical utilities [formerly 363.62], comprehensive works on 
electrical energy 

Electricity derived from a specific resource is classed with the 
resource, e.g., from water 333.914. The two exceptions are for 
electricity derived from fossil fuels and for distribution of electricity 



.793 23 


Financial aspects 


.793 231 


Prices 


.793 8 


fEnergy from waste materials 



Class energy from biological wastes in 333.9539, the chemical 
technology of energy from waste materials in 662.87 



.794 tRenewable energy resources 

Class here alternative energy resources 



Class specific renewable and alternative energy resources with the 
resource, e.g., solar energy 333.7923 



.796 Energy for specific uses 

Example: energy for military use 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects 
in two or more subdivisions of 333.796 in the one coming last, e.g., 
energy use in school buildings 333.7964 (not 333.7962) 

Class a specific kind of energy for specific uses with the kind of energy, 
e.g., energy from petroleum for transportation use 333.8232 (not 
333.7968) 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 15 for both development and generation of energy 



355 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

[.796 01 -.796 09] Standard subdivisions 

Do not use; class in 333.7901-333.7909 

.796 2 *For use in buildings and offices 

Including use in construction 

See also 624 for technical aspects of energy use in construction 

.796 3 *For residential and domestic use 

.796 4 *Social service institutions 

Examples: churches, hospitals, prisons, schools 

.796 5 *For industrial use 

Class here manufacturing use 

Class energy use in construction of buildings in 333.7962 

For food processing use, see 333. 7966 

.796 6 *For use in agriculture and food processing 

.796 8 *For use in transportation and commerce 

Standard subdivisions are added for transportation 

.796 89 *For commercial use 

.8 Subsurface resources 

Class here supply in storage, shortages, surpluses, demand, and projections of 
these [all formerly also 338.27], strategic materials 

Add to base number 333.8, and also to each subdivision identified by $, as 
instructed under 333.7; however, use 1 1 only for reserves in storage, and do not 
use 15 development; class reserves in nature in 553, development in 338.2 

Class extraction of subsurface resources and comprehensive works on the 
economics of subsurface resources in 338.2, interdisciplinary works on 
subsurface resources in 553 

For ground water, see 333. 9104 

See Manual at 333. 7-333. 9; 333. 8 vs. 338. 2, 553; 553 

.82 ^Fossil fuels 

Electricity derived from fossil fuels relocated to 333.7932 

.822 ^Coal 

.823 :j:Oil and natural gas 

.823 2 tOil 

Petroleum in its narrow sense 

Gasoline relocated to 338.4766553827 

*Add as instructed under 333.7 

^Add as instructed under 333.7, except use 1 1 only for reserves in storage and do not use 15 
development; class reserves in nature in 553, development in 338.2 

356 



333 Economics 333 

.823 3 ^Natural gas 

See also 363. 63 for gas distribution services of public utilities 

.85 ^Minerals 

Add to base number 333.85 the numbers following 553 in 553.2-553.9, e.g., 
tin 333.85453, uranium 333.854932; however, class fossil fuels in 333.82, 
ground water in 333.9104 

Class comprehensive works on the economics of minerals in 338.2, 
interdisciplinary works on nonmetallic minerals in 553, interdisciplinary 
works on metals in 669 

.88 *Geothermal energy 

Class here subsurface thermal waters [formerly also 333.9104], thermal 
waters [formerly 553.7], electricity derived from geothermal energy 

Class distribution of electricity derived from geothermal energy in 333.7932 

.9 Other natural resources 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as instructed under 333.7 
See Manual at 333. 7-333. 9 

SUMMARY 

333.91 Water 

.92 Air 

.94 Space 

.95 Biological resources 






.91 Water 



Class here aquatic resources, land adjoining water, comprehensive works on 
the economics of water resources 

Use 333.91001-333.91009 for standard subdivisions 

Class interdisciplinary works on water in 553.7; a specific aquatic resource 
with the subject, e.g., minerals 333.85, fish 333.956; a specific aspect of 
water not provided for here with the subject, e.g., recreational use of water 
and land adjoining it 333.7844-333.7846, regulation and control of 
distribution of water to consumers 363.61 

See Manual at 363. 61; 553 

[.910 2] Surface water 

Number discontinued; class in 333.91 

.910 4 tGround (Subsurface) water 

Subsurface thermal waters relocated to 333.88 

*Add as instructed under 333.7 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 1 1 only for reserves in storage; class reserves in nature 
in 553.7 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 1 1 only for reserves in storage and do not use 15 
development; class reserves in nature in 553, development in 338.2 



357 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

.91 1 General topics of water 

Class general topics of a specific kind of water with the kind, e.g., 
general topics of rivers and streams 333.91621 

.9111 Reserves (Stock, Supply) 

Class here only reserves in storage, e.g., in reservoirs and storage 
tanks 

Class reserves in nature in 553.7 

.9112 Requirements (Need, Demand) [formerly also 628.17] 

.9113 Use (Utilization) {formerly also 628. 1 7] 

Class here comprehensive works on proprietary uses of water, on 
resource economics of consumption of water [both formerly 333.912] 

Class water for specific uses in 333.912-333.915 

.911 37 Abuse and wastage 

Class reclamation, rehabilitation, restoration of abused water in 
333.91 153; water conservation in 333.91 16; water pollution in 
363.7394 

.9114 Impact studies 

Class studies emphasizing abuse and wastage in 333.91 137 

.911 5- .91 1 7 Management and control of water 

Add to base number 333.91 notation 15-17 from the table under 
333.7, e.g., water conservation 333.91 16 



> 333.912-333.915 Water for specific uses 

Class comprehensive works in 333.91 

For recreational use, see 333. 7844-333. 7846 

.9 1 2 t Water for domestic (residential) and industrial uses 

Comprehensive works on proprietary uses of water, on resource 
economics of consumption of water relocated to 333.91 13 

.912 2 For domestic (residential) use 

Examples: drinking and washing 

.9123 For industrial use 

Class water for generation of energy in 333.914, water for 
transportation in 333.915 

.9 1 3 t Water for irrigation 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 1 1 only for reserves in storage; class reserves in nature 
in 553.7 



358 



333 Economics 333 

.914 Water for generation of energy 

Example: thermal ocean power conversion 

Class here hydroelectricity 

Add to base number 333.914 notation 11-17 from table under 333.7, 
except use 1 1 for energy-producing potential of water and 15 for both 
development and generation of energy, e.g., potential hydroelectric 
energy resources of Idaho 333.9141 109796, hydropower generation in 
the Columbia River basin 333.9141509797 

Use of this number for other nonproprietary uses of water discontinued; 
class in 333.91 

.9 1 5 t Water for transportation 









333.916-333.918 Specific kinds of water and land adjoining it 

Class comprehensive works in 333.91, specific uses of specific kinds of water in 
333.912-333.915 

.9 1 6 Bodies of water 

Class lands adjoining specific kinds of bodies of water in 333.917 

.916 2 tRivers and streams 

Class river basins in 333.73 

.916 3 fLakes and ponds 

For salt-water lakes, see 333. 9164 

.916 4 Oceans and seas 

Including bays, gulfs, estuaries, salt-water lakes 

Add to base number 333.9164 notation 11-17 from table under 333.7, 
e.g., conservation and protection of seas 333.916416; however, use 11 
only for reserves in storage; class reserves in nature with the subject, 
e.g., oceans 551.46 

.917 *Shorelands and related areas 

Examples: beaches, coasts, shores 

Class here tidelands in the sense of lands that are overflowed by the tide 
but exposed by low water 

Submerged lands and wetlands related to specific types of bodies of 
water, tidelands in the sense of lands underlying the ocean beyond the 
low tidemark but within a nation's territorial waters, continental shelves 
relocated to 333.918 

Class river basins in 333.73, recreational use of shorelands and related 
areas in 333.784 



♦Add as instructed under 333.7 

tAdd as instructed under 333.7, except use 1 1 only for reserves in storage; class reserves in nature 
in 553.7 



359 



333 Dewey Decimal Classification 333 

.918 * Submerged lands and wetlands 

Class here submerged lands and wetlands related to specific types of 
bodies of water, tidelands in the sense of lands underlying the ocean 
beyond the low tidemark but within a nation's territorial waters, 
continental shelves [all formerly 333.917] 

Class recreational use in 333.784 

See also 333. 916 for works focusing on bodies of water rather than 
the land they submerge 

.92 *Air 

Class here wind energy, use of wind for generation of electricity 
.94 Space 

See Manual at 333. 94 vs. 338. 0919 
.95 *Biological resources 

Class here biosphere, wildlife, wildlife refuges 

.952 *Aquatic biological resources 

Class specific aquatic organisms and groups of organisms in 
333.953-333.959 

.953 *Plant resources 

Class forests, comprehensive works on timber resources in 333.75 

.953 9 Plant resources for generation of energy 

Class here wood as a fuel [formerly also 333.75], interdisciplinary 
works on biomass as an energy resource 

Add to base number 333.9539 notation 1 1-17 from table under 333.7, 
except use 15 for both development and generation of energy, e.g., 
generation of energy from biomass 333.953915 

Class animal biomass as an energy resource in 333.954 

.954 *Animal resources 

Class here game 

For invertebrates, see 333. 955; fish, 3 S3. 956; amphibians and 
reptiles, 333. 957; birds, 333. 958; mammals, 333. 959 

See Manual at 333. 954 vs. 338. 37 

.955 * Invertebrates 

Examples: insects, shellfish 

.956 *Fish 

Class here comprehensive works on finfish and shellfish 

For shellfish, see 333. 955 

.957 *Amphibians and reptiles 

*Add as instructed under 333.7 

360 



333 Economics 333 

.958 *Birds 

.959 *Mammals 

334 Cooperatives 

Voluntary organizations or enterprises owned by and operated for the benefit of 
those using the services 

[.060 1] International organizations 

Do not use; class in 334.0919 

.091 9 International associations of cooperatives 

Do not use for cooperatives in space; class in 334.09 

.1 Building and housing 

.2 Banking and credit 

.22 Credit unions 

See also 332.32 for comprehensive works on thrift institutions 

.5 Consumer cooperatives 

Class comprehensive works on cooperative marketing in 334.6813801, 
consumer housing cooperatives in 334.1 

[.506 8] Management of consumer cooperatives 

Relocated to 658.8707 

.6 Production 

.68 In specific industries and groups of industries 

.68 1 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 334.681 notation 001-999, e.g., cooperative 
marketing by producers and comprehensive works on cooperative 
marketing 334.6813801, cooperative legal services 334.68134; however, 
class banking and credit in 334.2, consumers' cooperatives in 334.5 

.682-. 689 Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 334.68 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
cooperative cattle production 334.68362; however, class building 
cooperatives in 334.1, kibbutzim and moshavim in Israel in 335.95694, 
Soviet collective farms in 338.7630947 



Cooperative marketing by producers is classed in 334.6813801, e.g., 
cooperative domestic marketing of cattle by producers 334.6813814162 



.7 Benefit societies 

Examples: benevolent, friendly, mutual-aid, provident societies 
See also 368 for insurance 
*Add as instructed under 333.7 



361 



335 Dewey Decimal Classification 335 

335 Socialism and related systems 

Class here state socialism, interdisciplinary works on political and economic 
aspects of socialism and related systems 

(Option: Class in 330.159) 

Use 335.001-335.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class socialism and communism as political ideologies in 320.53; socialist and 
communist political parties in 324.217; a specific topic of economics treated from a 
socialist or communist point of view with the subject in economics, e.g., interest 
332.82 

The term "socialism" is often used in narrow senses to mean communism 
(335.43) or democratic socialism (335.5) 

Comparisons of Communism (Marxism-Leninism) with other systems are classed 
in 335.437 

See Manual at 335 vs. 320. 53, 306. 345 





SUMMARY 


335.02 


Utopian systems and schools 


.1 


Systems of English origin 


.2 


Systems of French origin 


.3 


Systems of American origin 


.4 


Marxian systems 


.5 


Democratic socialism 


.6 


Fascism 


.7 


Christian socialism 


.8 


Other systems 


.9 


Voluntary socialist and anarchist communities 



.02 Utopian systems and schools 

Class specific Utopian systems in 335.1-335.3 

See also 301 for ideal societies, 321.07 for ideal states 



335.1-335.3 Non- and quasi-Marxian socialism 

Class comprehensive works in 335 

For national socialism, see 335. 6; Christian socialism, 335. 7; voluntary 
socialist communities, 335. 9 



.1 


Systems of English origin 


.12 


Utopian socialism 




Example: Owenism 


.14 


Fabian socialism 


.15 


Guild socialism 


.2 


Systems of French origin 




Examples: Babouvism, Icarianism 



362 



335 Economics 335 

.22 Saint-Simonism 

.23 Fourierism (Phalansterianism) 

.3 Systems of American origin 

.4 Marxian systems 

Class here Marxism 

Class democratic Marxian systems in 335.5 
See Manual at 335. 4 vs. 335. 401, 335. 411 
.401 Philosophy and related topics 

Comprehensive works on theory of Marxian systems are classed in 335.4 
Class philosophical foundations in 335.411 
See Manual at 335. 4 vs. 335. 401, 335. 411 
.41 Philosophic foundations, economic concepts, aims 

Example: social ownership of means of production 
.41 1 Philosophic foundations 

Example: theory of class struggle 

Class the philosophic foundations of Marxian economics in 335.412 
See Manual at 335. 4 vs. 335. 401, 335. 411 
AW 2 Dialectical materialism 

See Manual at 146.32 vs. 335.4112 
.4119 Historical materialism 

.412 Economic concepts 

Example: labor theory of value 
[.413] Aims 

Number discontinued; class in 335.41 



335.42-335.43 Marxian doctrines and systems characteristic of specific 
historical periods and regions 

Class comprehensive works in 335.4 

.42 Early period 

.422 Communism (1848-1875) 

Period of Communist manifesto 

.423 Scientific socialism (1875-1917) 

For democratic socialism, see 335. 5 



363 



335 Dewey Decimal Classification 335 

.43 Communism (Marxism-Leninism) 

Communism of post- 19 17 period 

Class here Soviet communism, communist theory and practice of democratic 
centralism 

Class communism as a political ideology in 320.532 

.433 Trotskyite doctrines 

.434 National variants as schools of thought 

Use 335.4309 for communism in specific nations viewed as actual 
economic systems rather than schools of thought, e.g., Cuban 
communism as an existing system 335.43097291 (not 335.4347) 

Soviet communism as a school of thought is classed in 335.43, as the 
actual economic system of the Soviet Union in 335.430947 

.434 4 Yugoslav communism 

Class here Titoism 

.434 5 Chinese communism 

Class here Maoism 

.434 7 Cuban communism (Castroism) 

Including ideas of Che Guevara 

[.436] Critical works 

Number discontinued; class in 335.43 

.437 Comparative studies 

Comparison of communism with capitalism, cooperation, democratic 
socialism, other forms of collectivism 

.5 Democratic socialism 

Marxian and non-Marxian socialism pursued through persuasion and consent of 
the electorate in a nonauthoritarian state 

Use of this number for state socialism discontinued; class in 335 

Class Christian socialism in 335.7, voluntary socialist communities in 335.9 

For Fabian socialism, see 335. 14 

.6 Fascism 

Examples: falangism, national socialism 

See also 320. 533 for fascism as a political ideology 

.7 Christian socialism 

Class voluntary Christian socialist communities in 335.9 

See also 320.5312 for Christian socialism as a political ideology 

.8 Other systems 



364 






335 Economics 335 

.82 Syndicalism 

Class here anarcho-syndicalism 

.83 Anarchism 

Class anarchism as a political ideology in 320.57, anarcho-syndicalism in 
335.82, voluntary anarchist communities in 335.9 

.9 Voluntary socialist and anarchist communities 

Use 335.9 only for truly voluntary communities. Use 338.7 for communes or 
collectives imposed by force, if discussed as organizations of production 

Add to base number 335.9 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., kibbutzim and 
moshavim in Israel 335.95694, voluntary socialist communities in the United 
States 335.973 

See also 307. 774 for interdisciplinary and sociological studies of 
communes, 307. 776 for interdisciplinary and sociological studies of 
kibbutzim 

336 Public finance 

Class here intergovernmental fiscal relations 

Class financial administration of governments in 351.72 

See also 351. 725 for administration of fiscal relations between governmental 
units 

See Manual at 336 vs. 351. 72; 339 vs. 332, 336 

SUMMARY 

336.001-.008 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .09 [Governmental level; revenue; historical, geographical, persons 

treatment] 
.1 Nontax revenues 

.2 Taxes and taxation 

.3 Public borrowing, debt, expenditure 

.4^.9 Public finance of specific continents, countries, localities in modern world 

.001-. 005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations and management 

.006 01 International organizations 

Class associations of sovereign states in 336.0916 

.007-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

[.009] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class treatment by governmental level in 336.01; areas, 
regions, places in general, persons, ancient world in 336.09; continents, 
countries, localities in modern world in 336.4-336.9 



365 



336 Dewey Decimal Classification 336 

.01 By governmental level 

Here are classed works about multiple jurisdictions at the same level, e.g., 
public finance at the state level in the United States 336.01373. Works about 
a single jurisdiction are classed in 336.093 or 336.4-336.9, e.g., public 
finance at the national level in the United States 336.73 (not 336.01273) 

.012 National 

Add to base number 336.012 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., national 
public finance in Europe 336.0124 

.013 State and provincial 



Add to base number 336.013 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., provincial 
public finance in Canada 336.01371 



.014 Local 



Add to base number 336.014 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., local 
public finance in Pennsylvania 336.014748 

.02 Revenue 

Add to base number 336.02 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., revenue in 
Great Britain 336.0241 

Class specific forms of revenue in 336.1-336.2 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment, associations of sovereign 

states 

Class continents, countries, localities in the modem world in 336.4-336.9 

.090 1- .090 5 Historical periods 

Add to base number 336.090 the numbers following —090 in notation 
0901-0905 from Table 1, e.g., public finance in the 19th century 
336.09034 

.091 Areas, regions, places in general; associations of sovereign states 

.091 6 Associations of sovereign states 

.09162 League of Nations 

.091 63 United Nations 

.09168 Regional associations 

Example: League of Arab States 

Class regional associations limited to specific continents in 
336.4-336.9 

.091 7 Socioeconomic regions 

Add to base number 336.0917 the numbers following — 17 in 

— 171-177 from Table 2, e.g., public finance in developing countries 

336.091724 

.092 Persons 



366 



336 Economics 336 



.093 The ancient world 



Add to base number 336.093 the numbers following —3 in notation 
31-39 from Table 2, e.g., public finance in the Roman Empire 336.0937 



336.1-336.2 Revenues 

Class comprehensive works in 336.02 
.1 Nontax revenues 

For public borrowing, see 336. 34 



336.1 1-336.15 Commercial revenues 

Class comprehensive works in 336. 1 

For revenue from public industries and services, see 336. 19 

. 1 1 From rents and franchises 

.12 From public lands 

Including mineral rights 

Class income from rental of land and leasing of mineral rights in 336.1 1 

.15 From deposits, investments, loans 

. 1 6 Administrative revenues 

Examples: fees for services rendered, for licenses; fines; gifts; profits on 
coinage 

For franchises, see 336. 11 

.17 Revenues from lotteries 

. 1 8 Inter- and intragovernmental revenues 

. 1 82 From reparations and interest on war loans 

. 1 85 From one government unit to another 

Examples: grants from higher units, payment in lieu of taxes, technical 
assistance funds 

.188 From international grants 

.19 Revenue from public industries and services 



367 



336 Dewey Decimal Classification 336 

.2 Taxes and taxation 

Class here interdisciplinary works on taxes and taxation 
Class tax law in 343.04, tax administration in 351.724 
See Manual at 336. 2 vs. 351. 724, 343. 04 





SUMMARY 


336.200 1 


-.200 9 Standard subdivisions 


.201-. 


207 General topics 


.22 


Real property taxes 


.23 


Personal property taxes 


.24 


Income taxes 


.25 


Poll taxes 


.26 


Customs taxes (Customs duties) 


.27 


Other taxes 


.29 


Principles of taxation 


1-.200 8 


Standard subdivisions 



.200 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by governmental level in 336.201 



336.201-336.207 General topics 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., reform of business taxes 
336.207 (not 336.205) 

Business taxes 336.207 

Provisions that allow tax avoidance 336.206 

Taxes by governmental level 336.201 

Tax reform 336.205 

Class comprehensive works in 336.2 

.201 Taxes by governmental level 

Here are classed works about multiple jurisdictions at the same level, 
e.g., state taxes in the United States 336.201373. Works about a single 
jurisdiction are classed in 336.2009, e.g., federal taxes in the United 
States 336.200973 (not 336.201273) 

.201 2 National taxes 

Add to base number 336.20212 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
national taxes in Europe 336.20124 

.201 3 State and provincial taxes 

Add to base number 336.2013 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
provincial taxes in Canada 336.201371 

.201 4 Local taxes and rates 

Add to base number 336.2014 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., local 
taxes in Pennsylvania 336.2014748 

.205 Tax reform 

Including proposals and innovations 

368 



336 Economics 336 

.206 Provisions that allow tax avoidance 

Former heading: Reductions in taxes 

Examples: tax credits, deductions, incentives, loopholes, rebates 

Class here tax expenditure (tax deductions, exemptions, credits, by which 
a government "spends" revenue by not collecting it) 

.207 Business taxes 

Examples: taxes on industry, manufacturing, small business, international 
business 

.22 Real property taxes 

Taxes on land, buildings, permanent improvements 

Class here rates (United Kingdom), comprehensive works on property taxes 
For personal property taxes, see 336. 23 

.222 Rates, assessment, valuation 

Class rates (percentages), assessment, valuation of specific kinds of real 
property in 336.225 

.225 Specific kinds of real property 

Examples: farm, residential, commercial property 

.23 Personal property taxes 

On tangible and intangible property 

Including mobile homes 

.24 Income taxes 

Class here comprehensive works on taxes on personal wealth 

For property taxes, see 336. 22; estate, inheritance, gift taxes, 336. 276 

.241 General topics 

Class general topics applied to personal income tax in 336.242, general 
topics applied to corporate income tax in 336.243 

.241 5 Reform 

Class reform of taxes on business income in 336.2417 
.241 6 Provisions that allow tax avoidance 

Former heading: Reductions and rebates 

Class provisions allowing avoidance of taxes on business income in 
336.2417 

.241 7 Taxes on business income 



369 



336 Dewey Decimal Classification 336 

.242 Personal (Individual) income taxes 

See also 362.582 for negative income tax 

.242 1 General topics 

Class general topics applied to taxes on specific kinds of personal 
income in 336.2422-336.2428 

.242 15 Reform 

.242 16 Provisions that allow tax avoidance 

Former heading: Reductions and rebates 

.242 2 Income from wages 

Including withholding tax 
.242 3 Self-employment income 

Examples: income from individual proprietorships, from partnerships 
.242 4 Income from property transfers 

Capital gains and losses 

Class here comprehensive works on taxation of individual and 
corporate capital gains and losses 

Class taxation of corporate capital gains in 336.243 

.242 6 Interest income 

Class here comprehensive works on taxation of individual and 
corporate interest income 

Class taxation of corporate interest income in 336.243 

.242 8 Retirement income 

.243 Corporate income taxes 

Examples: capital gains taxes, interest income 

Class business taxes in 336.207 

.243 1 General topics 

Class general topics applied to profits taxes in 336.2432 

.243 15 Reform 

.243 16 Provisions that allow tax avoidance 

Former heading: Reductions 

Example: oil depletion allowance 

.243 2 Profits taxes 

Examples: excess and undistributed profits taxes 

.249 Social security taxes 

See also 368. 4 for social security benefits 

See Manual at 336. 249 vs. 368. 401 , 368. 401 1 

370 



336 Economics 336 

.25 Poll taxes 

.26 Customs taxes (Customs duties) 

See also 382. 7 for interdisciplinary works on tariff policy 

.263 Export and transit taxes 

.264 Import taxes 

For import tax schedules, see 336. 265; import taxes on specific 
commodities, 336. 266 

.265 Import tax schedules 

For import tax schedules on specific commodities, see 336. 266 

.266 Import taxes and tax schedules on specific commodities 

Add to base number 336.266 notation 001-999, e.g., taxes on paintings 
336.26675 



.27 


Other taxes 


.271 


Excise and related taxes 




Examples: luxury, use taxes 


.2713 


Sales taxes 


.2714 


Value added taxes 


.271 6 


Severance taxes 


.272 


Stamp taxes and revenue stamps 


.276 


Estate, inheritance, gift taxes 


.278 


Taxes on specific commodities, services, industries 



Add to base number 336.278 notation 001-999, e.g., coal industry taxes 
336.2783382724 

Class a specific kind of tax on a specific commodity, service, industry 
with the kind of tax, e.g., import taxes on coal 336.26655324, severance 
taxes on coal 336.2716 

.29 Principles of taxation 

Class principles of specific kinds of taxes in 336.22-336.27 

.291 General principles 

Examples: adequacy (yield), certainty, diversity, economy and 
convenience of collection, justice 

.293 Kinds of rate 

Examples: progressive, proportional, regressive rates 



371 



336 Dewey Decimal Classification 336 

.294 Incidence 

The final burden of tax payment and the people on whom it falls 

Including direct, indirect, double taxation 

Class incidence of a specific tax with the tax, e.g., incidence of income 
tax 336.24 

.3 Public borrowing, debt, expenditure 

Class here fiscal policy, comprehensive works on monetary and fiscal policy 

Class use of fiscal and monetary policy in economic stabilization in 339.5 

For monetary policy, see 332. 46 

.31 Public (Government) securities 

Example: government Eurobonds [formerly also 336.3435] 

Class investment in government securities in 332.63232 

For short term securities, see 336. 32 

.32 Short term securities 

Examples: certificates of indebtedness, treasury bills and notes 

.34 Public borrowing and public debt 

For public securities, see 336.31; debt management, 336.36 

.340 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by governmental level in 336.343 

.343 By governmental level 

Here are classed works about multiple jurisdictions at the same level, 
e.g., public borrowing and public debt at the state level in the United 
States 336.343273, international debt in Latin America 336.3435098. 
Works about a single jurisdiction are classed in 336.3409, e.g., 
borrowing and debt at the national level in the United States 336.340973 
{not 336.343373) 

Class flotation of loans regardless of level in 336.344, limitation of 
indebtedness regardless of level in 336.346 

.343 1 Local level 

Add to base number 336.3431 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., local 
borrowing in Pennsylvania 336.3431748 

.343 2 State and provincial level 

Add to base number 336.3432 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
provincial borrowing and public debt in Canada 336.343271 

.343 3 National level 

Add to base number 336.3433 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
national borrowing and public debts in Europe 336.34334 

Class borrowing by one nation from another nation in 336.3435 



372 



336 Economics 336 

.343 5 International level 

Borrowing by one nation from another, public debts owed by one 
nation to another 

Class here comprehensive works on international borrowing and debts 

Government Eurobonds relocated to 336.31 

Class role of banks in international borrowing and debts in 332.15 

.344 Flotation of loans 

Including allotments, subscriptions, compulsory loans, marketability 

Class government securities in 336.31 

.346 Limitation of public indebtedness 

.36 Debt management 

Class debt limits (ceilings) in 336.346 

See also 339.523 for deficit financing 

.363 Repayment and redemption 

Including sinking funds 

.368 Repudiation and abrogation 

Class here public insolvency 

.39 Expenditure 

General aspects: character, principles, justification 

Class tax expenditure in 336.206, economic effects of expenditure in 
339.522 

See Manual at 336 vs. 351 . 72 

.4- .9 Public finance of specific continents, countries, localities in modern 
world 

Add to base number 336 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., public finance of 
Australia 336.94 

337 International economics 

Class here international economic planning; comprehensive works on international 
economic relations, on international economic cooperation 

Class a specific aspect of international economics not provided for here with the 
aspect, e.g., international (multinational) business enterprises 338.88, foreign trade 

382 






See also 341. 75 for international economic law 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class foreign economic policies and relations of specific jurisdictions and 
groups of jurisdictions in 337.3-337.9 {not 337.093-337.099) 



373 



337 Dewey Decimal Classification 337 

.1 Multilateral economic cooperation 

Former heading: Spheres of economic cooperation 

Class here economic integration, multilateral agreements and multistate 
organizations for economic cooperation 

Class bilateral economic cooperation in 337.3-337.9, trade agreements in 382.9 

See also 341.2 for interdisciplinary works on international organizations 

See Manual at 337. 1 vs. 337. 3-337. 9 

.109 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 337.11-337.19 

.11 In areas, regions, places in general 

Add to base number 337.1 1 the numbers following — 1 in notation 17-18 
from Table 2, e.g., multilateral economic cooperation in the Western 
Hemisphere 337.11812 

.14 European multilateral cooperation 

.142 European Economic Community (European Common Market, EEC) 

. 143 European Free Trade Association (EFT A) 

.147 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) 

Former heading: East European Economic Organization 

. 1 5- . 1 9 Multilateral cooperation in other continents 

Add to base number 337.1 notation 5-9 from Table 2, e.g., Andean Group 
337.18 

.3- .9 Foreign economic policies and relations of specific jurisdictions and 
groups of jurisdictions 

Class here bilateral economic cooperation 

Add to base number 337 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., economic policy of 
United Kingdom 337.41; then, for foreign economic relations between two 
jurisdictions or groups of jurisdictions, add 0* and to the result add notation 
1-9 from Table 2, e.g., economic relations between United Kingdom and 
France 337.41044 

Give priority in notation to the jurisdiction or group of jurisdictions 
emphasized. If the emphasis is equal, give priority to the one coming first in the 
sequence of area notations 

(Option: Give priority in notation to the jurisdiction or group of jurisdictions 
requiring local emphasis, e.g., libraries in the United States class foreign 
economic relations between the United States and France in 337.73044) 

Class multilateral economic cooperation in 337.1 

See Manual at 337. 1 vs. 337. 3-337. 9 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



374 



338 Economics 338 



338 Production 

Class here comprehensive works on the economic and technical aspects of industry 
and production, e.g., the economy and technology of the automotive industry 
338.476292 

Production of energy relocated to 333.79, production economics of insurance 
industry to 368 

Class specific factors of production in 331-333; production economics of financial 
industries in 332, of real estate business in 333.33; economics of cooperative 
production in 334; commerce, communications, transportation in 380; production 
technology in 620-690 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15; 363. 5, 363. 6, 363. 8 vs. 338 

SUMMARY 

338.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .09 [General topics! 

.1 Agriculture 

.2 Extraction of minerals 

.3 Other extractive industries 

.4 Secondary industries and services 

.5 General production economics 

.6 Organization of production 

.7 Business enterprises and their structure 

.8 Combinations 

.9 Economic development and growth 



.001 Philosophy and theory 



Class a specific theory with the subject, e.g., law of diminishing marginal 
utility 338.5212 



.00112 Forecasting and forecasts 

Class forecasting and forecasts of commodities and services in 
338.0201 12, general production forecasting and forecasts in 
338.544 

.002- .008 Standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of general principles and 

theories 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of production in 338.09 

.0 1 Factors of production 

Class here comprehensive and theoretical works on factors of production 

Class labor in 331, capital in 332, land in 333, factors of production as part 
of industrial conditions and situation in 338.09, factors of production as 
costs of production in 338.512 



375 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.02 Commodities and services 

Class general production economics in 338.5, consumption in 339.47, 
shipments and sales in 380-382 

.020 12 Classification 

Class here standard industrial classifications 

.04 Entrepreneurship 

.06 Production efficiency 

Including cost-output ratio 

Class conservation of energy in 333.7916 

.064 Effect of technological innovations 

Class here the effect of automation, comprehensive works on the effect of 
technological innovations on the economy 

Class the effect of technological innovations on a specific aspect of the 
economy with the aspect, e.g., effect on working conditions 331.25, 
effect on banking 332.1 

See also 303.483 for the effect of technological innovation on 
society 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of production 

Class here existing and potential resources for production, industrial 
conditions and situation, industrial surveys, location of industry, 
productivity 

Add to base number 338.09 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., industrial 
surveys of Canada 338.0971 

Class a specific resource with the resource, e.g., water for power 333.914 

See also 338. 6042 for the rationale for and process of locating business 
enterprises 

See Manual at 333. 94 vs. 338. 0919; 338. 09 vs. 338. 6042, 332. 67309, 
346.07, 658. 11, 658.21, Tl—068 



338.1-338.4 Specific kinds of industries 

Class here finance of specific kinds of industries {formerly also 338.6041], 
general production economics of specific kinds of industries 

Class comprehensive works in 338; financial industries in 332; real estate 
business in 333.33; energy production in 333.79; cooperatives in specific kinds 
of industries in 334; commerce, communications, transportation in 380; 
organization of production in specific kinds of industries in 338.6; business 
enterprises other than cooperatives in specific kinds of industries in 
338.7-338.8; biographies of entrepreneurs in specific kinds of industries in 
338.6-338.8, e.g., biographies of small-business owners 338.642092, 
biographies of entrepreneurs in textile manufacturing 338.76770092; 
biographies of people known for their contributions in technology in 600, e.g., 
biographies of mining engineers 622.092 



376 



338 Economics 338 



338.1-338.3 Primary (Extractive) industries 

Class comprehensive works in 338 
.1 Agriculture 

See also 334. 683 for agricultural cooperatives 

See Manual at 631.558 vs. 338. 1 

. 1 3 Financial aspects 

Class here capital formation and other investment in agriculture, costs, 
prices received by farmers, farm income 

Add to base number 338.13 the numbers following 63 in 633-638, e.g., 
prices of rice 338.13318 

Class government policies that affect financial aspects in 338.18, food prices 
in 338.19 

See also 338. 16 for production efficiency 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15 

.14 Factors affecting production 

Examples: drought, plant and animal diseases, shortages of materials and 
equipment used in farming 

Class financial factors in 338.13, production efficiency in 338.16, surpluses 
and shortages of farm products in 338.17, government policies in 338.18 

[.15] Surpluses and shortages of farm products 

Relocated to 338.17 

. 1 6 Production efficiency 

Including cost-output ratio, size of farm, use of labor 

Class here science, technological innovation in agriculture 

Class energy conservation in agriculture in 333.7966 

See also 338. 14 for factors affecting production 

.161 Mechanization 

Class here automation 

Class mechanization of harvesting methods in 338.163 

. 1 62 Agricultural methods 

Examples: crop rotation; use of plant nutrients, of insecticides 

For harvesting methods, see 338. 163 

. 1 63 Harvesting methods 



377 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

. 1 7 Products 

Including the seed industry as a whole 

Specific kinds of seed are classed with the kind 

Class here surpluses and shortages of farm products {formerly 338.15], 
forecasts and projections of supply and demand 

Add to base number 338.17 the numbers following 63 in 633-638, e.g., rice 
or seed rice 338.17318, forestry 338.1749, forest products 338.17498; 
however, supply of timber in nature relocated to 333.751 1, demand for 
timber relocated from 338.1749 to 333.7512 

Class specific elements of production applied to specific products and groups 
of products in 338.13-338.16, 338.18; supply, surpluses, shortages of food 
in 338.19; specific producers in 338.763 

See Manual at 333. 75 vs. 338. 1749 

. 1 8 Government farm policies 

Examples: acreage allotments, agricultural credit, drought relief, price 
supports, subsidies 

Class government policies with respect to food supply in 338.19 

. 1 80 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
338.183-338.189 (not 338.18093-338.18099) 

.181 International policies 

Policies and programs of international bodies 

. 1 83- . 1 89 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 338.18 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., government 
farm policies of India 338.1854 

.19 Food supply 

Class here economic causes and effects of, economic remedies for 
maladjustments in food supply; measures for attaining and maintaining 
adequate amounts of food; food requirements (demand); reserves (stocks, 
supply) of food; prices of food to the consumer; comprehensive works on 
the economics of production, storage, distribution of food 

Add to base number 338.19 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., food supply in 
Africa 338.196 

Class interdisciplinary works on food supply in 363.8, production of food in 
338.13-338.18, supply of specific food commodities in 338.17, food 
processing in 338.47664 

See Manual at 363. 5, 363. 6, 363. 8 vs. 338; 363. 8 vs. 338. 19 



378 



338 Economics 338 



.2 Extraction of minerals 

Class here extraction of energy resources, comprehensive works on the 
economics of extraction and processing of minerals and energy resources 

Class conservation of mineral and energy resources in 333.7-333.9, processing 
of minerals and raw materials of energy in 338.47 

See Manual at 333. 8 vs. 338. 2, 553 

.23 Financial aspects 

Class here capital formation and other investment in industries engaged in 
extraction of minerals; costs, income, prices 

Add to base number 338.23 the numbers following 553 in 553.2-553.9, e.g., 
tin 338.23453 

Class production efficiency in 338.26 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15 

.26 Production efficiency 

Including automation, cost-output ratio, effect of technological innovation, 
factors of production 

Class energy conservation in mineral extraction industries in 333.7965 

.27 Products 

Add to base number 338.27 the numbers following 553 in 553.2-553.9, e.g., 
water 338.277 

Supply in storage, shortages, surpluses, demand, and projections of these 
relocated to 333.8 

Class specific elements of production applied to specific products in 
338.23-338.26, specific producers in 338.76 

See also 553. 2-553. 9 for supply in nature 

.3 Other extractive industries 

Including financial aspects, production efficiency 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15 

.37 Products 

Class specific producers in 338.76 

See Manual at 333. 954 vs. 338. 37 

.37 1 Products of culture of invertebrates and cold-blooded vertebrates 

Add to base number 338.371 the numbers following 639 in 639.3-639.7, 
e.g., culture of oysters 338.37141; however, class insect culture in 
338.178 

Class comprehensive works on fishing and the culture of fish and other 
water animals in 338.3727 



379 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.372 Products of fishing, whaling, hunting, trapping 

Add to base number 338.372 the numbers following 59 in 592-599, e.g., 
sponges 338.37234 

Class the culture of invertebrates and cold-blooded vertebrates in 
338.371 

See Manual at 338.372 

A Secondary industries and services 

.43 Financial aspects 

Class here capital formation and other investment in secondary industry and 
services; costs, income, prices 

Use 338.430001-338.430009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 338.43 notation 001-999, e.g., automobile prices 
338.436292; however, class financial aspects of financial industries in 332; 
of real estate business in 333.33; of energy production in 333.79; of 
cooperative production in 334; of the insurance industry in 368.01; of 
commerce, communications, transportation in 380 

Class production efficiency in 338.45 

See Manual at 332 vs. 338, 658. 15 

.45 Production efficiency 

Including cost-output ratio, factors of production (land, labor, capital), 
production capacity 

Class energy conservation in secondary industries in 333.7916 

.454 Automation 

For automation in specific industries, see 338. 456 

.456 Production efficiency in specific industries and groups of industries 

Class here automation in specific industries 

.456 1 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 338.4561 notation 001-999, e.g., production 
efficiency in hospital services 338.45613621 1; however, class 
production efficiency in financial industries in 332; in real estate 
business in 333.33; in cooperative enterprises in 334; in the insurance 
industry in 368; in commerce, communications, transportation in 380 

.456 2- .456 9 Manufacturing and construction 

Add to base number 338.456 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., power equipment in textile manufacture 338.456770285; 
however, class production efficiency in energy production in 333.79, 
in cooperative enterprises in 334 



380 



338 Economics 338 

.46 Professional services 

Class specific elements of production applied to professional services in 
338.43-338.45, specific professional services in 338.47 

.47 Goods and services 

Class here quantities produced, shortages, surpluses, stockpiles, forecasts 
and projections of supply and demand 

Use 338.470001-338.470009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 338.47 notation 001-999, e.g., the product gasoline 
338.4766553827 {formerly also 333.8232], tourist industry 338.4791; 
however, class production economics of financial industries in 332; of real 
estate business in 333.33; of energy production in 333.79; of cooperative 
enterprises in 334; of the insurance industry in 368; of commerce, 
communications, transportation in 380 

Class comprehensive works on professional services in 338.46, specific 
elements of production applied to specific goods and services in 
338.43-338.45, specific producers in 338.76 

.48 Government policies 

Class government policies with respect to a specific aspect of secondary 
industries and services in 338.43-338.47 

.5 General production economics 

Including risk 

Class here microeconomics (economics of the firm) 
Class production economics of specific kinds of industries in 338.1-338.4 
For organization of production, see 338. 6 
[.501 12] Forecasting and forecasts 

Do not use; class in 338.544 
.5 1 Costs 

.512 Factors of production as costs of production 

Including law of diminishing marginal returns, of factoral proportions 
.514 Elements in cost calculation 

.514 2 Kinds of cost 

Examples: average, fixed, marginal, total, variable 
.5144 Size of enterprise 

Including economies and diseconomies of scale, use of technology 
.516 Profit 

Including relation of marginal cost to marginal revenue 



381 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.52 Prices 

Class here determination, effects of changes, comprehensive works on prices 

Class effect of money on prices in 332.41 , effect of costs on prices in 
338.516, effects of prices on the whole economy in 339.42 

.520 1 Philosophy and theory 

Class specific theories in 338.521 

.520 2 Miscellany 

.520 21 Tabulated and related materials 

Do not use for statistics; class in 338.528 

.521 Price theories 

Class here law of supply and demand, theories of value 

Class Marxian labor theory of value in 335.412 

See also 333. 7 for supply and demand for natural resources and 
energy, 338. 1-338.4 for supply and demand for specific products 

.5212 Theory of demand 

Example: law of diminishing marginal utility 

Including price-demand relationship 
.5213 Theory of supply 

Including price-supply relationship 



338.522-338.526 Price determination 
Class comprehensive works in 338.52 
.522 Price determination in free markets 

Example: determination in market for brand-name products 
Including interproduct competition, e.g., butter versus margarine 
.523 Price determination in controlled markets 

Determination by oligopolies, monopolies 
Including price leadership 
.526 Prices determination by government regulation 

.528 Levels 

Class here statistics, indexes 
.528 021 Tabulated and related materials 

Do not use for statistics; class in 338.528 



382 



338 Economics 338 

.54 Economic fluctuations 

Example: seasonal variations 

Including secular trends 

[.540 1 12] Forecasting and forecasts 

Do not use; class in 338.544 

.542 Business cycles 

Including prosperity, recession, depression, recovery; panics 

Class remedial measures in 338.543 

.543 Remedial and preventive action 

Class economic stabilization in 339.5 

.544 General production forecasting and forecasts 

See also 658.40355 for forecasting as a technique of managerial 
decision-making 

.544 2 Methods of forecasting 

Class economic forecasting in 330.01 12 

.544 3 Forecasts 

Class forecasts of economic situation in 330.900112 

.6 Organization of production 

Class here organization of production in specific kinds of industries 

Including worker control of industry 

Class guild socialism in 335.15, syndicalism in 335.82, the role of unions in 
achieving worker control of industry in 331.8801 

For business enterprises and their structure, see 338. 7 

See Manual at 338. 76 

.604 Special topics 

.604 1 Finance 

Finance of specific kinds of industries relocated to 338.1-338.4 

.604 2 Location 

Class here proximity to sources of power, raw materials, labor supply, 
transportation, markets 

See Manual at 338. 09 vs. 338. 6042, 332. 67309, 346. 07, 
658. 11, 658. 21, Tl— 068 

.604 6 Specialization 

Including law of comparative advantage 
.604 8 Competition and restraint 

Class monopoly and monopolies in 338.82 

383 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.61 Private enterprise 

Class specific systems of private enterprise in 338.63, specific sizes of 
private enterprise in 338.64 



.62 


Public enterprise 


.63 


Systems of production 




For factory system, see 338. 65 


.632 


Guild system 


.634 


Domestic system 




Class here cottage industry 


.64 


Size of enterprises 



Class relation of size of enterprise to cost of production in 338.5144, specific 
types of enterprises of specific sizes in 338.7-338.8 

.642 Small business 

Including custom production 

Class here small industries 

.642 089 Racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class minority enterprises in 338.6422 

.642 2 Minority enterprises 

Class handicraft industries operated by minorities in 338.6425 

.642 5 Handicraft industries 

.644 Big business 

Class here large industry 

Class monopoly and monopolies in 338.82 

.65 Factory system 

.7 Business enterprises and their structure 

Not limited to private or capitalist enterprises 

Class here interdisciplinary works on business enterprises, on organizations for 
production 

For cooperatives, see 334; combinations, 338.8 

See Manual at 338. 76 

.7 1 Formation and dissolution of business enterprises 



338.72-338.74 Specific kinds of business enterprises 

Class comprehensive works in 338.7, specific kinds of business enterprises in 
specific industries and groups of industries in 338.76 



384 



338 Economics 338 

.72 Individual proprietorships 

.73 Partnerships 

.74 Corporations 

Open and closed 

Class government corporations as part of the public administrative process 
in 351.0092 

.76 Business enterprises in specific industries and groups of industries 

Class here specific individual business enterprises, biographies of 
entrepreneurs in specific fields 

Class business enterprises engaged in trade in 380. 1 ; biographies of people 
known for their contribution to technology in 600, using notation 092 from 
Table 1, e.g., biographies of mining engineers 622.092 

See Manual at 338. 76 

.761 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 338.761 notation 001-999, e.g., law firms 
338.76134; however, class financial institutions in 332.1-332.6; real 
estate business enterprises in 333.33; cooperative enterprises in 334; 
insurance companies in 368.0065; enterprises engaged in commerce, 
communications, transportation in 380 

.762-. 769 Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 338.76 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, e.g., 
agriculture 338.763; however, class enterprises engaged in production of 
energy in 333.79, cooperative enterprises in 334.682-334.689 

.8 Combinations 

Organization and structure for massive production and control of production 

Class here antitrust policies, economic concentration, comprehensive works on 
combinations and their practices 

To be classed here, works about specific individual enterprises must stress that 
they are combinations; otherwise, the works are classed in 338.76 

.804 Special topics 

.804 2 Kinds of combinations 

Examples: horizontal, vertical, conglomerate 

.82 Restrictive practices 

Class here monopoly and monopolies, oligopoly and oligopolies 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on combinations and their 
practices discontinued; class in 338.8 

Class price determination in 338.523, restrictive practices of international 
(multinational) business enterprises in 338.884 



385 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.826 In specific industries, groups of industries, fields of enterprise 

.826 1 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 338.8261 notation 001-999, e.g., restrictive 
practices in publishing 338.82610705; however, class restrictive 
practices by combinations in the financial industries in 332.1-332.6; 
in real estate business in 333.33; in cooperative enterprise in 334; in 
the insurance industry in 368; in commerce, communications, 
transportation in 380 

.826 2-. 826 9 Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 338.826 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., restrictive practices by combinations engaged in computer 
engineering 338.8262139; however, class restrictive practices by 
combinations engaged in energy production in 333.79, by 
cooperatives in 334 



338.83-338.87 Specific forms of combinations and their practices 

Class comprehensive works in 338.8, international combinations regardless of 
form in 338.88 

.83 Mergers and amalgamations 

.836 In specific industries, groups of industries, fields of enterprise 

.836 1 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 338.8361 notation 001-999, e.g., mergers of 
publishers 338.83610705; however, class mergers and amalgamations 
of financial institutions in 332.1-332.6, of real estate business 
enterprises in 333.33, of cooperatives in 334, of enterprises in the 
insurance industry in 368, of enterprises engaged in commerce, 
communications, transportation in 380 

.836 2-. 836 9 Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 338.836 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., mergers of automobile companies 338.836292; however, class 
mergers and amalgamations of enterprises engaged in energy 
production in 333.79, of cooperatives in 334 

.85 Trusts 

.86 Holding companies 

.87 Informal arrangements 

Examples: cartels, interlocking directorates, pools 

.88 International (Multinational) business enterprises and their activities 

.880 9 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 338.888-338.889 



386 



338 Economics 338 



338.881-338.884 Specific aspects of international (multinational) business 
enterprises and their activities 

Class comprehensive works in 338.88, specific aspects of international 
enterprises engaged in specific fields and their activities in 338.887, of 
foreign-owned enterprises in specific areas and their activities in 
338.888-338.889 

.881 Growth, expansion, power 

See also 322 . 3 for political influence 

.883 Role in international economic development 

.884 Restrictive practices and their control 

International monopoly, oligopoly 

.887 Multinational business enterprises in specific industries, groups of 

industries, fields 

.887 1 Other than extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Class here service industries 

Add to base number 338.8871 notation 001-999, e.g., multinational 
enterprises engaged in advertising 338.88716591; however, class 
multinational enterprises in financial industries in 332.1-332.6; in 
real estate business in 333.33; multinational cooperatives in 334; 
multinational enterprises in the insurance industry in 368; in 
commerce, communications, transportation in 380 

.887 2-. 887 9 Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Add to base number 338.887 the numbers following 6 in 620-690, 
e.g., multinational enterprises engaged in mining petroleum and 
natural gas 338.88722338; however, class multinational enterprises 
engaged in energy production in 333.79, multinational cooperatives in 
334 

.888 Foreign-owned enterprises by location of operations 

Add to base number 338.888 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
foreign-owned enterprises in Europe 338.8884 

Class foreign-owned enterprises in specific industries and groups of 
industries in 338.887, enterprises owned by inhabitants of one nation in 
another nation in 338.889 

See Manual at 338. 888-338. 889 



387 



338 Dewey Decimal Classification 338 

.889 Foreign-owned enterprises by owner 

Add to base number 338.889 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., foreign 
enterprises owned by United States nationals 338.88973; then, for area in 
which enterprise is located, add 0* and again add notation 1-9 from 
Table 2, e.g., enterprises owned by United States nationals in Canada 
338.88973071 

Class foreign-owned enterprises in specific industries or groups of 
industries in 338.887, foreign-owned enterprises in a specific area 
without regard to area of ownership in 338.888 

See Manual at 338. 888-338. 889 

.9 Economic development and growth 

Including autarky and interdependence 

Class here economic planning, government policies and programs 

Class economic development and growth with respect to a specific subject with 
the subject, e.g., international economic development and growth 337, 
economic development and growth with respect to specific kinds of industries 
338.1-338.4 

.900 1-.900 8 Standard subdivisions 

.900 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by country and locality in 338.93-338.99 (not 
338.90093-338.90099) 

.9 1 International development and growth 

Foreign economic assistance (foreign aid) 

Including technical assistance 

Class here assistance (aid) by international organizations 

Class foreign economic policies and relations of specific jurisdictions and 
groups of jurisdictions in 337.3-337.9 

.910 9 Assistance to specific jurisdictions and groups of jurisdictions 

Class assistance given by specific jurisdictions and groups of 
jurisdictions to other jurisdictions in 338.91 1-338.919 

.9 1 1 - .9 1 9 International assistance (Aid) by specific jurisdictions and groups of 

jurisdictions 

Add to base number 338.91 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., assistance 
by United Kingdom 338.9141; then, for assistance by a specific 
jurisdiction or group of jurisdictions to another jurisdiction or group of 
jurisdictions, add 0* and again add notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
assistance by United Kingdom to Nigeria 338.91410669 

.92 Specific policies 

Class specific policies in specific continents, countries, localities in 
338.93-338.99 

* Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



388 



338 Economics 338 

.922 Subsidies and grants 

.924 Nationalization 

.926 Information policy 

Class here science policy, technology transfer 
See Manual at 500 vs. 338. 926, 351.855 
.927 Appropriate technology 

Class here alternative technology 

.93-. 99 Economic development and growth in specific continents, countries, 
localities 

Add to base number 338.9 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., economic 
policies of United Kingdom in 338.941; then add 0* and to the result add the 
numbers following 338.92 in 338.922-338.927, e.g., subsidies in United 
Kingdom 338.94102 

339 Macroeconomics and related topics 

For economic fluctuations, see 338.54 
See Manual at 339 vs. 332, 336 

SUMMARY 

339.2 Distribution of income and wealth 

.3 National product, wealth, income accounts and accounting 

.4 Factors affecting national product, wealth, income 

.5 Macroeconomic policy 

[.01] Philosophy and theory 

Do not use; class in 339.3 

.2 Distribution >f income and wealth 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

Class national wealth and income accounts and accounting in 339.3; specific 
aspects of income distribution in 339.4; transfer payments, redistribution of 
income in 339.52 

.21 Functional distribution of income and wealth 

Functional distribution of income: division of nation's income among 
factors of production: land (rent, rental income), labor (wages, salaries), 
capital (interest), entrepreneurship (proprietor's income), corporate profits 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

*Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



389 



339 Dewey Decimal Classification 339 

.22 Personal distribution of income and wealth 

Division of nation's income and wealth among families and individuals 

Including consumer income, household income 

Standard subdivisions are added for either or both of the topics named in the 
heading 

Class income-consumption relations (household budget) in 339.41, poverty 
in 339.46 

See Manual at 339. 32 vs. 339. 22 

.23 Input-output accounts (Interindustry accounts) 

Accounts and analysis of goods and services provided by each industry for 
all other industries and consuming units 

Including data on specific industries 
.26 Flow-of-funds accounts 

Sources of funds paid to and use of funds by various sectors of the economy 

.3 National product, wealth, income accounts and accounting 

Class here macroeconomic theory; product, wealth, income accounts and 
accounting of other types of areas, e.g., states, provinces; interdisciplinary 
works on national product, wealth, income 

Class macroeconomic policy in 339.5 

For distribution of income and wealth, see 339. 2; factors affecting national 
product, wealth, income, 339.4 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class product, wealth, income accounts and accounting of specific 
countries and localities in 339.33-339.39 {not 339.3093-339.3099) 

.3 1 Gross product accounts and accounting 

Class here gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP) 

See also 339. 32 for net national product (NNP) 

.310 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class gross product accounts and accounting of specific countries and 
localities in 339.33-339.39 (not 339.31093-339.31099) 

.32 Other kinds of national accounts and accounting 

Examples: net national product (NNP), national income (NI), personal 
income (PI), disposable personal income (DPI) 

See Manual at 339. 32 vs. 339. 22 

.320 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class kinds of national accounts and accounting of specific countries 
and localities in 339.33-339.39 (not 339.32093-339.32099) 



390 



339 Economics 339 



.33-. 39 Product, wealth, income accounts of specific countries and localities 

Add to base number 339.3 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., gross national 
product of the United States 339.373 

.4 Factors affecting national product, wealth, income 

For economic stabilization, see 339.5 

.41 Income and its relation to consumption 

Including consumer responses to decreases and increases in income, the 
effect of consumption on income (the accelerator), household budgets as a 
measure of relation of income to consumption 

Class effects of prices on consumption in 339.42; the multiplier, the relation 
of consumption and savings in 339.43 

See Manual at 332. 41 vs. 339. 41 , 339. 42 

.42 Cost of living (Prices) 

Including effect of prices on consumption; the total effects of rising costs of 
a commodity on the consumer, e.g., the total effects of rising energy costs on 
the consumer 

Class price statistics and indexes in 338.528 

See Manual at 332. 41 vs. 339. 41, 339. 42 

.43 Savings and investment 

Example: capital formation 

Including effect of investment on income (the multiplier), relation of 
consumption and savings 

.46 Economic causes and effects of poverty 

See also 362.51 for social causes of poverty, 362.53 for social effects 
of poverty 

Al Consumption (Spending) 

Class here standard of living, interdisciplinary works on consumption 

Class the social aspects of consumption in 306.3; consumption viewed in 
light of its effect on the future supply of natural resources and energy in 
333.7-333.9 with notation 13 from the add table under 333.7; consumption 
as a factor in shortages and surpluses of products in 338; consumption in 
relation to income in 339.41, in relation to cost of living in 339.42, in 
relation to savings and investment in 339.43, in relation to poverty in 
339.46; government spending in 339.522; works discussing consumption as 
sales or marketing opportunities (e.g., results of market studies) or as a 
measure of the volume, value, or kind of trade in 380-382 

For consumption of specific commodities and services, of specific 
groups of commodities and services, see 339.48 



391 



339 Dewey Decimal Classification 339 

.48 Consumption of specific commodities and services, of specific groups 

of commodities and services 

Add to base number 339.48 notation 001-999, e.g., consumption of 
agricultural products 339.4863 

.49 Conservation of national resources 

National resources consist of natural resources; human resources; resources 
that result from human activities, e.g., housing 

Add to base number 339.49 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., conservation of 
the national resources of India 339.4954 

Class conservation of natural resources in 333.72 

.5 Macroeconomic policy 

Class here economic stabilization and growth, equilibrium, full employment 
policies, incomes policies 

Class measures to combat inflation in 332.415, to control economic fluctuations 
in 338.543, to promote growth and development in 338.9 

.52 Use of fiscal policy 

Class here income redistribution 

.522 Government spending 

Including transfer payments 

.523 Budget surpluses and deficits 

.525 Taxation 

.53 Use of monetary policy 

Examples: discount rates offered by central banks, reserve requirements 
imposed on banks, open-market operations, regulation of bank credit 

340 Law 

Class here jurisprudence 

Classification numbers for works on law (other than international law, law in 
general, kinds of law in general, and the law of a jurisdiction or area in general) are 
built from four elements: 

(1) 34, the base number, indicating law 

(2) A digit indicating the specific branch of law, as follows: 

2 Constitutional and administrative law 

3 Military, defense, tax, economic law 

4 Social, labor, welfare, health, safety, education, cultural law 

5 Criminal law 

6 Private law 

7 Civil procedure and courts 

8 Laws (Statutes), regulations, cases 

(3) A group of digits beginning with indicating a topic subordinate to the 
specific branch of law 

Example: 05 Procedure (under 5 Criminal law) 

(4) Notation from Table 2 indicating the jurisdiction or place 

Example: 94 Australia 

(continued) 
392 



340 Law 340 



340 Law (continued) 

Arrange these elements as follows: 

(1) Base number 34 

(2) Notation for the branch of law 

(4) Notation from Table 2 for jurisdiction or place 

(3) Notation for the subordinate topic in the branch of law, e.g., criminal 
procedure of Australia 345.9405 

Class comprehensive works on the law of specific jurisdictions and areas in the 
modern world in 349 

(Option: To give preferred treatment to the law of a specific jurisdiction, to 
jurisdictions in general, to branch of law and its subordinate topics, or to subject, 
use one of the following: 

(Option A: To give local emphasis and a shorter notation to the law of a specific 
jurisdiction or area, arrange the elements as follows: 

(1) Base number 34 

(2) Notation for the branch of law 

(3) Notation for subordinate topic, e.g., (assuming Australia to be the 
jurisdiction given preferred treatment), criminal procedure of Australia 
345.05 

(To class the law of a jurisdiction subordinate to the emphasized jurisdiction or 
area, insert between 2) and 3) a shortened notation from Table 2 derived by 
dropping from the given area number for a jurisdiction all digits that apply to larger 
areas. For instance, the number for criminal procedure of New South Wales, a state 
of Australia, e.g., 345.405. For subordinate jurisdictions of a country with irregular 
notation, i.e., each country the number for whose subdivisions are coordinate with 
the number for the entire country (e.g., the Sudan having notation 624, the 
provinces of the Sudan having notation 625-629), add to the three digits that part 
of the notation from Table 2 that changes, e.g., criminal procedure of the Darfur 
region 345.705. Add 00 before adding notation for Table 1 to general works on the 
law of a jurisdiction or area, e.g., a directory of lawyers in Australia 349.40025 

(Class comprehensive works on the law of the preferred jurisdiction or area in 342, 
comparative law and the law of other jurisdictions and areas in 349 

(Option B: To arrange by jurisdiction or area arrange the elements as follows: 

(1) Base number 34 

(4) Notation from Table 2, followed by a 

(2) Notation for the branch of law 

(3) Notation for the subordinate topic without the initial 0, e.g., criminal 
procedure of Australia 349.4055, of New South Wales 349.44055, 
texts of the welfare laws of Sydney 349.44104302632. Add 00 before 
adding notation from Table 1 to general works on the law of a 
jurisdiction or area, e.g., a directory of lawyers in Australia 349.40025 

(Class comparative law in 342 where full instructions are given 

(Option C: Class law of a specific discipline or subject with the discipline or 
subject, using notation 026 from Table 1, e.g., law of education 370.26) 

See Manual at 340; 363 vs. 340, 350-354 



393 



340 Dewey Decimal Classification 340 



SUMMARY 

340.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Philosophy and theory of law 

.2 Comparative law 

.3 Law reform 

.5 Legal systems 

.9 Conflict of laws 

341 International law 

.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Sources of international law 

.2 The world community 

.3 Relations between states 

.4 Jurisdiction and jurisdictional relations of states 

.5 Disputes and conflicts between states 

.6 Law of war 

.7 International cooperation 

342 Constitutional and administrative law 
.001-. 009 Standard subdivisions 

.02 Basic instruments of government 

.03 Revision and amendment of the basic instruments of government 

.04 Structure, powers, functions of governments 

.05 Legislative branch of government 

.06 Executive branch of government 

.07 Election law 

.08 Jurisdiction of governmental units over persons 

.09 Local government 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

343 Military, tax, trade, industrial law 
.001-. 009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Military, defense (national security), veterans' law 

.02 Law of public property 

.03 Law of public finance 

.04 Tax law 

.05 Kinds of taxes by base 

.06 Kinds of taxes by incidence 

.07 Regulation of economic activity 

.08 Regulation of trade 

.09 Control of public utilities 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

344 Social, labor, welfare, health, safety, education, cultural law 
.001.009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Labor 

.02 Social insurance 

.03 Welfare 

.04 Public health 

.05 Public safety 

.06 Public works 

.07 Education and schools 

.08 Educational and cultural exchanges 

.09 Culture and religion 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 



394 



340 Law 340 



345 Criminal law 

.001-. 009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Criminal courts 

.02 Crimes (Offenses) 

.03 Criminals (Offenders) 

.04 Liability, responsibility, guilt 

.05 General criminal procedure 

.06 Evidence 

.07 Trials 

.08 Juvenile procedure 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

346 Private law 

.001.009 Standard subdivisions, equity 

.01 Persons and domestic relations 

.02 Contracts and agency 

.03 Torts (Delicts) 

.04 Property 

.05 Inheritance, succession, fiduciary trusts, trustees 

.06 Organizations (Associations) 

.07 Commercial law 

.08 Banking and insurance 

.09 Securities and negotiable instruments 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

347 Civil procedure and courts 
.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 
.01 Courts 

.02 Courts with general original jurisdiction 

.03 Courts with appellate jurisdiction 

.04 Courts with specialized jurisdiction 

.05 General considerations of procedure 

.06 Evidence 

.07 Trials 

.08 Appellate procedure 

.09 Arbitration, mediation, conciliation 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

348 Laws (Statutes), regulations, cases 
.001-.009 Standard subdivisions, codification 
.01 Preliminary materials 

.02 Laws (Statutes) and regulations 

.04 Cases 

.05 Advisory opinions of attorneys-general (ministers of justice) 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

349 Law of specific jurisdictions and areas 

[.01] Philosophy and theory of law 

Do not use; class in 340.1 
.02 Miscellany of law 

.023 Law as a profession, occupation, hobby 

See Manual at 340. 023 
.03 Encyclopedias [formerly 348.06], dictionaries, concordances of law 

.05-. 08 Standard subdivisions of law 



395 



340 Dewey Decimal Classification 340 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of law 

Class comprehensive works on the law of specific jurisdictions and areas in 
the modern world in 349, the historical and geographical treatment of the 
law of traditional societies in 340.52 

[.093] Treatment by specific jurisdictions and areas in the ancient world 

Do not use; class in 340.53 

.1 Philosophy and theory of law 

For the theory of specific legal systems, see 340.5 

.109 Legal theories and schools 

Biography, description, critical appraisal of the work of individual 
theorists 

Do not add notation from Table 2 for the locale of the theorist 

. 1 1 Special topics 

Including the origin, sources, nature, limits of law; rule of law; legal 
reasoning; justice, injustice 

.112 Law and ethics 

Including human rights, the law and morality, legal positivism, natural 
law 

.115 Law and society 

Including distributive justice 

Class here sociological jurisprudence 

.2 Comparative law 

Class the comparison of specific branches of law in 342-347 
(If option A under 340 is chosen, class comparative law in 349 
(If option B under 340 is chosen, class comparative law in 342) 

.3 Law reform 

.5 Legal systems 

History and theory 

Class here customary law 

Class religious laws of a specific religious body with the body, e.g., Christian 
canon law 262.9, Islamic law relating to religious matters 297.14; a specific 
subject in a specific system of law with the subject in law, e.g., juristic persons 
in ancient Roman law 346.37013, in Byzantine law 346.495013, in civil law 
346.013 



396 



340 Law 340 

.52 Law of traditional societies 

Former heading: Law of nonliterate peoples 

Class here ethnological jurisprudence 

Add to base number 340.52 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., traditional law 
of the Sahara 340.5266 

Law of traditional societies in the ancient world relocated to 340.53 

.53 Ancient law 

Class here law of traditional societies in the ancient world [formerly 340.52] 

Add to base number 340.53 the numbers following —3 in notation 31-39, 
e.g., the law of ancient Greece 340.538 

Class ancient Oriental law in 340.58 

For Roman law, see 340. 54 

.54 Roman law 

Including Byzantine law 

Class comprehensive works on Roman-derived law in specific jurisdictions 
and areas in the modern world in 349 

For medieval Roman law, see 340. 55 



340.55-340.59 Medieval, modern, Oriental systems of law 

Class comprehensive works in 340.5, comprehensive works on the law of 
specific jurisdictions and areas in the modern world in 349 

.55 Medieval European law 

Including feudal law, medieval Roman law 

Class medieval civil law in 340.56, medieval common law in 340.57 
.56 Civil law systems 

Systems of law derived from Roman law 

Including Roman-Dutch law 

See Manual at 340: Terminology and notation used 
.57 Common law systems 

See Manual at 340.57 
.58 Oriental law 

Indigenous systems 

Class systems of law in Oriental countries derived from a European system 
with the system from which derived, e.g., civil law 340.56 

For Islamic law, see 340. 59 



397 



340 Dewey Decimal Classification 340 

.59 Islamic law (Fiqh) 

Law relating to secular matters 

.9 Conflict of laws 

The body of rules governing the choice of jurisdiction in cases in private law 
which fall under the laws of two or more such jurisdictions 

Class here private international law 

Add to base number 340.9 the numbers following 346.0 in 346.01-346.09, e.g., 
conflict of divorce laws 340.9166 

Class domestic conflict of laws in 342.042 

See Manual at 340. 9 

341 International law 

See Manual at 341 





SUMMARY 


341.01-.09 


Standard subdivisions 


.1 


Sources of international law 


.2 


The world community 


.3 


Relations between states 


.4 


Jurisdiction and jurisdictional relations of states 


.5 


Disputes and conflicts between states 


.6 


Law of war 


.7 


International cooperation 



.01 Philosophy and theory 

Class critical works on individual publicists (theorists) in 341.1 
.02 Miscellany 

.026 Treaties and cases 

Texts of treaties and judicial decisions; guides 

Class here conventions, protocols 

Class comprehensive works on treaties in 341.37; treaties as a source of 
international law in 341.1; treaties and cases on a specific subject with 
the subject in international law, using this extended notation 026, e.g., 
collections of treaties on air transportation 341.7567026 

See Manual at 341.026 



341.026 1-341.026 6 Texts of treaties 
Class comprehensive works in 341.026 



341.026 1-341.026 3 Series of treaties compiled by international organizations 

Class comprehensive works in 341.026, specific kinds of treaties regardless of 
compiling organization in 341.0265-341.0266 



398 



341 Law 341 



.026 1 League of Nations series of treaties 

Class a League of Nations series relating to a specific area in 
341.0264 

.026 2 United Nations series of treaties 

Class a United Nations series relating to a specific area in 341.0264 

.026 3 Series of treaties compiled by regional organizations 

Add to base number 341.0263 the numbers following 341.24 in 
341.242-341.249, e.g., a series compiled by the Organization of 
American States 341.02635 

.026 4 Collections of treaties by area 

Add to base number 341.0264 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
treaties on the Philippines 341.0264599 

Class collections of treaties relating to a specific area compiled by 
regional organizations in 341.0263, collections of specific kinds of 
treaties by area in 341.0265-341.0266 



341.026 5-341.026 6 Kinds of treaties 
Collections and individual treaties 
Class comprehensive works in 341.026 
.026 5 Multilateral treaties 



Class an agreement between an international organization and a 
specific country in 341.026, treaties on a specific subject with the 
subject in international law, e.g., a pollution control treaty between 
the World Health Organization and Spain 341.7623026 



.026 6 Bilateral treaties 



Add to base number 341.0266 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
treaties of the United Kingdom 341.026641; then add 0* and again 
add notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., treaties between the United 
Kingdom and France 341.026641044 

Give priority in notation to the country coming first in the sequence of 

area notations 

(Option: Give priority in notation to the country requiring local 
emphasis, e.g., libraries in the United States class treaties between 
the United Kingdom and the United States in 341.026673041) 



.026 7 Codification 

! Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



399 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.026 8 Cases 

Decisions and reports 

Class here general collections of cases on international matters tried 
in any court system 

Add to base number 341.0268 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., cases 
brought by the United Kingdom 341.026841; then, for cases brought 
by that nation against another nation, add 0* and again add notation 
4-9 from Table 2, e.g., cases brought by the United Kingdom against 
the United States 341.026841073 

(Option: Give priority in notation to the nation requiring local 
emphasis, e.g., libraries in the United States class all cases 
involving the United States and the United Kingdom in 
341.026873041) 

.04 Relation of international and domestic law 

Class here works on whether domestic or international law prevails in a 
certain situation 

Class the law of a nation or lesser jurisdiction that carries out the provisions 
of an international agreement in 342-347 

.1 Sources of international law 

Treaties, judicial decisions, custom, general principles of law, works of 
publicists (theorists) 

Class here critical works on individual publicists (theorists) 

Class texts of treaties and reports of judicial decisions in 341.026; writings of 
publicists with the subject in international law, e.g., international rivers 341.442 

.2 The world community 

Class here international persons and personality, privileges and immunities for 
international organizations 

Class administration of international organizations in 354. 1 





SUMMARY 


341.21 


World government 


.22 


League of Nations 


.23 


United Nations 


.24 


Regional associations and organizations 


.26 


States 


.27 


Semisovereign and dependent states 


.28 


Nonself-governing territories 


.29 


Areas having special status in international law 



.21 World government 

Proposals and schemes 
*Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of Table 1 



400 



341 Law 341 



> 341 .22-341 .24 Corporate bodies 

Class here officials and employees of international organizations 

Class comprehensive works in 341.2, legal aspects of a specialized world 
agency with the subject with which it deals in international law, e.g., the World 
Health Organization 341.765 

.22 League of Nations 

Add to base number 341.22 the numbers following 341.23 in 
341.231-341.239, e.g., Covenant of the League 341.222 

.23 United Nations 

.230 13 Value 

Evaluation of and opinions about the effectiveness and worth of 
the United Nations 

[.230 68] Management 

Do not use; class in 341.233 

.231 t Functions and activities 

Class the functions and activities of specific branches in 341.232; a 
specific activity or function with the activity or function in international 
law, e.g., role in the peaceful settlement of disputes 341.523 

.232 fOrganization 

Including charter 

Class here rules of procedure 

Class officials and employees in 341.233 
.232 2 tGeneral Assembly 

.232 3 tSecurity Council 

.232 4 tSecretariat 

Including Secretary General 
.233 tManagement 

Including admission, membership 

For organization, see 341.232 

.234-. 239 General relations with specific nations 

Add to base number 341.23 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., relations 
with the United States 341.2373 

Class relations dealing with a specific subject with the subject in 
international law, e.g., United Nations peacekeeping operations 341.584 

.24 Regional associations and organizations 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 



401 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.242 European regional associations and organizations 

.242 2 fEuropean Economic Community (European Common Market) 

European Parliament relocated to 341.2424 

Class laws promulgated by the European Economic Community with 
the subject in international law, e.g., economic enactments 
341.750614; nonlegal aspects with the subject outside of law, e.g., 
general economic activities 337.142 

.242 4 European Parliament [formerly 34 1 .2422] 

.242 7 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 

.243 Atlantic regional associations and organizations 

.245 Western Hemisphere regional associations and organizations 

.246 Pacific regional associations and organizations 

.247 Asian regional associations and organizations 

.247 3 Far East regional associations and organizations 

Example: ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 
.247 7 Western Asia regional associations and organizations 

Example: Arab League 

Class here Middle East organizations 
.249 African regional associations and organizations 

For the Arab League, see 341.2477 



> 34 1 .26- 34 1 .29 Territorially organized bodies 

Class comprehensive works in 34 1 .2 

.26 States 

General aspects: sovereignty, origin, succession, termination 

Including the recognition of states and governments, mergers of states 

Class here liability of states 

Class the liability of states with respect to a specific subject with the subject 
in international law, e.g., liability for the safety of diplomatic personnel 
341 .33, liability for damages caused by testing nuclear weapons 341 .734 

For semisovereign and dependent states, see 341.27; relations between 
states, 341.3; jurisdiction of states, 341.4 

21 tSemisovereign and dependent states 

Examples: mandates, protectorates, trusteeships 

Standard subdivisions may be added to semisovereign and dependent states, 
to semisovereign states alone, to dependent states alone 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

402 



341 Law 341 

.28 tNonself-governing territories 

Including colonies 
.29 tAreas having special status in international law 

Example: partitioned areas, e.g., Antarctica, Berlin, Cyprus 
.3 f Relations between states 

For jurisdictional relations, see 341.4; disputes and conflicts, 341 .5; 
international cooperation, 341. 7 

.33 tDiplomatic law 

Including legal aspects of the status, privileges, immunities, functions of 
diplomatic personnel and agencies; delegations to international 
organizations and their staffs 

Class officials and employees of international organizations in 
341.22-341.24, consular law in 341.35, diplomacy in 327.2 

.35 tConsular law 

Including status, role, function, privileges, immunities of consular officials 
and employees 



.37 Treaties 



General aspects: negotiation and ratification, validity and binding force, 
termination, interpretation 

Including the making of treaties 

Class texts of treaties in 341.026, treaties on a specific subject with the 
subject in international law, adding extended subdivision 026, e.g, a 
disarmament treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States 
341.733026647073 

t Jurisdiction and jurisdictional relations of states 

Class here servitudes and easements, right of innocent passage; 
extraterritoriality 

SUMMARY 

341.42 Territory 

.44 Bodies of water 

.45 High seas 

.46 Airspace 

.47 Extraterrestrial space 

.48 Jurisdiction over persons 



> 34 1 .42- 34 1 .47 Jurisdiction over physical space 

Class comprehensive works in 341.4 
tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 



403 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.42 tTerritory 

General aspects: acquisition, boundaries, border disputes 

Class mergers of states in 341 .26, boundary rivers in 341 .442 

.44 fBodies of water 

For the high seas, see 341.45 

.442 tRivers 

National, semi-national, boundary, internationalized rivers 

Including combined river, lake, canal systems, e.g., Saint Lawrence 
Seaway 

.444 fLakes and landlocked seas 

Class combined river, lake, canal systems in 341.442 
.446 tCanals and straits 

Class combined river, lake, canal systems in 341.442 
.448 tTerritorial waters 

Including bays, continental shelves 

Class access to the sea, comprehensive works on ocean and sea waters in 
341.45 

.45 tHigh seas 

Class here comprehensive works on ocean and sea waters 

Class the development and conservation of sea resources in 341.762, 
pollution of ocean resources in 341.7623, fisheries in 341.7622, 
oceanographic research in 341.76755 

For territorial waters, see 341 . 448 

.46 tAirspace 

Class meteorological research in 341.76755 

.47 tExtraterrestrial space 

Including the moon, planets 

Class space research in 341.76752 

.48 tJurisdiction over persons 

Including jurisdiction of the state over its nationals in other areas 

Class here jurisdiction over personal property 

Class private international law in 340.9 

.48 1 tHuman rights 

Including natural rights 

See also 340. 1 12 for natural law 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

404 



341 Law 341 

.482 tNationality and citizenship 

.484 t Jurisdiction over aliens and alien property 

Rights and obligations of aliens 

Class liability of states for aliens in 341.26, criminal jurisdiction over 
aliens in 341.488 

For stateless persons and refugees, see 341.486 

.484 2 tlmmigration, passports, visas 

.484 4 tDouble taxation 

.484 6 tNationalization (Expropriation) of alien property 

.486 t Jurisdiction over stateless persons and refugees 

.488 f Criminal jurisdiction 

Over citizens, aliens 

Including extradition, right of asylum 

Use of this number for extraterritoriality discontinued; class in 341.4 

Class international crimes in 341.77 

.5 f Disputes and conflicts between states 

Class disputes on a specific subject with the subject in international law, e.g., 
jurisdictional disputes 341.4 

For law of war, see 341.6 

.52 f Peaceful settlement 

Including mediation 

For adjudication, see 341.55 

.522 tArbitration 

.523 tRole of international organizations 

Class peace conferences in 341.73 

.55 tAdjudication 

Courts and court procedure 

Including the role of domestic courts in adjudicating matters of public 
international law, interpretation of general international law in courts, 
adjustment of nonwar claims 

Class the interpretation of a specific subject with the subject in international 
law, e.g., interpretation of human rights 341.481 

.552 tlnternational Court of Justice (World Court) 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 



405 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.58 tCoercive methods of settlement short of war 

Example: ultimatums 

Including the role of international organizations 
.582 tSanctions 

Examples: boycotts, embargoes, reprisals, severing diplomatic relations 
.584 tlntervention 

Examples: blockades, deploying peacekeeping observers and forces 
.6 tLaw of war 

.62 General considerations 

Examples: legality, justification, opening of hostilities 

Including aggression 
.63 t Conduct of war 

Including intercourse between belligerents, prize law 
.64 tNeutrality and neutral states 

Class the status of nationals of neutral nations in 341.67 
.65 "{Treatment of prisoners 

Including the granting of quarter 
.66 Termination of war 

General aspects: treaties, laws of occupation 

Including indemnification, reparations, restitution 

Class here military government of occupied countries 

Class texts of treaties in 341.026; war claims by private individuals of one 
country against another country in 340.9 

.67 tlndividuals 

Status of enemy aliens and their property, nationals of neutral nations, 
combatants, noncombatants, war victims 

For treatment of prisoners, see 34 J .65 

.68 t International law and civil war 

Including the responsibility of the state for acts of unsuccessful insurgent 
governments 

.69 |War crimes 

Class here trials of war criminals, e.g., the Tokyo war crime trials 
341.690268 



tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 



406 



341 Law 341 

.7 flnternational cooperation 





SUMMARY 


341.72 


Defense and mutual security 


.73 


Peace and disarmament 


.75 


International economic law 


.76 


Social law and cultural relations 


.77 


International criminal law 


.78 


International judicial cooperation 



.72 tDefense and mutual security 

Including civil defense, international security forces 

Class here the legal aspects of international mutual security pacts, e.g., 
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 

Class specific aspects and activities of international mutual security pacts 
with the subject in 001-999, e.g., military aspects 355.031 

.722 tPeaceful (Friendly) occupation 

.725 tMilitary installations 

Class here military bases 
.728 tMilitary assistance 

Including military missions, loan and sale of equipment 

.73 tPeace and disarmament 

Class here peace conferences, general efforts to gain acceptance of the 
renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy 

Class peaceful settlement of disputes in 341.52 

.733 tDisarmament 

Including suspension of weapons testing 

Class the abolition and control of specific kinds of weapons in 
341.734-341.738 

.734 tControl of nuclear weapons 

During time of peace 
.735 tControl of chemical and biological weapons 

During time of peace 
.738 tControl of strategic weapons 

During time of peace 

Class control of nuclear strategic weapons in 341.734, control of 
chemical and biological strategic weapons in 341.735 

.75 tlnternational economic law 

Class double taxation for individuals and corporate bodies in 341 .4844, 
fisheries in 341.7622, labor in 341.763 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

407 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.750 6 International economic organizations 

.750 61 Permanent government organizations 

.750 614 European Economic Community (European Common Market) 

Economic functions 

.75 1 tMoney and banking 

Class here foreign loans, international financial law, international fiscal 
law 

Add to base number 341.751 the numbers following 332 in 332.1-332.9, 
e.g., foreign exchange law 341.75145; however, class investment and 
investments in 341.752 

Class banking for international economic and social development in 
341.759 

.752 f Investment and investments 

Add to base number 341.752 the numbers following 332.6 in 332.62 to 
332.67, e.g., exchange of securities 341.75242 

Class the law of a specific jurisdiction with respect to foreign 
investments in 346.092, law with respect to investment by foreign 
nationals in 346.07 

.753 tOrganization and conduct of business 

Including combinations, monopoly, unfair competition, restraint of trade; 
contracts 

.754 tTrade and commerce 

Including standardization, tourism 

.754 3 fTariffs 

Including free trade 

Class tariffs on specific commodities in 341.7547 

.754 7 Trade in specific commodities 

Add to base number 341.7547 the numbers following 380.14 in 
380.141-380.145, e.g., rice 341.75471318 



.755 tPower and power resources 

.756 tTransportation 

.756 5 tRailroad transportation 

.756 6 tWater transportation (Maritime law) 



Add to base number 341.7566 the numbers following 343.096 in 
343.0962-343.0968, e.g., registry of ships 341.75665 

Class the right to use territorial waters, ports, roadsteads, harbors, 
other bodies of water in 34 1 .44 



See also 341.63 for prize law 
tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

408 



341 Law 341 

.756 7 tAir and space transportation 

Add to base number 341.7567 the numbers following 343.097 in 
343.0975-343.0979, e.g., space transportation 341.75679 

Class the right to overfly, to use airports and landing fields in 341 .46 

.756 8 tRoad and highway transportation 

Add to base number 341.7568 the numbers following 343.094 in 
343.0942-343.0948, e.g., international recognition of drivers' 
licenses 341.75686 

.756 9 tTransportation of specific goods 

Examples: animals, hazardous materials 
.757 tCommunications 

.757 3 tPostal communications 

.757 7 fTelecommunications 

Examples: amateur radio transmission, computer communications 

Including communication satellites 
.758 Intangible property 

Class here intellectual property, industrial property (intangible property 
of an industrial nature, e.g., business names, licensing, franchising, 
goodwill) 

.758 2 tCopyright 

.758 4 tDesign protection 

.758 6 tPatents 

.758 8 tTrademarks 

.759 tEconomic and social development 

Including economic and technical assistance, technology transfer, 
voluntary service groups 

Class the conservation and development of natural resources in 341.762, 
technology transfer in a specific industry with the industry, e.g., in 
telecommunications 341.7577 

.759 2 tFood and agricultural assistance 

Class food relief in 341 .766 

.76 tSocial law and cultural relations 

Including social security, UNICEF 

For economic and social development, see 341. 759 

.762 tConservation and development of natural resources 

Example: weather control 

Class here environmental protection 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

409 



341 Dewey Decimal Classification 341 

.762 1 tSeabed (Ocean bottom) 

.762 2 tFisheries 

Including whaling, sealing, fishery of invertebrates 
.762 3 tPollution control 

Class the control of the pollution of specific resources in 341.7625 
.762 5 Protection of specific resources 

Class the protection of marine life in 341.7622 
.762 53 tWater pollution 

.763 tLabor 

.763 2 tConditions in specific industries 

Class wages in specific industries in 341.7636 

.763 6 tWages 

.765 tPublic health 

.766 tWelfare services 

Class public health in 341.765 

.767 f Educational, scientific, technological, cultural relations 

.767 2 tExchanges of information 

Class exchanges of information in specific fields in 
341.7675-341.7677 

.767 3 tExchanges of persons 

Including exchanges of students and teachers 

Class exchanges of persons in specific fields in 341.7675-341.7677 

.767 5 tCooperation in scientific and technological research 

.767 52 tAstronomical and space research 

Including the tracking of satellites 

.767 53 fPhysical sciences and technology 

Including nuclear research 

.767 54 tChemical sciences and technology 

.767 55 fGeological, meteorological, oceanographic sciences 

.767 57 tBiological and agricultural research 

.767 7 tCooperation in arts and archaeology 

Including the preservation of antiquities 

tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 



410 



341 Law 341 

.77 flnternational criminal law 

Including pornography, slave trade, tax evasion 
Class criminal jurisdiction in 341.488 
For war crimes, see 341 .69 
.772 tHijacking 

Class here piracy 
.773 fTerrorism 

.775 tDrug traffic 

.778 tGenocide 

.78 t International judicial cooperation 

Examples: judicial assistance, letters rogatory 
Including the status of the judgments of foreign courts 
For extradition, see 341.488 



342-348 Branches of the law of specific jurisdictions and 
laws, regulations, cases 

Class comprehensive works in 349 



> 342-347 Law of specific jurisdictions 

Class here the law of specific areas 

Add to each subdivision identified by * the following extended notation: 
026 Laws, regulations, cases, procedure, courts 

Standard subdivisions may be added to 026 and its 
subdivisions 

0262 Preliminary materials 

Examples: bills, hearings, reports, executive messages, 
statements of witnesses, legislative histories, slip laws 
Commentaries and critical works are classed in the 
number for the specific topic in 342-347 without further 
subdivision 

See Manual at 342-347 

0263 Laws and regulations 

Commentaries and criticism are classed in the number 
for the specific topic in 342-347 without further 
subdivision 
02632 Individual laws {formerly 02633] and collected laws 

Including proposed, uniform, model codes 
[02633] Individual laws 

Relocated to 02632 
02636 Administrative regulations 

Collections and individual regulations 

(continued) 
tAdd extended notation 026 as instructed under 341.026 

411 



342 Dewey Decimal Classification 342 



> 342-347 Law of specific jurisdictions (continued) 

02638 Guides to laws and regulations 

Digests, citators, checklists, tables, indexes 

0264 Cases 

Do not use for casebooks, for popular works 

02642 Reports 

02643 Court decisions 

Class here official court decisions 
Class treatises on court decisions and popular 
treatment of the cases with the subject in law without 
further subdivision 

02646 Decisions (Rulings) of regulatory agencies 

02648 Guides to cases 

Examples: digests, citators, checklists, tables, 

indexes 

Including loose-leaf services 

Class here guides to laws, regulations, cases 

For guides to laws and regulations, see 02638 

0265 Advisory opinions of attorneys-general (ministers of 
justice) 

0269 Courts and procedure 

Including administrative courts, regulatory agencies; 
practice, rules, form books 

(Option: Class laws, regulations, cases on specific subjects in law in 348, courts 
and procedure in specific fields in 347) 

Class comprehensive works in 340, comprehensive works on the law of specific 
jurisdictions and areas in the modern world in 349; general laws, regulations, 
cases in 348 

342 ^Constitutional and administrative law 

Class here comprehensive works on public law, on constitutional law 

(If Option A under 340 is chosen, class here comprehensive works on the law of 
the preferred jurisdiction. Class specific branches of the law of the preferred 
jurisdiction in 342-348 

(If Option B under 340 is chosen, class here comparative law and law without 
jurisdiction by adding to base number 342 the numbers following 34 in 342-348, 
but omitting the first after the decimal point, e.g., comparative criminal procedure 
342.55 [not 342.505]) 

Use 342.001-342.009 for standard subdivisions 

For international law, see 341 ; military, tax, trade, industrial law, 343; social, 
labor, welfare, health, safety, education, cultural law, 344; criminal law, 345 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



412 



342 Law 342 



SUMMARY 

342.02 Basic instruments of government 

.03 Revision and amendment of the basic instruments of government 

.04 Structure, powers, functions of government 

.05 Legislative branch of government 

.06 Executive branch of government 

.07 Election law 

.08 Jurisdiction of governmental units over persons 

.09 Local government 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

.02 *Basic instruments of government 

Class here constitutions, municipal charters 

Class constitutional provisions dealing with a specific subject with the 
subject in law, e.g., individual rights 342.085 

For revision and amendment, see 342. 03 

[.020 9] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 342.029 

.023 Texts of constitutions 

Including annotated texts, texts of proposed constitutions 

.024 Sources 

Class commentary on source documents without text in 342.0292 

.024 2 Convention proceedings 

Including debates, journals, minutes 

.024 3 Other convention documents 

Examples: enabling acts, memoranda, proposals, rules 

.029 Constitutional history 

Including ratification 

For sources, see 342. 024 

.029 2 History of conventions 

Class constitutional conventions dealing with revision and 
amendment of constitutions in 342.03, proceedings and documents of 
conventions in 342.024 

.03 Revision and amendment of the basic instruments of government 

Class here constitutional reform 

Class proposals for and formation of new constitutions in 342.02; 
amendments dealing with a specific subject with the subject in law, e.g., an 
amendment prohibiting sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages 
344.0541 

♦Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



413 



342 Dewey Decimal Classification 342 

[.030 9] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 342.039 

.032 * Amendment procedure 

.035 Proposed and pending amendments 

Class here texts of constitutional amendments 

Class texts of proposed constitutions in 342.023 

.039 History of amendments 

Including defeated amendments 

.04 *Structure, powers, functions of government 

Class government corporations in 346.067 

.04 1 *Powers and functions of government 

For jurisdiction over persons, see 342.08 

.041 2 *Conduct of relations with foreign governments 

Including the power to wage war, to acquire territory from and cede it 
to other jurisdictions, to regulate reception of and relations with 
diplomatic and consular personnel 

Class military and defense law in 343.012-343.019 

See also 342. 0418 for police powers, 342. 062 for war and 
emergency powers of the executive 

.041 3 *Jurisdiction over territory, dependencies, colonies 

Including annexation 

Class the power to acquire territory from foreign jurisdictions in 
342.0412 

.041 8 * Police powers 

Powers to exercise control in the interests of general security, health, 
safety, morals, welfare 

Class individual rights in 342.085; exercise of a specific police power 
with the power in law, e.g., exclusion of undesirable aliens 342.082, 
regulation of public health 344.04 

See also 342. 062 for war and emergency powers of the executive 
.042 *Levels of government 

Including federalism, federal structure; relations between levels, relations 
between subordinate units of the same level; domestic conflict of laws; 
home rule; interstate compacts 

Class interstate compacts on a specific subject with the subject in law, 
e.g., compacts on seaports and their facilities 343.0967 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



414 






342 Law 342 

.044 *Branches of government 

Including the distribution and separation of powers, relations between 
branches 

Class relations of a specific branch of government with government 
institutions at a different level in 342.042 

For the legislative branch, see 342. 05; the executive branch, 
342.06; the judicial branch, 347 

.05 *Legislative branch of government 

Class here lobbying 

Class relations of the legislative branch with government institutions at a 
different level in 342.042 

.052 *Powers, functions, duties 

.053 *Basis of representation 

Example: proportional representation 

Including apportionment, districting 

.055 *Membership 

Including modes of selection, terms of office; immunities, privileges, 
qualifications; conduct, discipline of members; salaries, expenses, 
retirement 

.057 Organization and procedure 

Including the organization and procedure of committees 

.06 *Executive branch of government 

Including terms of office, modes of selection; powers, functions, duties; 
immunities, privileges, qualifications; conduct, discipline; salaries, expenses, 
retirement 

Class here the relation of the executive branch to the fundamental instrument 
of government {formerly also 351.003], administrative law 

Class relations of the executive branch with governmental institutions at a 
different level in 342.042 

See Manual at 342.06 
.062 *Chief and deputy chief executives 

Including martial law, provisional courts, war and emergency powers 

.064 *Executive departments and ministries 

Class departments and ministries dealing with a specific subject with the 
subject in law, e.g., revenue agencies 343.036 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



415 



342 Dewey Decimal Classification 342 

.066 *Administrative procedure 

Legislative and judicial functions of the executive branch 

Class privacy in 342.0858 

See also 344. 0531 for information control laws 

.066 2 *Public records 

Class here the right to information, sunshine laws [both formerly 
342.0853], privacy of government records 

.066 4 *Regulatory agencies and administrative courts 

Including hearing examiners 

Class the executive function of administering and enforcing the law in 
350-354; regulatory agencies, administrative courts dealing with a 
specific subject with the subject in law, using notation 0269 from the 
table under 342-347, e.g., agencies regulating civil aeronautics 
343.0970269 

.066 7 *Ombudsmen 

.068 *Officials and employees 

Including the personal liability of government officials 

Class here civil service 

Class labor-management bargaining in government service in 344.018 

.068 4 *Employee rights and discipline 

Including security measures, political activity of employees, loyalty 
oaths, conflict of interest 

.068 6 *Conditions of employment 

Examples: pay, fringe benefits, retirement, tenure, leave, job 
classification, training 

.07 *Election law 

Class apportionment, districting in 342.053, modes of selecting legislators in 
342.055, modes of selecting executives in 342.06 

See Manual at 324. 6 vs. 342. 07 

.072 *Voting rights and qualifications for voting 

Examples: requirements with respect to age, sex, race, residence, 
education 



.075 *Election procedures 



Examples: absentee voting, conduct of polling, registration and 
enumeration of voters, type of ballot 



.078 *Campaign practices 

Including finance 
*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



416 






342 Law 342 

.08 Jurisdiction of governmental units over persons 

Examples: residence status of persons in local jurisdictions, census law 
.082 *Entrance to and exit from national domain 

Immigration, emigration, passports, visas, quotas 

Class entry and exit of diplomatic and consular personnel in 342.0412 
.083 *Citizenship and nationality 

Including status of aliens, asylum 

Class status of diplomatic and consular personnel in 342.0412 
.085 individual activities 

Including the individual rights of servicemen 

Class here comprehensive works on individual rights, on the capacity and 
status of persons 

Class claims of the denial of constitutional rights to specific social groups 
in 342.087, to aliens in 342.083; specific claims with the subject in law, 
e.g., land claims in the United States 346.730432; a specific right not 
provided for here with the right, e.g., right to vote 342.072, right to 
education 344.079 

.085 2 *Religious activities 

.085 3 *Promulgation of information and opinion 

Including academic freedom, freedom of speech, freedom of the press 

Right to information, sunshine laws relocated to 342.0662 

Class promulgation of political opinion in 342.0854, the relation of 
press freedom to the judicial process in 347.05 

See also 342. 0662 for access to public records, 344. 0531 for 
censorship and information control laws, 344. 0547 for obscenity 
and pornography laws 

.085 4 *Political activity 

Including civil disobedience and dissent, rights of petition and 
assembly 

Class election law in 342.07 

.085 8 *Maintenance of privacy 

Class privacy of government records in 342.0662 

.087 *Social groups 

General aspects: legal status, disabilities, restrictions 

Including slavery 

See also 342. 085 for individual rights 

.087 2 *Indigenes and aborigines 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

417 



342 Dewey Decimal Classification 342 

.087 3 *Racial, ethnic, national groups 

Class here affirmative action 

Class indigenes and aborigines of specific racial, ethnic, national 
groups in 342.0872 

.087 8 *Women 

.088 *Government liability 

Examples: for abuse of power, corruption, denial of civil rights 

Class liability in a specific field with the field in law, e.g., liability of 
government for activity of military units 343.013, liability of schools, 
school officials, school districts 344.075 

.09 *Local government 

Examples: municipal corporations, municipal governments 

Class specific local governments in 342.3-342.9; a specific aspect of local 
government with the aspect in law, e.g., local real estate taxation 343.054 

See also 342. 042 for home rule 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 342 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., constitutional and 
administrative law of Australia 342.94, of New South Wales 342.944, of 
African states 342.6; then to the result add the numbers following 342 in 
342.001-342.09, e.g., election law of Australia 342.9407, of New South Wales 
342.94407, of African states 342.607, administrative regulations for elections in 
Australia 342.940702636 

343 Military, tax, trade, industrial law 

Use 343.001-343.009 for standard subdivisions 





SUMMARY 


343.01 


Military, defense (national security), veterans' law 


.02 


Law of public property 


.03 


Law of public finance 


.04 


Tax law 


.05 


Kinds of taxes by base 


.06 


Kinds of taxes by incidence 


.07 


Regulation of economic activity 


.08 


Regulation of trade 


.09 


Control of public utilities 



.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

.01 Military, defense (national security), veterans' law 

Class here war and emergency legislation 
Class military appropriations in 355.622 

For war claims, see 341.66; martial law, 342. 062 
*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



418 



343 Law 343 

.011 * Veterans' law 

Class here veterans' welfare law [formerly also 344.03286] 

Class veterans' insurance claims in 346.086364 
.0112 * Veterans' pensions 

Including benefits to survivors of veterans 
.0113 *Education and training for veterans 

.0114 *Employment for veterans 

.0115 *Health care and rehabilitation for veterans 

Class compensation for disability in 343.01 16 
.0116 *Disability compensation for veterans 



> 343.012-343.019 National security and military law 

Class comprehensive works in 343.01, military assistance to foreign nations in 
342.0412, civilian employees of military services in 342.068; a specific aspect 
of military, war, defense, emergency legislation not provided for here with the 
aspect in law, e.g., regulation of industry 343.07 

.0 1 2 *Manpower procurement 

Examples: recruitment 

Class individual rights of servicemen in 342.085, reserve officers' 
training corps and military academies in 344.0769 

.012 2 *Draft and selective service 

Including draft resistance 

Class treatment of conscientious objectors in 343.0126 
.012 6 Conscientious objectors 

Including amnesty 

.013 *Military services 

Including organization, training, rank, pay, promotion, demotion, leave, 
allowances, living conditions 

For discipline and conduct, see 343. 014; law governing armies, 
343. 015; specific military services, 343. 016-343. 019 

.014 *Discipline and conduct 

Including awards and incentives, enforcement, medals, offenses 

.014 3 * Military legal procedure and courts 

Including procedural rights of servicemen in military courts 

Class general rights of servicemen in 342.085, procedural rights in 
nonmilitary courts in 347; international war crime trials in 341.69 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

419 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 

.014 6 *Military penology 

Including probation and parole 

Class military prisons in 344.03548 

.015 *Laws governing armies 

Class specific services in 343.016-343.019 

.0 1 6- .0 1 9 Specific military services 

Add to base number 343.01 the numbers following 35 in 356-359, e.g., 
naval law 343.019 

Class comprehensive works in 343.013, discipline and conduct of 
specific services in 343.014, manpower of specific services in 343.012, 
the law governing armies in 343.015 

.02 *Law of public property 

General aspects: acquisition, disposal, regulation and control 

.023 *Personal property 

.025 *Real property 

.025 2 * Acquisition 

Including appraisal, eminent domain (expropriation), condemnation, 
nationalization 

Class the acquisition of territory from other jurisdictions in 342.0412 
.025 3 *Disposal 

Sale and grant 

Class cession of territory to other jurisdictions in 342.0412 
.025 6 *Control and use of public real property 

Including construction and maintenance of government buildings 

Class comprehensive works on the control and use of public and 
private real property, control of natural resources in 346.044, 
regulation of construction operations in 343.07869 

.03 *Law of public finance 

For government securities, see 346. 0922 
.032 *Monetary law 

Currency, coinage, foreign exchange 

Including commemorative medals and coins that are legal tender, 
limitations on the amount of metal used in coinage 

Class here monetary policy, indexation 

Class comprehensive works on commemorative medals in 344.091, 
international law of monetary exchange in 341.751, central banks and 
banking in 346.082 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

420 



343 Law 343 

.034 *Budgeting and expenditure 

Including accounting and auditing procedures, revenue sharing 

Class here fiscal policy, economic stabilization, grants-in-aid, 
intergovernmental financial relations 

Class the budget and its preparation in 351.722; revenue law, revenue 
sharing as revenue in 343.036; regulation of prices in 343.083; bills for 
authorization and reauthorization of expenditure for a specific purpose 
with the purpose in law, e.g., for price supports 343.0742 

.036 *Revenue law 

For public borrowing and debt, see 343. 037; tax law, 343. 04 

.037 *Public borrowing and debt 

.04 *Tax law 

Class here tax planning, tax avoidance in general [formerly also 343.0523], 
internal revenue law, tax auditing 

Class interdisciplinary works on taxes in 336.2, double taxation in 341.4844, 
fiscal policy in 343.034, tax planning applied to a specific kind of tax in 
343.05-343.06, tax shelters and investment credit in 343.0523; tax evasion 
in 345.0233 

For specific kinds of taxes, see 343. 05-343. 06 

See Manual at 336. 2 vs. 351. 724, 343. 04 

.042 *Assessment and collection 

Including corvee, payment-in-kind, tax accounting, tax appeal 

Class assessment and collection of taxes at specific levels in 343.043, of 
specific kinds of taxes in 343.05-343.06; tax evasion in 345.0233 

.043 Taxes by level 

National, state, local 

Class here only comprehensive works and comparisons, e.g., national 
taxes in North America 343.7043, state taxes in the United States 
343.73043, local taxes of the jurisdictions of Pennsylvania 343.748043 

Class taxes of a specific jurisdiction in 343.04, specific kinds of taxes 
regardless of level in 343.05-343.06, e.g., income tax law of Michigan 
343.774052 



> 343 .05- 343 .06 Specific kinds of taxes 

Class comprehensive works in 343.04; social security taxes in 344.02 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



421 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 



.05 


Kinds of taxes by base 






SUMMARY 


343.052 
.053 
.054 
.055 
.056 
.057 


Income tax 

Estate, inheritance, gift taxes 

Property taxes 

Excise and transaction taxes 

Customs taxes (Tariff) 

Stamp taxes and duties 


.052 


: 


"Income tax 

Class the internal revenue code in 343.04 


.052 04 




Special topics 


.052 042 




*Assessment of income taxes 


.052 044 




* Preparation of returns 


.052 3 




♦Reductions in tax 

Tax planning, tax avoidance in general relocated to 343.04 


.052 32 




♦Charitable deductions 


.052 33 




* Individual retirement accounts 
Including Keogh plans 


.052 34 




♦Depreciation and depletion allowances 


.052 36 




♦Business losses 

Including bad debts 


.052 4 




Taxes on specific types of income 



Examples: proceeds from insurance, retirement income; income from 
rents, royalties, securities transactions 

Class reductions in taxes on specific types of income in 343.0523 

.052 42 *On wages and salaries 

Including payroll, withholding taxes 
.052 44 *On profits 

.052 45 *On capital gains 

.052 46 *On investment income 

Examples: income from bonds, deposits, stocks 

For taxes on capital gains, see 343. 05245; taxes on 
real-estate transactions, 343.0546 

.052 48 *On income from foreign sources 

Class taxes on specific types of income from specific foreign 
sources in 343.05242-343.05246 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



422 



343 Law 343 

.052 6 Income taxes by incidence 

Including taxes on self-employed persons, on the aged, on citizens 
resident in foreign countries 

Class here domestic double taxation 

Add to base number 343.0526 the numbers following 343.06 in 
343.062-343.068, e.g., corporation income taxes 343.05267; 
however, class reduction in taxation regardless of incidence in 
343.0523, taxes on specific types of income regardless of incidence in 
343.0524 

.053 *Estate, inheritance, gift taxes 

Class here estate planning 

Class taxes on fiduciary trusts in 343.05264 
.053 2 inheritance taxes 

.053 5 *Gift taxes 

.054 *Property taxes 

On real and personal property 

.054 2 *Assessment 

.054 3 *Exemptions 

.054 6 *Taxes on real-estate transactions 

Class here taxes incident upon the sale of real estate, e.g., sales tax 

Class other real estate tax aspects with the aspect in law, e.g., tax 
assessment 343.0542 

.055 Excise and transaction taxes 

Examples: luxury, severance, transfer, turnover, use, value-added taxes; 
user fees 

Class taxes on real-estate transactions in 343.0546 

.055 2 *Sales taxes 

Class sales taxes on specific commodities and services in 343.0558 
.055 3 *Excise taxes 

Class excise taxes on specific commodities and services in 343.0558 

.055 8 *Taxes on specific commodities and services 

Add to base number 343.0558 the numbers following 380.14 in 
380.141-380.145, e.g., taxes on cigarettes 343.0558567973 

.056 *Customs taxes (Tariff) 

.057 *Stamp taxes and duties 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



423 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 

.06 Kinds of taxes by incidence 

Class taxes on specific bases regardless of incidence in 343.05 
.062 *On individuals 

Class here poll tax 
.064 *On fiduciary trusts 

Including pension trusts 
.066 *On organizations 

Class here the status of tax-exempt organizations 
For taxes on corporations, see 343. 067 
.066 2 *Partnerships 

.066 8 *Charitable foundations and trusts 

.067 *On corporations 

.068 *On business enterprises 

Including small business taxes 

Class taxes on specific types of business organizations in 343.066, on 
individuals engaged in business in 343.062 

.07 *Regulation of economic activity 

Examples: daylight saving, nationalization of industry, rationing 

Class here comprehensive works on the regulation of small business, 
licensing, industry and trade 

Class regulation of the practice of specific occupations in 344.01, public 
health and safety measures in 344.04, regulation of organizations in 346.06 

For regulation of trade, see 343. 08 

See also 346 for the impact of economic activity upon private persons 
and corporate bodies 

.07 1 *Consumer protection 

Class a specific aspect of consumer protection with the aspect, e.g., 
protection against misleading advertising 343.082 



> 343.072-343.075 Specific aspects of regulation 

Class comprehensive works in 343.07; regulation of specific industries and 
services regardless of aspect in 343.076-343.078, of public utilities regardless 
of aspect in 343.09; a specific aspect of industrial regulation not provided for 
here with the aspect in law, e.g., wages 344.0121 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



424 



343 Law 343 

.072 *Unfair practices 

Including industrial espionage, rebates 
.072 1 *Antitrust law 

Class here competition law 
.072 3 *Restraint of trade 

.072 5 *Price fixing and discrimination 

.074 *Economic assistance 

Class here technology transfer 

Class assistance to specific industries and services in 343.076-343.078 



343.074 2-343.074 6 Domestic assistance 

Class comprehensive works in 343.074 

.074 2 Specific kinds of assistance 

Examples: loans, price supports, subsidies, mortgage insurance 

.074 5 *Rural development 

Class assistance to agriculture in 343.076, specific kinds of assistance 
to rural areas in 343.0742 

.074 6 *Regional development 

Class development of rural regions in 343.0745, specific kinds of 
assistance in 343.0742 

.074 8 *Foreign assistance 

.075 *Production controls 

Quantity and quality controls 

Including weights and measures, packaging (containers) 

Class subsidies in 343.0742 

See also 344. 042 for product control 



> 343.076-343.078 Regulation of specific industries and services 

Class here works on the regulation of the production of and trade in specific 
goods and services 

Class comprehensive works in 343.07 

For public utilities, see 343.09 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



425 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 

.076 *Agriculture and agricultural industries 

Class here acreage allotments, price supports, production quotas, 
production controls 

Add to base number 343.076 the numbers following 63 in 633-639, e.g., 
forest products 343.076498 

Class trade in specific commodities in 343.0851 
See also 344.049 for veterinary public health 
.077 *Mineral industries 

Exploration for and extraction of minerals 

Class conservation of minerals in 346.04685, mineral rights in 346.043 

.077 2 *Extraction of petroleum and gases 

.077 5 *Mining 

.077 52 *Coal 

.077 55 *Nonfuel minerals 

.078 *Secondary industries and services 

Add to base number 343.078 notation 001-999, e.g., regulation of the 
shipbuilding industry 343.07862382; however, class regulation of health 
services in 344.04; regulation of closely regulated industries, such as 
transportation and communication, in 343.09; regulation of marketing 
relocated from 343.0786588 to 343.084, of the advertising industry from 
343.0786591 to 343.082 

See Manual at 343. 078 vs. 343. 08 

.08 *Regulation of trade 

Including warranties and guarantees 

Class here commodity exchanges and exchange transactions 

Class comprehensive works on the regulation of trade and industry in 
343.07, regulation of real-estate business in 346.0437, of banks in 346.082, 
of insurance companies and agencies in 346.086, of organizations engaged 
in marketing securities in 346.0926 

See Manual at 343. 078 vs. 343. 08 



> 343.082-343.084 Labeling, advertising, prices, marketing 

Class comprehensive works in 343.08; labeling, advertising, prices, and 
marketing of specific commodities in 343.085; in specific kinds of trade 
343.087-343.088 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



426 



343 Law 343 

.082 *Advertising and labeling 

Class here regulation of the advertising industry [formerly also 
343.0786591] 

Class restrictions on the posting of advertisements in 346.045 
.083 *Prices 

Class price supports of specific materials and products in 
343.076-343.078 

.084 *Marketing 

Including quotas, agreements, restrictions 

Class here the regulation of marketing [formerly also 343.0786588] 

Class the law of sale in 346.072 

.085 Specific commodities 

Add to base number 343.085 the numbers following 380.14 in 
380.141-380.145, e.g., rice 343.0851318 

Class a specific kind of trade in a specific commodity in 
343.087-343.088 



343.087-343.088 Specific kinds of trade 
Class comprehensive works in 343.08 
.087 *Foreign (International) trade 



Class here general customs law, the combined treatment of trade, tariffs, 
and general shipping 

Class tariffs in 343.056 

.087 1-.087 5 Specific commodities 

Add to base number 343.087 the numbers following 380.14 in 
380.141-380.145, e.g., rice 343.0871318 

.087 7 *Imports 

Class importation of specific commodities in 343.0871-343.0875 
.087 8 *Exports 

Class exportation of specific commodities in 343.0871-343.0875 

.088 *Domestic trade 

Including trade on days of religious observance, e.g., on Sunday 

.088 1-.088 5 Specific commodities 

Add to base number 343.088 the numbers following 380.14 in 
380.141-380.145, e.g., rice 343.0881318 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



427 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 

.088 7 *Retail trade 

Class retail trade in specific commodities in 343.0881-343.0885 
.088 8 *Wholesale trade 

Class wholesale trade in specific commodities in 343.0881-343.0885 
.09 *Control of public utilities 

Class here closely regulated industries 

SUMMARY 

343.091 General considerations 

.092 Water and power supply 

.093 Transportation 

.094 Road and highway transportation 

.095 Rail transportation 

.096 Water transportation 

.097 Air and space transportation 

.098 Local transportation 

.099 Communications 

.091 *General considerations 

Examples: rates, rate-making, operations, facilities, services 

Class general considerations applied to specific utilities in 
343.092-343.099 



343.092-343.099 Specific utilities 

Class comprehensive works in 343.09 

.092 *Water and power supply 

.092 4 *Water supply and power 

.092 5 *Nuclear energy 

.092 6 *Oil and gas 

Class extraction of oil and gas in 343.0772, processing in 
343.0786655-343.0786657 

.092 7 *Coal 

Class extraction of coal in 343.07752, processing in 343.07866262 
.092 8 *Solar energy 

.092 9 *Electric power 

Including cogeneration of heat and electricity 

Class a specific source of electric power with the source in law, e.g., 
nuclear power 343.0925 



*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



428 



343 Law 343 

.093 Transportation 

Example: pipelines 

Class here safety in transportation, comprehensive works on the law of 
carriers 

Class the private law of transportation accidents in 346.0322, 
transportation insurance in 346.0862 

For specific modes of transportation, see 343. 094-343. 098 
.093 2 *Freight 

.093 3 *Passenger 

Class here mass transportation 



343.094-343.098 Specific modes of transportation 
Class comprehensive works in 343.093 



> 343 .094- 343 .097 Nonlocal transportation 

Class comprehensive works in 343.093 

See also 343. 098 for local transportation 

.094 *Road and highway transportation 

Class police traffic services in 344.052332, traffic offenses in 345.0247 

.094 2 *Roads and highways 

General aspects: construction, finance, condition 

.094 4 *Vehicles 

Including licensing, registration, equipment, safety devices, warranty, 
accessories, size, weight, load, inspection, product recall 

Class property laws relating to vehicles in 346.047, vehicle operation 
in 343.0946, vehicle product liability in 346.038, vehicle insurance in 
346.086092, commercial services using vehicles in 343.0948 

.094 6 *Vehicle operation and traffic control 

Including drivers' licenses, traffic signals, speed limits 

.094 8 *Commercial services 

Class commercial vehicles in 343.0944, operation in 343.0946; local 
services in 343.0982 

.094 82 *Bus 

.094 83 *Truck 

: Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



429 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 

.095 *Rail transportation 

.095 2 *Stationary facilities 

Examples: tracks, yards, stations, signals 
.095 5 *Rolling stock 

Examples: locomotives, cars 
.095 8 *Services 

Examples: passenger, freight 

.096 *Water transportation 

Including domestic prize law 

Class here maritime, admiralty law 

Class international maritime law in 341.7566; a specific subject of 
maritime or admiralty law not provided for here with the subject in law, 
e.g., maritime contracts 346.02 



343.096 2-343.096 4 Specific kinds of water transportation 

Class comprehensive works in 343.096; facilities, operations, services of 
specific kinds of transportation in 343.0965-343.0968 

.096 2 *Ocean transportation 

Class interoceanic waterways in 343.0964 
.096 4 *Inland waterway 

Including interoceanic canals 



> 343.096 5-343.096 8 Facilities, operations, services 

Class comprehensive works in 343.096 

.096 5 *Ships 

Including papers, registry, qualifications of officers and crew 

.096 6 *Navigation and rule of the road 

.096 7 * Ports and harbors 

Including services, e.g., piloting, warehousing, towing and tug 
services 

.096 8 *Services 

Passenger, freight 

Class here salvage operations 

For services of ports and harbors, see 343. 0967 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



430 



343 Law 343 

.097 *Air and space transportation 



> 343.097 5-343.097 8 Air transportation 

Class comprehensive works in 343.097 

.097 5 *Aircraft 

Including papers, registry, qualifications of officers and crew 

.097 6 *Air navigation and traffic control 

.097 7 * Airports and landing fields 

Including services, e.g., hangars 

For traffic control, see 343. 0976 

.097 8 *Air transportation services 

Passenger, freight 

For services of airports and landing fields, see 343. 0977 

.097 9 * Space transportation 

.098 *Local transportation 

Class police traffic services in 344.052332, traffic offenses in 345.0247 

For local water transportation, see 387; local air transportation, 
387.7 

.098 1 *Pedestrian traffic 

Including footpaths and trails 
.098 2 *Street traffic 

.098 3 *Rail traffic 

Surface, subsurface, elevated 
.099 Communications 

Class here mass media law 
.099 2 *Postal service 

Class postal offenses in 345.0236 
.099 23 *Revenue and rates 

.099 25 *Postal organization 

Including routes 
.099 4 Telecommunication 

Including the fairness doctrine 
.099 42 Telegraph 

.099 43 Telephone 

.099 44 *Computer communications 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

431 



343 Dewey Decimal Classification 343 



.099 45 *Radio 



Use of this number for electronic communication discontinued; 
class in 343.0994 

.099 46 Television 

Including cable television (CATV) 

.099 8 *Press law 

Class here publishing law 

Class libel in 346.034, freedom of the press in 342.0853, censorship 
in 344.0531 

.099 9 *Information storage and retrieval 

Class here comprehensive works on computer law 

Class a specific aspect with the aspect in law, e.g., invasion of privacy 
342.0858 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 343 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., miscellaneous public 
law of Australia 343.94, of New South Wales 343.944, of African states 343.6; 
then to the result add the numbers following 343 in 343.001-343.099, e.g., tax 
law of Australia 343.9404, of New South Wales 343.94404, of African states 
343.604, administrative regulations on taxes of Australia 343.940402636 

344 Social, labor, welfare, health, safety, education, cultural law 

Use 344.001-344.009 for standard subdivisions 





SUMMARY 


344.01 


Labor 


.02 


Social insurance 


.03 


Welfare 


.04 


Public health 


.05 


Public safety 


.06 


Public works 


.07 


Education and schools 


.08 


Educational and cultural exchanges 


.09 


Culture and religion 



.01 *Labor 

Class here fees, wages, licensing for specific occupations and professions 

Add to base number 344.01 the numbers following 331 in 331.1-331.8, e.g. 
child labor law 344.0131; however, class government officials and 
employees in 342.068, military personnel in 343.013-343.019, medical 
personnel in 344.041, certification and licensing of teachers in 344.078 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



432 



344 



Law 



344 



.02 
.021 

.021 7 

.021 8 
.022 

.022 4 
.022 6 

.023 

.024 
.028 
.03 
.031 

.032 



.033 
.035 



* Social insurance 

See also 344. 03 for social welfare law 

* Workers' (Workmen's) compensation insurance 

Class disability compensation for veterans in 343.01 16 

In specific occupations and industries 

Class workmen's compensation insurance for specific disablements 
and injuries in specific occupations and industries in 344.0218 

For specific disablements and injuries 

*Accident and health insurance 

Including insurance for special groups, e.g., Medicaid 

Class health benefits for veterans in 343.01 15 

*Maternity insurance 

*Accident and health insurance for the aged 

Example: Medicare 

*01d age and survivors' insurance 

Example: social security (United States) 

Class accident and health insurance for the aged in 344.0226 

* Unemployment insurance 
^Insurance against crimes of violence 

*Welfare 

Specific topics of welfare in general 

Add to base number 344.031 the numbers following 361 in 
361.02-361.8, e.g., laws governing charitable trusts 344.0317632 

*Social welfare problems and services 

Add to base number 344.032 the numbers following 362 in 
362.04-362.8, e.g., health services law 344.0321, child welfare law 
344.0327; however, class mental and emotional illnesses and 
disturbances in 344.044, adoption of children in 346.0178; veterans 
welfare relocated from 344.03286 to 343.01 1 

Class medical personnel and their activities in 344.041 

*Food supply 

*Penal institutions 

Add to base number 344.035 the numbers following 365 in 365.3-365.7, 
e.g., law governing convict labor 344.03565 



*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



433 



344 Dewey Decimal Classification 344 

.04 *Public health 

For public safety, see 344. 05 





SUMMARY 


344.041 


Medical personnel and their activities 


.042 


Product control 


.043 


Control of disease 


.044 


Mental health services and services to substance abusers 


.045 


Disposal of the dead 


.046 


Control of the environment 


.047 


Safety 


.048 


Birth control 


.049 


Veterinary public health 



.041 *Medical personnel and their activities 

Class military medicine in 343.013, medical malpractice in 346.0332, 
hospitals and their services in 344.0321 1 

For control of disease, see 344. 043 
.041 2 *Physicians and surgeons and their activities 

Including informed consent 
.041 3 *Dentists and dentistry 

Including dental technicians, dental assistants 

.041 4 *Nurses and nursing 

.041 5 * Mid wives and midwifery 

.041 6 *Pharmacists and pharmacy 

.041 9 Specific problems in medical practice 

.041 92 * Abortion 

Class abortion control in 344.0546, abortion for birth control in 
344.048, criminal abortion in 345.0285 

.041 94 *Oversight of the human body and its parts 

Including preservation of life through freezing, blood transfusion, 
organ donation, transplants 

.04196 * Human experimentation 

Example: medical genetics 

.041 97 *Terminal care 

Class here euthanasia, the right to die 

.042 *Product control 

Control for purity, safety 

Including recall of unsafe products 

See also 343. 0944 for motor vehicle recall 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

434 



344 Law 344 



.042 3 


*Food, drugs, cosmetics, clothing, toys 


.042 32 


*Food 




Including food additives 


.042 33 


* Drugs 


.042 35 


*Clothing and toys 


.042 4 


*Chemicals 



Class cosmetics in 344.0423, food additives in 344.04232, drugs in 
344.04233 

.043 *Control of disease 

Control of carriers, quarantine, immunization measures 
Including the control of disease in a specific site, e.g., in a factory 

.043 6-. 043 8 Control of specific diseases 

Add to base number 344.043 the numbers following 61 in 616-618, 
e.g., control of AIDS 344.04369792; however, class control of mental 
diseases in 344.044 

.044 *Mental health services and services to substance abusers 

Class the capacity and status of persons of unsound mind in 346.0138 

.044 6 *To substance abusers 

Class here addiction 

Class the control of trade in alcoholic beverages and narcotics in 
344.054 

.044 61 * Alcoholics 

.044 63 *Narcotics addicts 

.045 *Disposal of the dead 

.046 *Control of the environment 

Class conservation of natural resources in 346.044 

.046 2 *Waste disposal 

Including recycling 

.046 22 Kinds of waste 

Examples: sewage; solid, chemical, animal wastes 



Class disposal of specific kinds of wastes into specific 
environments in 344.04626 



.046 26 Disposal into specific environments 

Examples: dumping into rivers, oceans 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



435 



344 Dewey Decimal Classification 344 

.046 3 Pollution and noise control 

.046 32 *Pollution control 

Class waste disposal in 344.0462 

For control of specific pollutants, see 344. 04633; control of 
pollution of specific environments, 344.04634 

.046 33 Control of specific pollutants 

Examples: oil, pesticides 

Class pollution of specific environments by specific pollutants in 
344.04634 

.046 34 Control of the pollution of specific environments 

Example: soil pollution 

Including acid rain 

.046 342 *Air 

.046 343 *Water 

.046 38 *Noise control 

.046 4 *Sanitation in places of public assembly 

Examples: hotels, restaurants 

For industrial sanitation, see 344. 0465 

.046 5 industrial sanitation and safety 

.047 *Safety 

Class transportation safety in 343.093, product safety in 344.042 

For industrial safety, see 344. 0465; public safety, 344. 05 

.047 2 *Safety in the use of hazardous materials and device^ 

Class safety in the use of hazardous materials in industry in 344.0465 

.047 6 *Safety in recreation 

.048 *Birth control 

.049 *Veterinary public health 

.05 Police services, other aspects of public safety, controversies related to 

public morals and customs 

Add to base number 344.05 the numbers following 363 in 363.2-363.4, e.g., 
fire protection 344.0537 

For criminal investigation and law enforcement, see 345. 052 

.06 *Public works 

Use 344.060001-344.060009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 344.06 notation 001-999, e.g., public housing 
344.063635 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

436 



344 Law 344 



.07 *Education and schools 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in 
two or more subdivisions of this topic in the number coming last in the 
schedule, e.g., finance of elementary public schools by local governments 
344.07682 {not 344.074, 344.073, or 344.071) 

For educational exchanges, see 344.08 



> 344.07 1-344.074 Kinds of education and schools 

Class comprehensive works in 344.07 
.07 1 *Public education and schools 

.072 *Private education and schools 

.073 By level of government 

National, state, local 
.074 By level of education 

Elementary, secondary, higher 
.075 *Liability of schools, school officials, school districts 

.076 *Finance of education 

Public and private 

Class financial aid to students in 344.0795 
.076 2 *Financial resources 

Examples: tax receipts, investments, natural resources, land 
For aid to education, see 344. 0763 
.076 3 *Aid to education 

By higher levels of government 
.076 5 *Expenditure 

.076 7 Specific kinds of schools 

Examples: trade, vocational schools 
.076 8 Specific levels of education and schools 

.076 82 *Preschool and elementary education 

Secondary education relocated to 344.07683 
.076 83 *Secondary education [formerly 344.07682] 

.076 84 *Higher education 

Adult education relocated to 344.07685 
.076 85 *Adult education [formerly 344.07684J 

'Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



437 



344 Dewey Decimal Classification 344 

.076 9 Specific educational programs 

Examples: medical and public health education, programs for 
exceptional students 

Including schools devoted to specific educational programs, e.g., 
military, merchant marine academies 

.077 *Content of education 

General aspects: curriculums, courses of study, textbooks 
.078 *Teachers and teaching 

Including examination, certification, registration, appointment of teachers 

Class employment rights in 344.012 
.079 *Students 

Including compulsory education, right to education, authority of the law 
over students, testing 

.079 1 *Education of exceptional students 

Add to base number 344.0791 the numbers following 371.9 in 
371.91-371.97, e.g., education of blind students 344.079111 

Class finance in 344.0769 
.079 2 *Attendance 

Including truancy, school year and day 
.079 3 *Discipline and student rights 

Class general rights of students in 342.085 
.079 4 *Student services 

Examples: counseling, personnel services 
See also 344. 0327 for child welfare 
.079 42 *School lunches 

.079 5 *Financial aid to students 

Examples: scholarships, loans 

.079 6 *Religion in schools 

.079 8 *Segregation and discrimination 

.08 *Educational and cultural exchanges 

.09 *Culture and religion 

Examples: language code (the official language or languages of a specific 
jurisdiction), flag code 

.091 *Historic commemoration and patriotic events 

Class commemorative medals and coins that are legal tender in 343.032 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



438 






344 Law 344 

.092 *Libraries and archives 

.093 *Museums and galleries 

.094 *Historic preservation and monuments 

Including antiquities, historical buildings, historical parks 
Class historic commemoration and patriotic events in 344.091 

.095 * Science and technology 

Add to base number 344.095 the numbers following 341.7675 in 
341.76752-341.76757, e.g., oceanographic law 344.0955 

.096 *Religion 

.097 *Arts and humanities 

For museums and galleries, see 344. 093 

.099 * Amusements 

Professional and amateur 

Examples: boxing, horse racing 

Class gambling in 344.0542, arts and humanities in 344.097 
.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 344 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., social law of 
Australia 344.94, of New South Wales 344.944, of African states 344.6; then to 
the result add the numbers following 344 in 344.001-344.099, e.g., labor law of 
Australia 344.9401, of New South Wales, 344.94401, of African states 344.601, 
administrative regulations on labor in Australia 344.940102636 

345 *Criminal law 

Class comprehensive works on civil and criminal courts and procedures in 347 
Use 345.001-345.009 for standard subdivisions 
See Manual at 345 





SUMMARY 


345.01 


Criminal courts 


.02 


Crimes (Offenses) 


.03 


Criminals (Offenders) 


.04 


Liability, responsibility, guilt 


.05 


General criminal procedure 


.06 


Evidence 


.07 


Trials 


.08 


Juvenile procedure 


.3- .9 


Specific jurisdictions and areas 



*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



439 



345 Dewey Decimal Classification 345 

.01 *Criminal courts 

Courts specializing in criminal cases, general and other specialized courts 
considered with respect to their functions in criminal cases 

General aspects: jurisdiction, officials, court management 

Including public prosecutors, public defenders, legal aid 

Class here appellate courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases 

Class appellate courts hearing both civil and criminal cases in 347.03, 
military courts in 343.0143 

For juvenile courts, see 345.081 



> 345 .02- 345 .04 General considerations 

Class comprehensive works in 345 

.02 *Crimes (Offenses) 

Class here specific trials of specific crimes and classes of crime, e.g., trials 
of offenses against the person 345.025, a specific trial for murder 345.02523 

Add to base number 345.02 the numbers following 364.1 in 364.13-364.18, 
e.g., white-collar crime 345.0268 

See Manual at 345. 02 vs. 346. 03 

.03 *Criminals (Offenders) 

Examples: accomplices, juvenile delinquents, recidivists 

.04 ^Liability, responsibility, guilt 

Including the capacity to commit a crime; criminal intent; double jeopardy; 
defenses, e.g., duress; defenses for a specific crime, e.g., self-defense 

.05 *General criminal procedure 

Including judicial error 

Class here administration of criminal justice, criminal practice, court rules 

Class interdisciplinary works on criminal justice in 364, procedure in 
specific courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases in 345.01, in specific 
courts hearing both civil and criminal cases in 347.02-347.04 

For evidence, see 345. 06; trials, 345. 07; juvenile procedure, 345. 08 

.050 4 Special topics 

.050 42 *Prosecution 

Class public prosecutors in 345.01 

.050 44 *Defense 

Class public defenders in 345.01, right to counsel in 345.056, 
defenses in 345.04 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



440 



345 Law 345 

.052 *Criminal investigation and law enforcement 

Examples: surveillance, interception of communication (wiretapping, 
opening mail), warrants, extradition, interrogation, judicial assistance 

Class here police manuals on what the police may legally do in the 
course of carrying out their duties 

Class rights of suspects in 345.056, admissibility of the results of 
investigative procedures as evidence in 345.06 

.052 2 *Search and seizure 

.052 7 * Arrests 

Including preventive detention 

.056 *Rights of suspects 

Examples: speedy trial, jury trial, services of counsel, habeas corpus, 
protection from self-incrimination 

Including the effect of press coverage on fair trial 

Class legal aid in 345.01 

.06 *Evidence 

Class here confessions 

Add to base number 345.06 the numbers following 347.06 in 
347.062-347.067, e.g., expert testimony 345.067 



.07 *Trials 



Class comprehensive works on appellate procedure in criminal cases in 
347.08, trials of specific offenses in 345.02, hearings and trials in juvenile 
cases in 345.087 



.072 *Pretrial procedure 



Examples: preliminary hearings, discovery, pretrial release, plea 
bargaining, arraignment, pleadings, grand jury proceedings, indictment, 
summons 

.075 *Trial (Courtroom) procedure 

Examples: juries and jury selection; opening statements, examination of 
witnesses, summations by prosecution and defense; instructions to jury, 
verdicts 

For final disposition of cases, see 345. 077 

.077 *Final disposition of cases 

Examples: probation, parole, pardon, rehabilitation (reinstatement, after 
service of sentence, of a criminal's personal rights lost by judicial 
sentence) 

.077 2 *Sentencing 

For specific penalties, see 345. 0773 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



441 



345 Dewey Decimal Classification 345 

.077 3 *Specific penalties 

Example: death penalty 
.08 *Juvenile procedure 

Class juvenile offenders in 345.03, liability of juveniles in 345.04 
.08 1 * Juvenile courts 

General aspects: jurisdiction, officials, court management 
.087 *Hearings and trials 

Contains trial and pretrial procedure, disposition of cases 

Including probation and parole 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 345 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., criminal law of 
Australia 345.94, of New South Wales 345.944, of African states 345.6; then to 
the result add the numbers following 345 in 345.001-345.087, e.g., the law of 
evidence in Australia 345.9406, in New South Wales 345.94406, in African 
states 345.606, decisions on evidence in Australia 345.940602643 

Special developments for Scotland and England follow 

.4 1 1 Criminal law of Scotland 

.411 01 *Criminal courts 

General aspects: jurisdiction, officials, court management 

Including Lord Advocate, Solicitor-General, Crown Counsel, 
procurators fiscal, legal aid 

Class here appellate courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases 

Class appellate courts hearing both civil and criminal cases in 
347.41103 

For Children's Hearings (juvenile courts), see 345.41108 

.411012 *District Court 

.411 014 *Sheriff Court 

.411016 *High Court of Justiciary 

.4110162 *Court of First Instance 

.411 016 3 *Court of Appeal 

.41 1 02- .41 1 07 General considerations and procedure 

Add to base number 345.41 10 the numbers following 345.0 in 
345.02-345.07, e.g., general criminal procedure 345.41 105 

.41108 Juvenile procedure 

Including Children's Hearings (juvenile courts) 

Class juvenile offenders in 345.41 103, liability of juveniles in 
345.41104 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

442 



345 Law 345 

.42 Criminal law of England 

.420 1 *Criminal courts 

General aspects: jurisdiction, officials, court management 

Including Attorney-General, Director of Public Prosecutions, legal aid 

Class here appellate courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases 

Class appellate courts hearing both civil and criminal cases in 
347.4203, juvenile courts in 345.4208 

.420 12 *Magistrates Court 

Comprehensive works 

Class civil jurisdiction of Magistrates Court in 347.42023 

.420 14 *Crown Court 

.420 16 *Divisional Court of Queen's Bench Division of High Court of Justice 

.420 18 *Criminal Division of Court of Appeal 

.420 2- .420 8 General considerations, procedure, juvenile courts and procedure 

Add to base number 345.420 the numbers following 345.0 in 
345.02-345.08, e.g., juvenile procedure 345.4208 

346 *Private law 

Class private international law in 340.9 









SUMMARY 




346.001 


-.009 Standard subdivisions 






.01 


Persons and domestic relations 






.02 
.03 
.04 
.05 
.06 
.07 


Contracts and agency 

Torts (Delicts) 

Property 

Inheritance, succession, fiduciary trusts, trustees 

Organizations (Associations) 

Commercial law 






.08 
.09 
.3-.S 


Banking and insurance 
Securities and negotiable instruments 
> Specific jurisdictions and areas 


.001- 


.003 




Standard subdivisions 


.004 






*Equity 


.005- 


.009 




Standard subdivisions 


.01 




Persons and domestic relations 


.012 






*Persons 



Examples: names, domiciles, births, deaths 

For capacity and status of persons, see 346. 013 
*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



443 



346 Dewey Decimal Classification 346 

.0 1 3 *Capacity and status of persons 

Capacity: the attribute of persons (personal or corporate) which enables 
them to perform civil or juristic acts 

Including capacity and status of aged persons; of slaves; of racial, ethnic, 
national, economic groups; of handicapped persons 

Class individual rights in 342.085, rehabilitation of criminals 
(reinstatement, after service of sentence, of a criminal's personal rights 
lost by judicial sentence) in 345.077 

.013 4 * Women 

.013 5 *Minors 

Including age of majority 
.013 8 *Mentally handicapped and disturbed persons 

.015 *Domestic relations (Family law) 

For marriage, see 346. 016; parent and child, 346. 017 
.016 *Marriage 

Examples: certificates, solemnization, common-law marriage, invalid and 
voidable marriages, antenuptial contracts 

Class law relating to the property of married persons in 346.04 

.016 3 * Husband and wife 

Rights and duties 

Including the legal status of homemakers 

Class the civil status of married women in 346.0134 

.016 6 *Divorce, separation, annulment 

Including alimony 

Class child support in 346.0172 

.017 *Parent and child 

Including custody, illegitimacy, legitimation, visitation rights 

Class here parental rights and duties, surrogate parenthood 

.017 2 *Child support 

.017 5 * Paternity 

.017 8 * Adoption 

.0 1 8 *Guardian and ward 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



444 



346 Law 346 



.02 *Contracts and agency 

Class the law of contracts on a specific subject not provided for here with 
the subject in law, e.g., a partnership contract 346.0682; the contract itself 
with the subject outside law: if governmental in 351-354, e.g., civil defense 
contracts 351.755; if nongovernmental with the specific subject using 
notation 0687 from Table 1, e.g., roofing contracts 695.0687 

See Manual at 346. 02 






> 346.022-346.025 Contracts 

Class here liability 

Class comprehensive works in 346.02, sale in 346.072, loan in 346.073, other 
contracts dealing with a specific subject not provided for here with the subject 
in law, e.g., contracts of partnership 346.0682 

For extracontractual liability, see 346.03; criminal liability, 345.04; 
government liability, 342.088; liability of schools, school officials, school 
districts, 344. 075 

.022 *General considerations of contracts 

Examples: parties to contract, consideration, void and voidable contracts, 
assignments, rescission, breach of contract, remedies 

Class general considerations of contracts applied to specific kinds of 
contracts in 346.023-346.025 

.023 *Public (Government) contracts 

Including war, defense, research and development contracts 
.024 *Contracts of service 

Including master-servant relationships, mechanics' liens 

Class contracts of service involving bailments in 346.025, agency in 
346.029, labor contracts in 344.01891 

See also 346. 074 for liens in secured transactions 

.025 *Contracts involving bailments 

Examples: deposit of goods in warehouses, consignment of goods for 
transportation, property of guests in inns and hotels, pledges (pawns) 

.029 * Agency and quasi contract 

Including power of attorney, unjust enrichment 

.03 *Torts (Delicts) 

Class here defenses, extracontractual liability; liability for the torts of others, 
e.g., employees 

Class remedies in 347.077 

See Manual at 345. 02 vs. 346. 03 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



445 



346 Dewey Decimal Classification 346 

.03 1 Liability of specific classes of persons 

Examples: employers, directors of corporations, hospitals 

Class liability of specific classes of persons in specific situations in 
346.032-346.038 

.032 *Negligence 

Including contributory negligence 

Class malpractice in 346.033 

.032 2 *Accidents 

Examples: transportation accidents, industrial accidents 

Class accidents resulting in personal injury and death in 346.0323 

.032 3 *Personal injury and wrongful death 

.033 Torts against the person 

Examples: assault and battery, false arrest and illegal confinement, abuse 
of legal process, invasion of privacy, malpractice 

For accidents, see 346. 0322; defamation, 346. 034 

.033 2 *Medical malpractice 

.034 *Libel and slander (Defamation) 

.036 *Torts involving property 

Examples: trover and conversion, trespass, deceit and fraud, nuisance, 
wrongful entry 

Class wrongful entry as an invasion of privacy in 346.033 

.038 *Product liability 

Class here strict liability 

[.038 2] Product liability 

Number discontinued; class in 346.038 

.04 *Property 

Class here marital property 

For public property, see 343. 02 

SUMMARY 

346.042 Kinds of interest in property 

.043 Real property 

.044 Government control and regulation of real property 

.045 Regional and city planning 

.046 Government control and regulation of specific kinds of land and 

natural resources 

.047 Personal property 

.048 Intangible property 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

446 



346 Law 346 

.042 Kinds of interest in property 

Joint, community, separate property 

Examples: future interests (executory interests, expectancies) 

.043 *Real property 

Land, permanent fixtures, natural resources 

Including mobile homes, swimming pools 

For government control and regulation, see 346. 044 

See Manual at 333. 1-333. 5 vs. 346. 043 

.043 2 *Ownership (Land tenure) 

Types of estate, e.g., fee simple, joint tenancy; incidents of 
ownership, e.g., boundaries, water rights (riparian rights) 

Including ejectment, recovery, squatter's right, surveying 

.043 3 *Horizontal property (Condominiums) and cooperative ownership 

Including time-sharing 

.043 4 *Tenancy 

Class here landlord and tenant 

Class ejectment in 346.0432 

.043 44 *Rent 

Including rent control 

.043 46 *Leases 

.043 462 *Commercial leases 

.043 48 *Farm tenancy 

Class specific aspects of farm tenancy in 346.04344-346.04346 

.043 5 *Easements and servitudes 

Including right of way 

.043 6 *Transfer 

Including restrictions on alienation, consolidation of land holdings 

Class inheritance and succession in 346.052-346.057 

For conveyancing, see 346. 0438 

.043 62 * Acquisition and purchase 

Example: preemption 

See also 341 . 754 for preemption in international law 

.043 63 *Sale 

Class the real-estate business in 346.0437 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



447 



346 Dewey Decimal Classification 346 

.043 64 * Mortgages 

Class here foreclosure 

.043 7 *Real-estate business 

Including valuation of real property 

Class regulation of a specific general administrative function of the 
real estate business with the function in law, e.g., organization 
346.065, wages 344.0121 



.043 73 


*Closing and settlements 




Including escrows 


.043 77 


*Subdivision 


.043 8 


*Conveyancing 



Including deeds, registration and description of land, titles, abstracts 
of title, title investigations 

.044 *Government control and regulation of real property 

Class here land reform; conservation, regulation, control of natural 
resources; comprehensive works on government control and regulation of 
public and private real property 

Class government as landlord or tenant in 346.0434 

For rent control, see 346. 04344; regional and city planning, 
346.045; control of specific kinds of land and natural resources, 
346.046 

See also 343. 0256 for the control and use of public real property 

.045 *Regional and city planning 

Including zoning, land use, building codes that relate to regional or city 
planning or land use, restrictions on the posting of advertisements 

Class regulations governing the construction of buildings in 343.07869 

.046 Government control and regulation of specific kinds of land and 

natural resources 

Add to base number 346.046 the numbers following 333 in 333.7-333.9, 
e.g., control of recreational lands 346.04678 

.047 *Personal property 

Movable property 

Including leasing, e.g., of computers 

Class mobile homes in 346.043 

For intangible property, see 346. 048; sale, 346. 072 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



448 



346 Law 346 

.048 *Intangible property 

Including public lending rights 

Class here intellectual property, industrial property (intangible property 
of an industrial nature, e.g., business names, licensing, franchising, 
goodwill) 

For negotiable instruments, see 346. 096 

.048 2 *Copyright 

.048 4 *Design protection 

.048 6 *Patents 

.048 8 *Trademarks 

.05 inheritance, succession, fiduciary trusts, trustees 

.052 *Inheritance and succession 

Including intestate succession 

Class here probate practice, estate planning 

Class estate planning to avoid taxes in 343.053 

For testate succession, see 346. 054; administration of estates, 
346.056 

.054 *Wills (Testate succession) 

.056 * Administration of estates 

Including execution of wills 

For unclaimed estates, see 346. 057 

.057 *Unclaimed estates 

.059 *Fiduciary trusts and trustees 

.06 Organizations (Associations) 

Organization, ownership, management 

Class here the organization of associations engaged in specific types of 
enterprises, e.g., organization of railroad companies 

Class the organization of labor unions in 344.0188 





SUMMARY 


i.062 


General considerations 


.063 


Accounting 


.064 


Nonprofit organizations 


.065 


Business enterprises 


.066 


Corporations (Companies) 


.067 


Government corporations 


.068 


Unincorporated business enterprises 



♦Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



449 



346 Dewey Decimal Classification 346 

.062 *General considerations 

Examples: registration, meetings 

Class general considerations of specific kinds of organizations in 
346.064-346.068 

.063 *Accounting 

Class accounting for specific kinds of organizations in 346.064-346.068 



346.064-346.068 Specific kinds of organizations 

Class here accounting, meetings, registration 

Class comprehensive works in 346.06 

.064 *Nonprofit organizations 

Examples: unincorporated societies, trade and professional associations, 
nonprofit corporations 

Including charitable trusts and foundations 

.065 *Business enterprises 

Including valuation, the sale of businesses, record requirements for 
businesses 

Class record requirements for a specific kind of organization with the 
kind, e.g., record requirements for a government corporation 346.067; 
record requirements for a specific subject with the subject in law, e.g., 
workmen's compensation insurance records 344.021 

For corporations, see 346. 066; unincorporated business 
organizations, 346. 068 

.065 2 *Small business 

Class small corporations in 346.066 

.066 *Corporations (Companies) 

Class comprehensive works on corporate and commercial law in 346.07, 
government corporations in 346.067, municipal corporations in 342.09 



> 346.066 2-346.066 6 Specific aspects of corporate law 

Class comprehensive works in 346.066 

.066 2 *Organization 

Including charters, bylaws, promotion, investment banking, 
liquidation 

.066 22 * Incorporation 

.066 26 * Reorganization 

Including acquisitions and mergers 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

450 



346 Law 346 



.066 4 


* Management 




Including records 


.066 42 


*Officers 


.066 45 


* Meetings 




Class shareholders' meetings in 346.0666 


.066 48 


*Accounting 


.066 6 


*Securities and security holders 




Including shareholders' voting and meetings 



Class securities marketing in 346.092; tender offers with the subject 
in law to which they apply, e.g., tender offers for settlement of debts 
346.077, for treasury bills 346.0922 

.066 8 Kinds of corporations (companies) 

Examples: close corporations, family corporations, limited 
companies, private companies, public limited companies; 
cooperatives, holding companies, credit unions 

Class specific aspects of corporate law applied to specific kinds of 
corporations in 346.0662-346.0666 

For nonprofit corporations, see 346. 064; government 
corporations, 346. 067 

.067 *Government corporations 

Example: quangos 

Class municipal corporations in 342.09 
.068 Unincorporated business enterprises 

Examples: horse syndicates, land trusts, sole traders 

.068 2 *Partnerships 

.07 *Commercial law 

Class here comprehensive works on business law; laws of a specific 
jurisdiction governing business investment by foreign nationals, e.g., laws of 
China governing the conduct of business in China by foreign nationals 
346.5107 

Class a specific topic of commercial law, of business law not provided for 
here with the subject, e.g., tax law 343.04, insurance law 346.086 

See Manual at 338. 09 vs. 338. 6042, 332. 67309, 346. 07, 658. 11, 
658. 21, T 1-068 



.072 *Sale 



Class conditional and secured sales transactions in 346.074; the sale of 
real property in 346.04363, of business enterprises in 346.065 



Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



451 



346 Dewey Decimal Classification 346 

.073 *Loan 

Including agricultural and consumer credit, interest, usury, truth in 
lending 

Class secured loan transactions in 346.074 

.074 * Secured transactions 

Examples: chattel mortgages; liens, suretyship and guaranty; conditional 
sales (installment sales, hire-purchase); securities for bankers' advances 

Class real-estate mortgages in 346.04364, mortgage insurance as a form 
of economic assistance in 343.0742 

See also 346. 024 for mechanics' liens 

.077 *Debtor and creditor 

Including the collection of debts, creditors' remedies, debtors' relief 

For bankruptcy, see 346. 078 

.078 *Bankruptcy 

Including receivership 

Class here insolvency 

.08 Banking and insurance 

.082 *Banks and banking 

Add to base number 346.082 the numbers following 332 in 332.1-332.3, 
e.g., branch banking 346.08216 

Class investment banking in 346.0662; regulation of a specific general 
administrative function of banks with the function in law, e.g., corporate 
organization 346.0662, wages 344.0121 

For loan, see 346. 073 

.086 *Insurance 

Add to base number 346.086 the numbers following 368 in 
368.01-368.88, e.g., fire insurance 346.08611; however, class social 
insurance in 344.02 

Class regulation of a specific general administrative function of insurance 
companies and agencies with the function in law, e.g., corporate 
organization 346.0662, wages 344.0121 

.09 *Securities and negotiable instruments 

.092 *Securities 

Exchange, transfer, sale, marketing 

Class the initial promotion of securities in 346.0662; what a corporation 
must do to make certain a security is valid in 346.0666 

See also 346. 074 for the security a borrower must provide to assure 
that he will repay a debt 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

452 



346 Law 346 

.092 2 Specific types of securities 

Examples: bonds, stocks, mutual funds 

Including government securities 

Class organizations marketing specific types of securities in 346.0926 
.092 6 *Marketing agents and arrangements 

Examples: dealers, brokers, stock exchanges 

Including private placement of securities, par value modification 

Class investment banking in 346.0662; regulation of a specific general 
administrative function of organizations engaged in marketing 
securities with the function in law, e.g., organization 346.065, wages 
344.0121 

.096 *Negotiable instruments 

Examples: checks (cheques), bills of exchange, drafts, trade acceptances, 
promissory notes, warehouse receipts 

For securities, see 346. 092 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 346 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., private law of 
Australia 346.94, of New South Wales 346.944, of African states 346.6; then to 
the result add the numbers following 346 in 346.001-346.096, e.g., property 
law of Australia 346.9404, of New South Wales 346.94404, of African states 
346.604, property laws of Australia 346.94040263 

347 *Civil procedure and courts 

Class here comprehensive works on civil and criminal procedure, the judicial 
branch of government, administration of justice 

(Option: Class here courts and procedure in specific fields of law; prefer specific 
subject, using notation 0269 from the table under 342-347) 

Use 347.001-347.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class criminal procedure and courts in 345 

For administrative procedure, see 342. 066 

See Manual at 347 





SUMMARY 


347.01 


Courts 


.02 


Courts with general original jurisdiction 


.03 


Courts with appellate jurisdiction 


.04 


Courts with specialized jurisdiction 


.05 


General considerations of procedure 


.06 


Evidence 


.07 


Trials 


.08 


Appellate procedure 


.09 


Arbitration, mediation, conciliation 


.3- .9 


Specific jurisdictions and areas 



: Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 

453 



347 Dewey Decimal Classification 347 

.01 *Courts 

Class juvenile procedure and courts in 345.08; provisional courts in 
342.062; courts dealing with a specific subject with the subject in law, using 
notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., tax courts 343.040269 

For courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction, see 347. 02-347. 04 

.0 1 2 *General considerations 

Powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization 

Including judicial review, the power to use contempt of court 
prerogative, judicial discretion, judicial error 

Class contempt of court as an offense in 345.0234 

.013 * Judicial administration (Court management) 

Effect of court work loads, calendars, records, staffing on the 
administration of justice 

Including judicial statistics, the cost of running a court in the cost-benefit 
sense 

Class judges in 347.014, other court officials in 347.016 

.014 * Judges 

General aspects: appointment, tenure, retirement, removal, discipline 

Class a judge associated with a specific court with the court, e.g., judges 
of the High Court of Justice in England 347.4202534, judges of a 
juvenile court 345.081 

.016 Other officials 

Examples: marshals, sheriffs, constables, clerks, court reporters, 
coroners, justices of the peace, notaries 

.017 *Legal aid 

Class here interdisciplinary works on legal aid 

Class legal aid in criminal cases in 345.01, as a welfare service in 362.58 



> 347.02-347.04 Courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction 

Class here procedure in specific courts 

Add to each subdivision identified by $ as follows: 

2 General considerations 

Examples: powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization 

3 Judicial administration 
34 Judges 

36 Other officials 

5 Rules 

Class comprehensive works in 347.01 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



454 



347 Law 347 



347.02-347.03 Courts with general jurisdiction 

Class comprehensive works in 347.01, procedure in specific levels of courts in 
347.05-347.08 

.02 *$Courts with general original jurisdiction 

Class here courts of countries and states of the United States that have 
names such as Circuit, District, County, Municipal, Superior Court 

.03 Courts with appellate jurisdiction 

Class here comprehensive works on appellate courts 

Class appellate courts with specialized jurisdiction in 347.04, those devoted 
exclusively to criminal cases in 345.01 

.033 ^Intermediate 

.035 *^Courts of last resort (Supreme courts) 

.04 Courts with specialized jurisdiction 

General aspects: powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization, judges, other 
officials, rules, procedure 

Example: admiralty courts, claims courts 

Class courts dealing with a specific subject with the subject in law, using 
notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., tax courts 343.040269 



> 347.05-347.08 Procedure 

Class here procedure in specific levels of courts 

Class comprehensive works in 347.05 

.05 *General considerations of procedure 

Class here comprehensive works on procedure, the relation of a fair trial to 
freedom of the press 

Class procedure in specific courts in 347.02-347.04; procedure with respect 
to a specific subject with the subject in law, using notation 0269 from the 
table under 342-347, e.g., court procedure in tax matters 343.040269 

For evidence, see 347. 06; trials, 347. 07; appellate procedure, 347. 08 

.050 4 *Practice 

The form, manner, order of instituting and conducting a suit, court 
case, or other judicial proceeding through its successive stages to its 
end in accordance with rules and principles laid down by law or by 
regulations and precedents of the courts 

Class trial practice in 347.07 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 
£Add as instructed under 347.02-347.04 



455 



347 Dewey Decimal Classification 347 

.051 *Court rules 

Class rules of specific courts, of courts having specific kinds of 
jurisdiction in 347.02-347.04 

.052 Motions, limitation of actions, parties to trial, jury trial 

Class here advocacy 
.053 Kinds of actions 

Examples: civil, class, personal, statutory 

.055 Forms and form books 

Class forms and form books on a specific subject with the subject in law, 
using notation 0269 from the table under 342-347 



.06 


*Evidence 


.062 


*Admissibility 


.064 


Kinds 



Examples: circumstantial, demonstrative, documentary, hearsay, 
physical, presumptive, prima facie 

Including methods of interpreting records for trial practice, e.g., 
accounting records, hospital records 

For witnesses, see 347. 066 

.066 *Witnesses 

General aspects: capacity, privileges and immunities, privileged 
communications, compulsion of attendance 

Class examination of witnesses in 347.075 

For expert testimony, see 347. 067 

.067 *Expert testimony 

Class medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, forensic psychiatry in 
614.1; the use of science in detecting crime in 363.25 



.07 *Trials 



Class a trial dealing with a specific subject with the subject in law, using 
notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., a product liability trial 
346.0380269 



.072 *Pretrial procedure 



Examples: pleading, publication of notice, service of process, pretrial 
discovery procedures, pretrial conferences, motions 



.075 *Trial (Courtroom) procedure 



Examples: opening statements, examination of witnesses, summations, 
verdicts 



*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



456 



347 Law 347 

.075 2 *Juries and their selection 

Class instructions to juries in 347.0758 

.075 8 * Instructions to juries 

.077 Judgments 

Including remedies, executions of judgment, costs, attachment and 
garnishment 

.08 *Appellate procedure 

Class here comprehensive works on appeals in criminal cases 

Class procedure in specific appellate courts hearing both civil and criminal 
cases, specific appellate courts devoted exclusively to civil cases in 
347.03-347.04; procedure in appellate courts devoted exclusively to 
criminal cases in 345.01 

.09 *Arbitration, mediation, conciliation 

Class here dispute resolution 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Add to base number 347 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., civil procedure and 
courts of Australia 347.94, of New South Wales 347.944, of African states 
347.6; then to the result add the numbers following 347 in 347.001-347.09, 
e.g., the law of evidence in Australia 347.9406, in New South Wales 
347.94406, in African states 347.606; Australian court decisions on evidence in 
347.940602643 

Special developments for Scotland, England, the United States follow 

.411 Civil procedure and courts of Scotland 

.41101 *Courts 

Add to base number 347.41 101 the numbers following 347.01 in 
347.012-347.017, e.g., general considerations 347.411012 

For courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction, see 
347.41102-347.41104 



347.41 1 02-347.41 1 04 Courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction 

Add to each subdivision identified by $ as instructed under 347.02-347.04, e.g., 
jurisdiction of the Sheriff Court 347.41 10212 

Class comprehensive works in 347.41 101 



> 347.41 1 02-347.41 1 03 Courts with general jurisdiction 

Class comprehensive works in 347.41101, procedure in specific levels of courts 
in 347.41 105-347.41 108 

.411 02 *Courts with original jurisdiction 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



457 



347 Dewey Decimal Classification 347 

.411 021 "{Sheriff Court 

Comprehensive works 

Class criminal jurisdiction of Sheriff Court in 345.41 1014, 
appellate jurisdiction of Sheriff-Principal in 347.41 1032 

.4 1 1 023 "{Court of Session 

For Outer House, see 347. 411024; Inner House, 
347.411035 

.41 1 024 *{ Outer House of Court of Session 

.411 03 Courts with appellate jurisdiction 

Class here comprehensive works on appellate courts 

Class appellate courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases in 
345.41101, appellate courts with specialized jurisdiction in 
347.41104 

.411 032 "{Sheriff-Principal 

.41 1 035 * tinner House of Court of Session 

.41 1 039 "{House of Lords (Court of last resort) 

.41 1 04 Courts with specialized jursidiction 

General aspects: powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization, 
judges, other officials, rules, procedure 

Examples: Licensing Courts, Licensing Appeals Courts, Court of 
the Lord Lyon 

Class courts dealing with a single specific subject with the subject 
in law, using notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., 
Court of Exchequer 343.41 1040269 

.4 1 1 05- .4 1 1 09 Procedure and arbitration 

Add to base number 347.41 10 the numbers following 347.0 in 
347.05-347.09, e.g., evidence 347.41106 

.42 Civil procedure and courts of England 

.420 1 *Courts 

Add to base number 347.4201 the numbers following 347.01 in 
347.012-347.017, e.g., general considerations 347.42012 

For courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction, see 
347.4202-347.4204 



> 347.420 2-347.420 4 Courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction 

Add to each subdivision identified by { as instructed under 347.02-347.04, 
jurisdiction of County Court 347.420212 

Class comprehensive works in 347.4201 

"Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 
{Add as instructed under 347.02-347.04 

458 



347 Law 347 



> 347.420 2-347.420 3 Courts with general jurisdiction 

Class comprehensive works in 347.4201, procedure in specific levels of courts 
in 347.4205-347.4208 

.420 2 Courts with original jurisdiction 

.420 21 *$County Court 

.420 23 *% Domestic Court of Magistrates Court 

.420 25 * $High Court of Justice 

Comprehensive works 

Class Family Division in 346.420150269 

For Chancery Division, see 347.42026; Queen s Bench 
Division, 347.42027 

.420 26 *% Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice 

.420 27 *$Queen's Bench Division of High Court of Justice 

For Divisional Court of Queen s Bench Division, see 
345.42016 

.420 29 *% Supreme Court of Judicature 

For High Court of Justice, see 347.42025; Crown Court, 
345.42014; Court of Appeal, 347.42032 

.420 3 Courts with appellate jurisdiction 

Class here comprehensive works on appellate courts 

Class appellate courts devoted exclusively to criminal cases in 
345.4201, appellate courts with specialized jurisdiction in 347.4204 

.420 32 *$Court of Appeal 

For Criminal Division, see 345. 42018; Civil Division, 
347.42035 

.420 35 *$Civil Division of Court of Appeal 

.420 39 * tHouse of Lords (Court of last resort) 

Criminal and civil jurisdiction 

.420 4 Courts with specialized jurisdiction 

General aspects: powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization, judges, 
other officials; rules, procedure 

Example: Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 

Class courts dealing with a specific subject with the subject in law, 
using notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., Lands 
Tribunal 346.420430269 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 
JAdd as instructed under 347.02-347.04 



459 



347 Dewey Decimal Classification 347 

.420 5- .420 9 Procedure and arbitration 

Add to base number 347.420 the numbers following 347.0 in 
347.05-347.09, e.g., evidence 347.4206 

.73 Civil procedure and courts of the United States 

Federal procedure and courts; national and regional treatment of state and 
local procedure and courts 

For civil procedure and courts of specific states and localities, see 
347. 74-347. 79 

.731 *Courts 

Add to base number 347.731 the numbers following 347.01 in 
347.012-347.017, e.g., judges 347.7314 

For specific court systems, see 347. 732-347. 734 



347.732-347.734 Specific court systems 
Class comprehensive works in 347.731 
.732 *Federal courts 



Add to base number 347.732 the numbers following 347 in 
347.02-347.04, e.g., federal judges 347.732034 



347.732 2-347.732 8 Federal courts with specific kinds of jurisdiction 

Class here procedure in specific courts 

Add to each subdivision identified by t as instructed under 347.02-347.04, e.g. 
Supreme Court rules 347.73265 

Class comprehensive works in 347.732 



> 347.732 2-347.732 6 Federal courts with general jurisdiction 

Class comprehensive works in 347.732, procedure in specific levels of courts in 
347.735-347.738 

.732 2 *$District courts 

Courts of original jurisdiction 

.732 4 *tCourts of appeal 

For the Supreme Court, see 347. 7326 

.732 6 *$Supreme Court 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 
£Add as instructed under 347.02-347.04 



460 



347 Law 347 

.732 8 Courts of specialized jurisdiction 

General aspects: powers, functions, jurisdiction, organization, judges, 
other officials, rules, procedure 

Example: United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals 

Class courts dealing with a specific subject with the subject in United 
States law, using notation 0269 from the table under 342-347, e.g., 
tax courts 343.73040269 

.733 *State courts 

Add to base number 347.733 the numbers following 347.732 in 
347.7322-347.7328, e.g., state supreme courts 347.7336 

Class courts of specific states in 347.74-347.79 
.734 *Local courts 

Class courts of specific localities in 347.74-347.79 
.735-. 738 Procedure 

Class here procedure in specific levels of federal courts 

Add to base number 347.73 the numbers following 347.0 in 
347.05-347.08, e.g., rules of evidence 347.736 

Class procedure in specific courts in 347.732-347.734 

.739 * Arbitration, mediation, conciliation 

.74-. 79 Civil procedure and courts of specific states and localities of the United 
States 

Add to base number 347 notation 74-79 from Table 2, e.g., civil procedure 
and courts of Pennsylvania 347.748, of Philadelphia 347.7481 1; then to the 
result add the numbers following 347 in 347.001-347.09, e.g., the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania 347.748035, courts of Philadelphia 347.7481 101 

Class civil procedure and courts of Hawaii in 347.969 

348 Laws (Statutes), regulations, cases 

Forms listed here are comprehensive in nature, covering the whole of the law of a 
specific jurisdiction or a major portion thereof 

Class treatises on the whole of the law of a specific jurisdiction in 349; forms 
confined to a specific branch or topic with the branch or topic in law, using 
notation 026 from the table under 342-347, e.g., a digest of tax laws 343.0402638 

(Option: Class here laws, regulations, cases covering specific subjects in law; 
prefer specific subject, using notation 026 from the table under 342-347) 

.001 -.002 Standard subdivisions 

.003 Encyclopedias [formerly 348.06], dictionaries, concordances 

.004 Codification 

Class proposed codes in 348.023 

*Add extended notation 026 as instructed under 342-347 



461 



348 Dewey Decimal Classification 348 

.005- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Preliminary materials 

Examples: bills, hearings, reports, executive messages, statements of 
witnesses, legislative histories, slip laws 

Including statistical reports of bills passed or vetoed, reports on the status of 
bills 

.02 Laws (Statutes) and regulations 

Including laws arranged in alphabetical order 



348.022-348.024 Collections of laws 

Class comprehensive works and collections in 348 

.022 Statutes 

Contains compilations of laws in chronological order 
Examples: statutes at large, revised statutes, session laws 
(If the option under 348 is chosen, class here individual laws) 

.023 Codes 

Contains compilations of statutes in classified order 
Including compiled and consolidated statutes 

.024 Selected laws 

.025 Administrative regulations 



348.026-348.028 Guides to laws and regulations 

Class comprehensive works and guides in 348.026, guides to a specific 
collection of laws with the collection, e.g., a citator to the U.S. Code 348.7323 

.026 Digests of laws and regulations 

Including summaries of changes 

Class here comprehensive guides to laws and regulations 

For citators to laws and regulations, see 348. 027; checklists, tables, 
indexes of laws and regulations, 348. 028 

.027 Citators to laws and regulations 

.028 Checklists, tables, indexes of laws and regulations 

Class union lists of general legal material in 016.34; of legal materials on 
a specific subject with the subject, e.g., of criminal materials 016.345 



462 



348 Law 348 

.04 Cases 

Do not use for casebooks 

Class cases in a specific subject in law with the subject, using special 
subdivision 0264, e.g., censorship cases 344.05310264 






348.041-348.043 Reports 

Official and unofficial 

Reports of cases contain a relatively full treatment of each case as well as the 
ultimate decision 

Class comprehensive works in 348.04 

.041 National reports 

.042 Regional reports 

.043 State and provincial reports 

.044 Court decisions 

Texts of decisions with or without accompanying information 

.045 Decisions (Rulings) of regulatory agencies 



348.046-348.048 Guides to cases 

Class here combined guides to laws, regulations, cases 

Class comprehensive works and guides in 348.046; guides to a specific set of 
court reports with the reports, e.g., a citator to U.S. Supreme Court reports 
348.73413 

For guides to laws and regulations, see 348. 026-348. 028 

.046 Digests of cases 

Class here comprehensive guides to cases 

For citators to cases, see 348. 047; checklists, tables, indexes of 
cases, 348. 048 

.047 Citators to cases 

.048 Checklists, tables, indexes of cases 

.05 Advisory opinions of attorneys-general (ministers of justice) 

[.06] Encyclopedias 

Encyclopedias on law in general relocated to 340.03, on the forms legal 
materials may take to 348.003 



463 



348 Dewey Decimal Classification 348 

.3- .9 Specific jurisdictions and areas 

Class here general collections of repealed laws 

Add to base number 348 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., laws, regulations, 
cases of Australia 348.94, of New South Wales 348.944, of African states 
348.6; then to the result add the numbers following 348 in 348.001-348.05, 
e.g., selected laws of Australia 348.94024, of New South Wales 348.944024, of 
African states 348.6024 

Class the legislative procedure involved in enacting or repealing a law in 
328.37; repealed laws on a specific subject with the subject in law, e.g., the 
repeal of a prohibition on the sale and consumption of alcohol 344.0541 

A special development for the United States follows 

.73 Federal laws (statutes), regulations, cases of the United States 

Including national and regional treatment of state and local laws, 
regulations, cases 

For laws, regulations, cases of specific states and localities, see 
348. 74-348. 79 

.730 3 Encyclopedias {formerly 348.736], dictionaries, concordances 

.730 4 Codification 

Class proposed codes in 348.7323 

.73 1 Preliminary materials 

Examples: bills, hearings, reports, executive messages, statements of 
witnesses, legislative histories, slip laws 

.732 Federal laws (statutes) and regulations 



348.732 2-348.732 5 Collections of federal laws and regulations 
Class comprehensive works and collections in 348.732 
.732 2 Federal statutes 

(Option: If the option under 348 is chosen, class here individual laws) 
.732 3 United States Code 

.732 4 Selected Federal laws 

.732 5 Federal administrative regulations 



348.732 6-348.732 8 Guides to federal laws and regulations 
Class comprehensive works and guides in 348.7326 



464 



348 Law 348 

.732 6 Digests of federal laws and regulations 

Including summaries of changes 

Class here comprehensive guides to federal laws and regulations 

For citators to federal laws and regulations, see 348. 7327; 
checklists, tables, indexes of federal laws and regulations, 
348. 7328 

.732 7 Citators to federal laws and regulations 

.732 8 Checklists, tables, indexes of federal laws and regulations 

.734 Federal cases 

Do not use for casebooks 



348.734 1-348.734 2 Reports of federal cases 

Official and unofficial 

Class comprehensive works and reports in 348.734 
.734 1 Federal court reports 

.734 13 Supreme Court 

.734 15 Lower Federal courts 

.734 2 National reporter system 

.734 22 Atlantic federal reporter system 

.734 23 Northeastern federal reporter system 

.734 24 Northwestern federal reporter system 

.734 25 Southeastern federal reporter system 

.734 26 Southwestern federal reporter system 

.734 27 Southern federal reporter system 

.734 28 Pacific federal reporter system 

.734 4 Court decisions 

.734 5 Decisions (Rulings) of regulatory agencies 



348.734 6-348.734 8 Guides to federal cases 

Class here combined guides to federal laws, regulations, cases 
Class comprehensive works and guides to federal cases in 348.7346 
For guides to federal laws and regulations, see 348. 7326-348. 7328 



465 



348 Dewey Decimal Classification 348 

.734 6 Digests of federal cases 

Class here comprehensive guides to federal cases 

For citators to federal cases, see 348. 7347; checklists, tables, 
indexes of federal cases, 348. 7348 

.734 7 Citators to federal cases 

.734 8 Checklists, tables, indexes of federal cases 

.735 Advisory opinions of Attorney-General 

[.736] Encyclopedias 

Relocated to 348.7303 

.74-. 79 Laws, regulations, cases of specific states and localities of the United 
States 

Add to base number 348 notation 74-79 from Table 2, e.g., laws, 
regulations, cases of Pennsylvania 348.748, of Philadelphia 348.7481 1; then 
to the result add the numbers following 348 in 348.001-348.05, e.g., 
Pennsylvania statutes 348.748022, Philadelphia code of ordinances 
348.74811023 

Class laws, regulations, cases of Hawaii in 348.969 

349 Law of specific jurisdictions and areas 

Comprehensive works on the law of specific jurisdictions and areas in the modern 
world 

Add to base number 349 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., works on the ordinances 
of the City of Los Angeles 349.79494 

Class specific branches of the law of specific jurisdictions in 342-347, original 
materials on the law of a specific jurisdiction in 348 

(If Option A under 340 is chosen, class here comparative law and law without 
jurisdiction by adding to base number 349 the numbers following 34 in 342-348, 
e.g., comparative criminal procedure 349.505, criminal procedure of Australia 
349.59405) 

350 Public administration and military science 

Class here the executive branch of government and its structure, description and 
administration of government organizations and agencies, comprehensive works on 
public administration of the three branches of government 

Class comprehensive works on the structure and functions of government or of two 
or more branches of government in 320.4, the relation of executive branch to other 
branches in 320.404 

For public administration of legislative branch, see 328. 068; of judicial 
branch, 347.013 

See Manual at 350; 350.354; 350-354 vs. 320.4, 320. 9; 350-354 vs. 658, 
Tl-068; 361-365 vs. 350-354; 363 vs. 340, 350-354 



466 



350 Public administration and military science 350 

SUMMARY 

350.000 1-.9 Standard subdivisions; specific aspects of public administration 

351 Administration of central governments 
.000 1-.000 9 Standard subdivisions 

.001-. 009 [Bureaucracy, chief executives, cabinets and councils of state, 

fundamentals of administration, special agencies] 
.01- .09 [Specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank, intergovernmental 

administration] 
.1 Personnel management 

.2 Lists and directories of officials and employees 

.3 Civil service examinations 

.4 Government work force 

.5 Pensions 

.6 Civil service system (Merit system) 

.7 Property and financial management and related topics; administration of 

public safety and related fields 
.8 Administration of specific fields 

.9 Malfunctioning of administration 

352 Administration of local governments 

.000 1-.000 9 [Standard subdivisions and fundamentals of administration] 

.002- .009 General topics of local administration 

.03- .09 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities 

.1 Financial and property management and related topics 

.2 Police 

.3 Fire protection and accident prevention 

.4 Safeguarding public health 

.5 Regulation and control of public buildings 

.6 Environmental sanitation and related activities 

.7 Public works and housing 

.8 Licensing 

.9 Miscellaneous fields 

353 Administration of United States federal and state governments 
.000 1-.000 9 Standard subdivisions 

.001-. 009 Government service, property and financial management and 

related topics, administration of specific fields, malfunctioning of 
administration 

.01-. 09 [Bureaucracy, presidents and vice-presidents, the cabinet, fundamentals 

of administration, special agencies] 

.1 Department of State 

.2 Department of the Treasury 

.3 Department of the Interior 

.4 Post Office Department (1829-1971) 

.5 Department of Justice 

.6 Department of Defense 

.7 Department of the Navy 

.8 Other departments 

.9 State governments 

354 Administration of specific central governments; international administration 
.1 International administration 

.3-. 9 Specific central governments other than those of United States 



467 



350 Dewey Decimal Classification 350 

355 Military science 

.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

.02- .07 Basic considerations 

.1 Military life and customs 

.2 Military resources 

.3 Organization and personnel of military forces 

.4 Military operations 

.5 Military training 

.6 Military administration 

.7 Military installations and land reservations 

.8 Military equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

356 Foot forces and warfare 
.1 Infantry 

357 Mounted forces and warfare 
.04 General topics 

.1 Horse cavalry 

.2 Remount and training services 

.5 Mechanized cavalry 

358 Air and other specialized forces and warfare; engineering and related services 
.1 Missile forces and warfare; army artillery and armored forces and warfare 
.2 Army engineering and related services 

.3 Chemical, biological, radiological forces and warfare 

.4 Air forces and warfare 

.8 Space forces and warfare 

359 Sea (Naval) forces and warfare 
.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.03- .07 [Situation and policy, research and development of equipment and 

supplies] 

.1-.2 Naval life and resources 

.3 Organization and personnel of naval forces 

.4-. 7 Naval operations, training, administration, installations 

.8 Naval equipment and supplies (Naval materiel) 

.9 Specialized combat forces; engineering and related services 

.000 1-.9 Standard subdivisions; specific aspects of public administration 

Add to base number 350 the numbers following 35 1 in 
351.0001-351.9, e.g., personnel management 350.1 

See Manual at 350. 0001-350. 9 vs. 351 



351-354 Administration of central and local governments 

Class comprehensive works in 350 

See Manual at 350-354; 350-354 vs. 320.4; 350-354 vs. 658, Tl-068; 
361-365 vs. 350-354; 363 vs. 340, 350-354 



468 






35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

351 Administration of central governments 

National and state or provincial governments 

Class works dealing comprehensively with central and local governments in 350 

For specific central governments, see 354 

See Manual at 350-354; 350-354 vs. 320. 4, 320. 9; 350-354 vs. 658, 
Tl-068; 350. 0001-350. 9 vs. 351; 361-365 vs. 350-354; 363 vs. 340, 
350-354 

SUMMARY 

351.000 1.000 9 Standard subdivisions 

.001- .009 [Bureaucracy, chief executives, cabinets and councils of state, 

fundamentals of administration, special agencies] 
.01- .09 [Specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank, intergovernmental 

administration] 
.1 Personnel management 

.2 Lists and directories of officials and employees 

.3 Civil service examinations 

.4 Government work force 

.5 Pensions 

.6 Civil service system (Merit system) 

.7 Property and financial management and related topics; administration of 

public safety and related fields 
.8 Administration of specific fields 

.9 Malfunctioning of administration 

.000 1 Philosophy and theory 

Including relation of public administration to social and political 
factors 

[.000 11] Systems 

Do not use; class 35 1 .0073 

.000 2 Miscellany 

.000 25 Directories of persons and organizations 

Class directories of officials and employees in 35 1 .2 

.000 3 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

.000 5 Serial publications 

Including official gazettes 

Class serial administrative reports in 35 1 .0006 

.000 6 Administrative reports 

Class administrative reports of cabinet-level departments and 
ministries in 351.01-351.08, of other departments and agencies in 
351.1-351.8; administrative reports on a specific subject with the 
subject in public administration, using notation 06 from Table 1, e.g., 
annual administrative reports on property management 351.71306 
(nor 351.71305) 

See Manual at 351.0006 



469 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 



.000 7 


Education, research, related topics 


[.000 76] 


Review and exercise 




Relocated to 351.3 


.000 8- .000 9 


Standard subdivisions 




SUMMARY 


351.001 
.003 
.004 
.007 
.009 


Bureaucracy 

Chief executives 

Cabinets and councils of state 

Fundamentals of public administration 

Special agencies 


.001 


Bureaucracy 



Class specific aspect of bureaucracy with the aspect, e.g., reorganization 
351.0073 

.003 Chief executives 

Class here relationship to citizens 

Use of this number for general considerations of executive branch other 
than chief executives discontinued; class in 35 1 

Relation of executive branch to fundamental instruments of government 
relocated to 342.06 

See Manual at T 1—092: Comprehensive biography: Public figures 

.003 1 Kinds of chief executives 

Including plural executives 

Use of this number for comprehensive treatment of the chief 
executive discontinued; class in 351.003 

Class specific aspects of chief executives regardless of kind in 
351.0032-351.0036 

.003 12 Monarchs and their representatives 

Examples: governors-general of Canada, regents, viceroys 
.003 13 Presidents, premiers and related kinds of chief executives 

Examples: chancellors, prime ministers, governors 

.003 16 Autocratic chief executives 

Class a specific type of autocratic chief executive with the type, 
e.g., absolute monarchs 351.00312 

.003 1 8 Deputy chief executives 

Examples: vice-presidents, deputy prime ministers and 
chancellors, lieutenant governors 



470 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 



351.003 2-351.003 6 Specific aspects of the chief executive 

Class comprehensive works in 35 1 .003 

.003 2 Powers, functions, privileges of chief executive 

.003 22 Powers 

Examples: judicial and legislative powers 

.003 23 Leadership role 

Class relationship to legislature in 320.404 

.003 28 Privileges 

.003 4 Qualifications and term of office 

Method of selection of chief executive relocated to 321 

Class termination of tenure before expiration of term in 351.0036 

.003 5 Executive messages, speeches, writings 

Collections, history, description, criticism 

Class speeches and messages on a specific subject with the subject, 
e.g., budget messages 351.72256 

.003 52 Addresses to legislature 

.003 54 Inaugural addresses 

.003 6 Termination of tenure of chief executive before expiration of term 

Examples: abdication, impeachment, recall, resignation 

Class history of specific impeachments in 930-990 

See also 324. 68 for recall procedures, 328. 3453 for 
impeachment power of legislatures, 342.062 for law of 
impeachment 

[.003 7] Relation to other branches of government 

Relocated to 320.404 

.004 Cabinets and councils of state 

Class here comprehensive works on departments and ministries of 
cabinet rank 

Class works dealing comprehensively with structure, agencies, programs, 
services of central governments in 35 1 ; specific kinds of departments and 
ministries of cabinet rank in 351.01-351.08 



471 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.007 Fundamentals of administration 

Class here executive management 

Class staffing in 351.1, other aspects not provided for here in 351.7 

.007 2 Planning and policy making 

.007 22 Information and its use 

Including use of experts and consultants 

Class advisory and consultative bodies in 35 1 .0093 

.007 25 Decision making 

.007 3 Organization 

As a process or technique 

Including centralization and decentralization, modernization, 
reorganization, systems analysis, work flow design 

Class description of the structure of the executive branch in 351 

.007 4 Leadership (Direction) 

Class here executive development, management of executive 
personnel 

.007 5 Control 

Day-to-day oversight of internal operations to ensure conformity to 
plan 

Including promotion of economy and efficiency 

Legislative control and oversight of executive branch relocated to 
328.3456 

Class control of activities outside of government in 351.0091 

See also 351.102 for supervision of personnel 

.007 6 Evaluation and reporting 

Including internal inspection 

See Manual at at 351. 0006 

.007 8 Management by objectives 

Including management for specific objectives not otherwise provided 
for, e.g., development administration 

.009 Special agencies 

Examples: independent agencies, quasi-administrative bodies, special 
commissions 

Class special agencies concerned with a specific activity with the activity 
in public administration, e.g., agencies regulating railroads 351.875043 

.009 1 Regulatory agencies and autonomous authorities 

Class here regulation, control, inspection of activities outside of 
government 

472 



351 Public administration and military science 351 

.009 2 Government corporations (Public enterprises) 

Class government corporations engaged in commerce, 
communications, transportation in 380, using notation 065 from table 
under 380, e.g., a government railroad corporation 385.065; those 
engaged in finance in 332.1-332.6, in real estate in 333.33, in 
insurance in 368, in other specific economic enterprises in 338.76 

.009 3 Advisory, consultative, ad hoc fact-finding bodies 



351.01-351.08 Specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank 

Class comprehensive works in 35 1 .004; subordinate branches of specific 
departments or ministries with the branch, e.g., sports departments 351.858 

.01 Foreign affairs departments 

.02 Finance departments 

.03 Home affairs (Interior) departments 

.05 Justice departments 

.06 Defense departments 

.07-. 08 Other departments 

Add to base number 351.0 the numbers following 351 in 351.7-351.8, e.g., 
departments of labor 35 1 .083 

.09 Intergovernmental administration 

Administration of agencies established cooperatively by two or more 
governments at the same level, of agencies established to deal with affairs of 
subordinate units 

Class international administration in 354. 1 ; intergovernmental 
administration of a specific kind of activity with the kind of activity, e.g., 
fiscal relations between levels 351.725 

.091 Interstate and interprovincial relations 

.092 Administrative relations of state or provincial governments with 

national governments 

.093 Administrative relations of local governments with higher levels 

See also 320.8 for governmental relations between local and higher 
levels of government, 352.0095 for administrative cooperation 
among local governments 



351.1-351.6 Government service 

Class comprehensive works in 35 1 . 1 ; government service in administration of 
specific fields in 351.8 



473 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.1 Personnel management 

Class here comprehensive works on government service 

Class personnel management in a specific field of activity with the field, using 
notation 0683 from Table 1, e.g., personnel management in labor agencies 
351.830683 

For management of executive personnel, see 351.0074; lists and 
directories of officials and employees, 351.2; civil service examinations, 
351.3; government workforce, 351.4; pensions, 351.5; civil service 
system, 351.6 

SUMMARY 

351.100 1.100 9 Standard subdivisions 

.101-. 104 [Planning and policy, supervision, job classification, equal 

employment] 
.12 Wage and salary administration 

.13 Recruitment and selection of personnel 

.14 Utilization of personnel 

.15 Training 

.16 Conditions of employment 

.17 Employer-employee relationships 

.18 Separation from service 

.100 1 Philosophy and theory 

.1002 Miscellany 

[ . 1 00 25 ] Directories of personnel 

Do not use; class in 35 1 .2 

. 1 00 3- . 1 00 9 Standard subdivisions 

.101 Personnel planning and policy 

Including assessments of man- and womanpower needs 

Class planning and policy with respect to a specific aspect of public 
personnel management with the aspect, e.g., selection policies 351.132 

.102 Supervision 

Including human relationships, utilization of psychology in personnel 
management 

.103 Job classification, analysis, description 

. 1 04 Equal employment opportunity programs 

Class preferential hiring in 351.13243, equal employment opportunity 
programs for persons outside the government work force in 351.833 

. 1 2 Wage and salary administration 

. 1 23 Wages, salaries, benefits 

Including wage incentives 

See also 331 .2041351 for economic aspects of wages, salaries, 
benefits of central government employees 



474 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.1232 Wages and salaries 

Including adjustments, deductions 

.1234 Employee benefits 

Including life and health insurance 

Class in-kind services provided to employees in 351.16 

For pensions, see 351.5 

See also 351.8256 for administration of government insurance 
for nongovernment workforce, 351.835 for administration of 
employee benefits of nongovernment workforce 

. 1 25 Payroll administration 

Including methods of payment, e.g., composite checks 

. 1 3 Recruitment and selection of personnel 

.131 Recruitment 

.132 Selection 

Class here comprehensive works on selection and placement 

For placement, see 351. 14 

.132 2 Personal requirements 

Examples: age, physical characteristics, sex, aptitudes 

Class testing in 351.1325 

[.132 202 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 351.1325 

. 1 32 3 Professional, occupational, educational requirements 

[.132 302 87] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 351.1325 

.1324 Other requirements 

.132 42 Loyalty and security considerations 

Including loyalty oaths 

Class security clearance in 351.1325 

. 1 32 43 Preferential hiring of specific classes of persons 

. 1 32 44 Bonding of employees 

.1325 Selection procedures 

Including forms, physical examinations, investigations, interviews, 
polygraph (lie detector) tests, security clearance 

Class here comprehensive works on tests and testing 

For civil service examinations, see 351.3 



475 



351 Dewey Decimal Classification 351 

. 1 4 Utilization of personnel 

Including placement, promotion, demotion, transfer 

. 142 Performance rating (Evaluation) 

.147 Motivation 

Including discipline, interpersonal relations, promotion of creativity 

Class here promotion of employee morale, productivity, efficiency 

.15 Training 

Including educational programs 

. 1 6 Conditions of employment 

Including employee health services; economic services to employees, e.g., 
housing, transportation, food services, credit facilities, discounts; counseling 

For wages, salaries, benefits, see 351. 123 

.161 Physical conditions 

Examples: safety, ventilation, heating, lighting, noise, space 
requirements 

. 1 63 Days and hours of work 

. 1 64 Leaves of absence 

. 1 7 Employer-employee relationships 

Class interpersonal relations in 351.147 

. 172 Employee participation in management 

. 1 73 Labor unions and other employee organizations 

For collective bargaining, see 351. 174 

. 1 74 Collective bargaining 

Including drafting of labor agreements 

.176 Grievances and appeals 

Class grievances relating to a specific aspect of personnel administration 
with the aspect, e.g., grievances about hours of work 351.163 

. 1 8 Separation from service 

Including resignation and dismissal for cause 

Class pensions in 351.5 
. 1 82 Retirement 

. 1 84 Reduction in force (Layoff for retrenchment) 



476 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.2 Lists and directories of officials and employees 

Including registers of personnel 

Directories of public officials and employees of specific occupational categories 
relocated to the subject with use of notation 025 from Table 1, e.g., diplomats 
327.2025 (nor 351.892025) 

Class lists and directories of specific agencies with the agency, e.g., of cabinet 
departments of labor 351.83025, of civil defense agencies 351.755025 

[.208] History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class 351.26 

[.22] Elected officials 

Relocated to 324.025 

.23 Employees at specific levels of rank 

.26 Employees belonging to disadvantaged groups 

Class here lists and directories of specific kinds of persons, e.g., women 

Class employees belonging to disadvantaged groups at specific levels of 
rank in 351.23 

.3 Civil service examinations 

Class here review and exercise [formerly also 351.00076] 

Class examinations on a specific subject with the subject, using notation 076 
from Table 1, e.g., on accounting 657.076 

.4 Government work force 

History, description, surveys of composition 

Class a specific aspect of government work force with the aspect, e.g., agency 
relationships with employee unions 351.173 

.5 Pensions 

See also 331.2529 for economic aspects of government employee pensions 
.6 Civil service system (Merit system) 

Class civil service examinations in 351.3 

.7 Property and financial management and related topics; 

administration of public safety and related fields 





SUMMARY 


351.71 

.72 

.74 


Property and records management and related topics 

Financial management 

Police 


.75 
.76 
.77 
.78 


Public safety 

Factors affecting public morals 
Safeguarding public health 
Fire and accident protection 



477 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 



351.71-351.72 Property and financial management and related topics 

Class comprehensive works in 351.7; property and financial management and 
related topics applied to personnel management in 351.1, to administration of 
specific fields in 35 1 .8 

.7 1 Property and records management and related topics 

.711 Contracts and contracting 

Class here comprehensive works on contracts and contracting 

Class contracts and contracting for nonmilitary property in 351.712, for 
specific services in public administration with the service, e.g., for 
training 351.15; military contracts and contracting in 355.6211 

.7112 Award 

Evaluation of contractor; solicitation, submission, evaluation of bids 

.7113 Performance and settlement 

Including cost overruns, renegotiation, settlement of claims, recovery 
of costs and losses, payment 



.711 8 


Subcontracting 


.712 


Procurement 




Class comprehensive works on contracts and contracting in 35 1 
military procurement in 355.6212 




See also 351.862 for construction of government buildings 


.712 04 


Special topics 


.712 042 


Sources of supply 


.712 043 


Specifications 


.712 044 


Cost and price determination 


.712 045 


Payment 


.712 048 


Specific objectives in procurement 




Example: procurement in an area of surplus labor 


.712 2 


Purchase and rental of land 



Class government purchase of land for natural resource conservation 
in 351.8232, for public works other than government buildings in 
351.86 

See also 333. 1 for economic aspects of public ownership of land 
.712 3 Purchase and rental of buildings 

See also 351.862 for construction of government buildings 
.7124 Purchase and rental of equipment 

Including government vehicles 



478 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.7125 Purchase and manufacture of supplies 

Example: printing of stationery 
.712 6 Procurement of services and utilities 

Class procurement of personnel services in 351.1 

.713 Property management 

.713 04 Special topics 

.713 042 Physical inventory 

.713 043 Utilization 

.713 044 Maintenance 

.713 045 Disposal 

By sale, rental, gift 

.713 2 Land 

See also 333. 73 1 3 for public land management in the sense of 
land use 



.713 3 


Buildings 




Example: executive residences 


.713 4 


Equipment 




Including government vehicles 




Class here materials management 




Class management of supplies in 351.7135 


.713 5 


Supplies 


.714 


Records management 




Class here clerical services 


.714 2 


Communication 


.714 4 


Design of forms 


.714 5 


Security classification of documents 


.714 6 


Archives 




Class interdisciplinary works on archival administration in 025.1714 



479 



351 Dewey Decimal Classification 351 

.72 Financial management 

Including public debt management, administration of economic assistance 

Financial management of a specific agency or activity relocated to the 
agency or activity in 351.003-351.9, e.g., of a forestry bureau 351.82338 

Class interdisciplinary works on, and economic and public policy aspects of 
public finance in 336; cabinet level finance departments in 351.02; 
administration of money in 35 1 .822, of financial institutions and transactions 
in 351.825; administration of economic assistance in a specific field in 
351.8, using notation 045 from table under 351.8 

See Manual at 336 vs. 351. 72 





SUMMARY 


351.722 


Budgets and budgeting 


.723 


Accounting and auditing 


.724 


Tax administration 


.725 


Fiscal relations between governmental units 


.726 


Revenue administration 



.722 Budgets and budgeting 

Class here budget systems 
.722 2 Formulation and preparation of budgets 

Class here executive budgets 



722 202 02 


Rules, manuals, synopses, outlines, instruction 




preparation 


722 204 


Special topics 


722 204 2 


Program-performance budgeting 


722 204 3 


Zero-base budgeting 


722 21 


Relation of budgeting to political process 


722 23 


Priorities and objectives 


722 24 


Budget requests from subordinate levels 


722 25 


Budget estimates 




Class completed budgets in 35 1 .7225 


722 252 


Of revenues 


722 253 


Of expenditures 


722 253 2 


New expenditures 




Class specific budgetary items in 35 1 .7222538 


.722 253 4 


Capital expenditures 




Class specific budgetary items in 351.7222538 


.722 253 6 


Development expenditures 




Class specific budgetary items in 351.7222538 



480 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.722 253 8 For specific budgetary items 

Example: supplies 
.722 3 Adoption of budgets 

Class here legislative budgets, enactment of budgets 

Class completed budgets in 35 1 .7225 

See also 340 for bills to authorize and appropriate funds, e.g., 
bills for public education appropriations 344. 07 J 

.722 34 Authorization 

.722 36 Appropriation 

.722 4 Supplemental and deficiency budgeting 

Including recision and deferral 

Class supplemental and deficiency budgets in 35 1 .72254 
.722 43 Supplemental estimates 

.722 48 Supplemental appropriation 

.722 5 Budget documents 

Class executive budgets in 351.7222, legislative budgets in 351.7223 
.722 52 Budgets 

.722 53 Digests of budgets (Budgets in brief) 

.722 54 Supplemental and deficiency budgets 

.722 55 Appendixes and reports 

.722 56 Budget messages of executives 

.723 Accounting and auditing 

Planning, administration, use 

Class accounting and auditing procedures in 657.835 
.723 1 Accounting and accounts 

Including financial statements, reports 
.723 2 Auditing and audits 

Including disclosure of fraud 

Class use of audits to evaluate efficiency or utility of programs in 
351.0076; evaluation of specific activities with the activity, e.g., of 
military procurement 355.6212 

.723 202 02 Synopses and outlines 

Manuals of government audit procedures relocated to 
657.835045 



481 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.724 Tax administration 

Including administration of poll taxes 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 

1 Assessment 

2 Collection 

Class interdisciplinary works on taxes in 336.2, tax law in 343.04 

See Manual at 336. 2 vs. 351. 724, 343. 04 
.724 001 -.724 009 Standard subdivisions 

.724 2 *Real property taxes 

Class here comprehensive works on administration of property taxes 
For personal property taxes, see 351. 7243 
.724 3 *Personal property taxes 

.724 4 *Income taxes 

Class administration of social security taxes in 351.8256 
.724 6 *Customs duties 

.724 7 Other taxes 

Examples: luxury, sales, use, value-added taxes 

.724 71 * Excise taxes 

.724 76 Estate, inheritance, gift taxes 

Add as instructed under 35 1 .724 for estate taxes; for inheritance 
taxes; for combined treatment of estate, inheritance, and gift taxes 

.725 Fiscal relations between governmental units 

Class here grants, aid, revenue sharing 

Add to base number 35 1 .725 the numbers following 35 1 .09 in 
351.091-351.093, e.g., grants by national governments to localities 
351.7253 

.726 Revenue administration 

Examples: administration of revenue from government commercial 
undertakings, from fees and charges for government services, from 
lotteries 

For tax administration, see 351 . 724 



> 35 1 .74-35 1 .78 Administration of public safety and related fields 

Class comprehensive works in 35 1 .75 
*Add as instructed under 351.724 



482 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.74 Police 

Including operative management of police agencies 

Class administration of traffic control in 35 1 .8783 1 
.75 Public safety 

Including censorship; control of information, of public gatherings, of 
explosives and firearms 

For police, see 351. 74; safeguarding public health, 351. 77; fire and 
accident protection, 351. 78 

See also 323.445 for the right to information, 351.996 for the denial of 
the right to information in public administration 

.754 Disaster and emergency planning and relief 

For civil defense, see 351. 755 
.755 Civil defense 

.76 Factors affecting public morals 

Including gambling, prostitution 
.761 Alcoholic beverages 

See also 351.8429 for administration of public services to alcoholics 
.765 Drugs 

See also 351.8429 for administration of public services to addicts 

.11 Safeguarding public health 

Class comprehensive works on administration of public health in 351.841, 
regulation and control of water supply in 351.871 

.772 Environmental sanitation and comfort 

Examples: waste disposal, noise control 

Including disposal of dead 
.773 Physical fitness programs 

.774 Medical screening 

.776 Control of disease 

Physical, mental, occupational 
.778 Control of product hazards 

Including textiles, toys, household appliances 
.778 2 Adulteration and contamination of food 

Including beverages, dairy products, food additives 
.778 4 Medicines and drugs 

.778 6 Cosmetics 



483 



351 Dewey Decimal Classification 351 

.78 Fire and accident protection 

.782 Fire protection and prevention 

.783 Accident prevention 

Class administration of safety measures in a specific field of activity with 
the field, using notation 0289 from Table 1, e.g., safety administration in 
urban transportation 351.87840289 

.8 Administration of specific fields 

Including administration of charters, licenses, certification, registration 

Aside from additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to notation for each term identified by * as follows: 

01-03 Standard subdivisions 

04 Special topics 

042 Information and research services 

Class comprehensive works in 351.819 

043 Regulation and control 

Including inspection and rationing 
Class comprehensive works on regulation, control, 
inspection in 351.0091, on rationing in 351.829 
For control of prices, rates, charges, see 044 

044 Control of prices, rates, charges 

Class comprehensive works in 351.820424 

045 Economic assistance 

To producers and users 
Examples: grants-in-aid, loans 
Class comprehensive works in 35 1 .72 

046 Licensing 

Class here chartering, certification, registration 
Class comprehensive works in 351.8, occupational licensing 
in 351.8243046 
05-09 Standard subdivisions 

Class cabinet-level departments in specific fields in 351.01-351.08, 
management of services in a specific field with the subject, e.g., of services to 
veterans 362.86 

For public administration of public safety and related fields , see 
351.74-351.78 





SUMMARY 


.81 


Human relations, information, related programs 


.82 


Production, commerce, consumption 


.83 


Labor 


.84 


Social welfare and corrections 


.85 


Culture and religion 


.86 


Public works and housing 


.87 


Public utilities and transportation 


.88 


Justice 


.89 


Foreign affairs 



484 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.81 Human relations, information, related programs 

.8 1 1 Civil and human rights 

Including elections, election campaigns 

Class programs for achieving civil and human rights for specific groups 
of persons in 351.812-351.814 



35 1 .8 1 2-35 1 .8 14 Programs for specific groups of persons 

Class comprehensive works in 351.81, programs in a specific field of activity 
with the field, e.g., veterans' hospitals 351.841 

.812 Programs for veterans 

.813 Programs for women 

Class programs for women veterans in 351.812 

.814 Programs for racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 351.814 notation 1-9 from Table 5, e.g., programs 
for Blacks 351.81496 

Class programs for women of various racial, ethnic, national groups in 
351.813, for veterans of various racial, ethnic, national groups in 351.812 

.815 Population control and family planning 

.816 Registration and certification of births and deaths 

.817 Immigration and naturalization 

.818 Regional and urban development 

.819 Information and research services 

Including public relations 

Class here census taking, government publication programs 

Class information and research services in a specific field of activity with 
the field in public administration using notation 042 from table under 
351.8, e.g., agricultural information services 351.8233042; results of 
information and research services in a subject with the subject, e.g., 
demographic statistics 304.6021 

See also 323.445 for the right to information, 351. 75 for 
censorship, 351 . 996 for denial of the right to information in public 
administration 

.82 Production, commerce, consumption 

Class here economic development, promotion of productivity 



485 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 





SUMMARY 


351.820 4 


Special topics 


.821 


Standards 


.822 


Issue and regulation of money 


.823 


Natural resources and primary industries 


.824 


Secondary industries 


.825 


Financial institutions and transactions 


.826 


Domestic commerce 


.827 


Foreign commerce 


.829 


Rationing 


.820 4 


Special topics 


.820 42 


Economic information and research services 



control of prices, rates, charges 

.820 422 Economic information and research services 

Including economic advisers 

Class consumer information and research services in 
351.820423 

.820 423 Consumer protection 

Class control of prices, rates, charges in 351.820424 

.820 424 Control of prices, rates, charges 

Class control of prices, rates, charges in a specific field with the 
subject in public administration, using notation 044 from table 
under 351.8, e.g., control of crop prices 351.82333044 

.820 43 Regulation and control of the economy 

.820 44 Promotion of equal economic opportunity 

.820 48 *Small business 

.821 Standards 

Including weights and measures, metric conversion (metrication) 
.822 Issue and regulation of money 

Class administration of financial transactions in 351.825 
.823 Natural resources and primary industries 

Class public utilities, e.g., organizations supplying water, gas, electricity, 
in 351.87 

.823 2 Natural resources and their conservation 

Class administration of primary industries using natural resources in 
351.8233-351.8238, of public works to develop and protect resources 
in 351.86 

.823 21 Environmental protection 



Class environmental sanitation in 351.772, pollution control in 
351.82322, flood control in 351.82329 



*Add as instructed under 351.8 

486 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.823 22 Pollution control 

Class control of pollution by specific pollutants in 351.82323, 
control of pollution of specific natural resources in 
351.82324-351.82328 

.823 23 Control of pollution by specific pollutants 

Examples: oils, pesticides, radioactive materials 

Class control of pollution of specific resources by specific 
pollutants in 351.82324-351.82328 



351.823 24-351.823 28 Specific natural resources and their conservation 

Class here control of pollution of specific natural resources 

Class comprehensive works in 35 1 .8232 

.823 24 Air (Atmosphere) 

Including administration of weather control 

See also 351.8555163 for administration of weather 
forecasting 

.823 25 Water 

Surface and ground waters 

Class here comprehensive works on marine resources 

Class wetlands, shorelands, beaches in 351.82326; marine mineral 
resources in 351.82327; marine biological resources in 351.82328; 
construction of dams for water supply and conservation in 351.867 

.823 26 Land and soil 

Including wetlands, shorelands, beaches; reclamation, irrigation; 
parks 

.823 27 Mineral (Geological) resources 

Including metals 

Class administration of mineral extractive industries in 351.8238 
.823 28 Biological resources 

Class administration of fishing and hunting industries in 351.8236 
.823 29 Flood control 

Class construction of dams for flood control in 35 1 .867 



351.823 3-351.823 8 Primary industries 

Class comprehensive works in 351.823, control of prices in 351.826-351.827 



487 



351 Dewey Decimal Classification 351 

.823 3 *Agriculture and forestry 

Class here comprehensive works on public administration of 
agricultural industries 

Class administration of soil conservation and irrigation in 351.82326, 
of agricultural processing industries other than dairy industries in 
351.824, of agricultural trade in 351.8261 



.823 33 


*Plant crops 


.823 36 


*Animal husbandry 


.823 37 


*Dairy industry 


.823 38 


*Forestry 


.823 6 


Fishing and hunting 



Class here comprehensive works on administration of fishing and 
hunting 

Class administration of hunting and fishing for sport in 351.858 

.823 62 *Fisheries 

.823 8 *Extraction of mineral resources 

.823 82 *Mines and mining 

.823 88 * Extraction of oil and gas 

.824 *Secondary industries 

Including administration of patents, copyrights, trademarks 

Class administration of housing in 351.865, of public utilities in 351.87 

.824 2 *Manufacturing and construction 

Class administration of public works in 351.86 

.824 3 *Service and professional 

.824 304 6 Licensing 

Class here comprehensive works on occupational licensing 
and registration 

Class licensing and registration of a specific occupation 
with the subject in public administration, e.g., of a 
manufacturing occupation 351.8242 

.825 *Financial institutions and transactions 

Class administration of institutions providing services to a specific 
industry with the administration of the industry, e.g., of institutions 
providing agricultural loans 351.8233045 

.825 2 *Banks 

.825 5 *Insurance companies 

*Add as instructed under 351.8 



488 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.825 6 Government-sponsored insurance 

Services provided to persons outside the government work force 

Examples: health, life, old age and survivors, unemployment 
insurance 

Class insurance provided to government employees in 351.1234; 
insurance of a specific activity with the activity in public 
administration, e.g., insurance of bank deposits 351.825045 

.825 8 Securities and securities exchanges 

.826 *Domestic commerce 

Class here commodity exchanges, comprehensive works on commerce 

For foreign commerce, see 351.827 
.826 1 *Trade in products of agriculture 

Class here marketing orders and regulations 

Add to base number 351.8261 the numbers following 63 in 633-638, 
e.g., trade in milk 351.826171; then add further as instructed under 
351.8, e.g., milk inspection 351.826171043 

.826 2 Trade in products of mineral extraction 

Add to base number 351.8262 the numbers following 553 in 
553.2-553.9, e.g., trade in coal 351.826224; then add further as 
instructed under 351.8, e.g., price control of coal 351.826224044 

.826 3 Trade in products of other extractive industries 

Fishing, whaling, hunting, trapping, culture of invertebrates and 
cold-blooded vertebrates 

Class insect culture in 351.82618 

.826 5 Trade in products of secondary industries and services 

Use 351.82650001-351.82650009 for standard subdivisions 

Add to base number 351.8265 notation 001-999, e.g., trade in lumber 
351.8265674, domestic tourism 351.826591 



.827 


Foreign commerce 




Including tourism by foreigners 


.827 5 


Imports 


.827 6 


Exports 


.829 


Rationing 



Class rationing of a specific product or service with the subject in public 
administration, using notation 043 from table under 351.8, e.g., rationing 
natural gas 351.8723043 



*Add as instructed under 351.8 



489 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.83 Labor 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in 
two or more subdivisions of this schedule in the number coming last in the 
schedule, e.g., equal pay for women 351.837 (not 351.835) 

Class social welfare services to laboring classes in 351.8485; labor in a 
specific occupation with the subject in public administration, e.g., farm 
workers 351.8233; a specific service to laboring classes not provided for 
here with the subject in public administration, e.g., control of prices 
351.820424 

.832 Labor relations 

Including collective bargaining 

Class labor relations of governments with their own employees in 351.17 
.833 Employment services 

Including equal employment opportunity programs 
.834 Employment security 

Example: tenure 
.835 Wages and hours 

Including regulation of pensions and fringe benefits 

Class administration of fringe benefits for government employees in 
351.1234, of pensions for government employees in 351.5, of 
government-sponsored insurance for nongovernment work force in 
351.82568 

.836 Disadvantaged workers 

Examples: workers belonging to specific racial, ethnic, national groups; 
immigrants, handicapped workers 





For women, see 351.837; workers of specific ages, 351.838 


,837 


Women workers 


.838 


Workers of specific ages 


.838 2 


Young workers 




Through age thirty-five 


,838 27 


Through age twenty 


.838 28 


Aged twenty-one to thirty-five 


.838 6 


Older workers 



490 



35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.84 *Social welfare and corrections 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of 
precedence, e.g., mentally-ill handicapped children 351.842 {not 351.844, 
351.847) 

Services to the physically ill 35 1 .84 1 

Services to the mentally retarded 35 1 .843 

Services to the mentally ill 35 1 .842 

Services to the handicapped 35 1 .844 

Correctional administration 351.849 

Services to old persons 35 1 .846 

Services to young people 35 1 .847 

Services to other groups 35 1 .848 

Services to the poor 35 1 .845 

.841 * Health services 

Class here services to the physically ill 

Class administration of government-sponsored health insurance in 
351.8256; health services to the mentally ill in 351.842, to the mentally 
retarded in 351.843, to the handicapped in 351.844 

.842 *Services to the mentally ill 

.842 9 *Services to the addicted 

.843 *Services to the mentally retarded 

.844 *Services to the handicapped 

.845 * Services to the poor 

Class promotion of equal economic opportunity in 35 1 .82044 
.846 *Services old persons 

.847 *Services to young people 

Through age 20 

Including day-care services 

Class aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) in 351.8482 

.848 Services to other groups 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., services to families of 
laboring class members of minority groups 351.8484 {not 351.8482 or 
351.8485) 

To victims of crime 35 1 .8488 

To minority groups 351.8484 

To laboring classes 35 1 .8485 

To families 351.8482 

.848 2 *To families 

Including aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) 

Class family planning in 351.815, day -care services in 351.847 

*Add as instructed under 351 .8 

491 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.848 4 *To minority groups 

Class programs for achieving civil and human rights in 351.81 1 

.848 5 *To laboring classes 

Class employment services in 351.833, services to impoverished 
laborers in 351.845 

.848 8 *To victims of crime 

.849 *Correctional administration 

.849 2 *Preventive welfare work 

.849 3 Parole and probation 

.849 5 *Penal institutions 

.85 *Culture and religion 

Including language, bilingual programs 

Class here cultural exchanges 

Class interdisciplinary works on language planning and policy in 306.449 

.851 Education 

Class operational administration of public school systems in 371.2 

Use only for aspects of public administration not provided for in 379 

.852 *Libraries 

Class operational administration of library systems in 025.1, public 
policy issues of library relationships with governments in 021.8 

.853 *Museums 

Class museums devoted to a specific subject with the subject in 351.85, 
e.g., history museums 351.859 

.854 *Humanities and arts 

Including architecture, music 

.855 *Science 

Class here comprehensive works on public administration of science and 
technology 

Add to base number 351.855 the numbers following 5 in 510-590, e.g., 
weather forecasting 35 1 .8555 163 

For technology, see 351.856 

See Manual at 500 vs. 338. 926, 351.855 

.856 technology 

Class a specific technology with the subject in public administration, e.g., 
agricultural technology 351.8233 

*Add as instructed under 351.8 



492 



351 Public administration and military science 351 

.857 *Religion 

.858 * Sports and recreation 

Including fishing and hunting 

Class regulation and control of betting and gambling on sporting events 
in 351.76, of parks in 351.82326, of park and recreational public works 
in 351.863 

.859 *History and related activities 

Including archaeology, historic preservation, monuments and shrines, 
patriotic commemorations and celebrations 

.86 *Public works and housing 

Construction, maintenance, use 

Including cemeteries 

Class public administration of urban development in 351.818, of architecture 
in 351.854, of historic preservation in 351.859 

.862 *Public buildings 

Including buildings of specific agencies, e.g., courthouses 

Class procurement of public buildings in 351.7123; management of 
public buildings in 351.7133 

.863 Park and recreational public works 

.863 2 *Parks 

Including development of scenic areas 

Class recreational facilities in parks in 351.8635, public 
administration of parks in 351.82326 

.863 5 *Recreational facilities 

Class public administration of recreation in 351.858 

.864 *Highways and related public works 

Including tunnels 

.864 2 *Highways and roads 

.864 5 *Bridges 

.865 *Housing 

.867 *Dams 

*Add as instructed under 351.8 



493 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.87 Public utilities and transportation 

Class environmental impact of utilities, conservation of energy-producing 
resources in 351.8232, extraction of energy -producing mineral resources in 
351.8238 

SUMMARY 

351.870 01- .870 09 Standard subdivisions 

.871 Water supply 

.872 Electric power and gas 

.873 Postal communication 

.874 Telecommunication 

.875 Transportation Railroad transportation 

.876 Inland water and ferry transportation 

.877 Water, air, space transportation 

.878 Ground transportation 

.870 01 -.870 09 Standard subdivisions 

.871 Water supply 

For agricultural, domestic, industrial use 

Use 351.871001-351.871009 for standard subdivisions 

Class construction of dams for water supply in 351.867, hydroelectric 
power in 351.8722 

.87104 Special topics 

Add to base number 351.87104 the numbers following 04 in 
notation 042-046 from table under 351.8, e.g., control of water 
supply 351.871043 

.872 Electric power and gas 

.872 2 Electric power 

Including hydroelectric, nuclear power 

Use 351.8722001-351.8722009 for standard subdivisions 

.872 204 Special topics 

Add to base number 351.872204 the numbers following 04 in 
notation 042-046 from the add table under 351.8, e.g., control 
of electric power 351.8722043 

.872 3 Gas 

Use 351.8723001-351.8723009 for standard subdivisions 

.872 304 Special topics 

Add to base number 351.872304 the numbers following 04 in 
notation 042-046 from the add table under 351.8, e.g., control 
of gas 351.8723043 

.873 Postal communication 

Class postal organization in 383.4 



494 






35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.874 Telecommunication 

Add to base number 351.874 the numbers following 384 in 384.1-384.8, 
e.g., radiobroadcasting 351.87454; then add further as instructed under 
351.8, e.g., economic assistance to radiobroadcasting 351.87454045 

.875 Transportation Railroad transportation 

Class here comprehensive works on public administration of mass transit 

Class urban mass transit in 351.8784 

For inland waterway and ferry transportation, see 351.876; water, 
air, space transportation, 351.877; ground transportation, 351.878 

.875 001-.875 009 Standard subdivisions 

As modified in table under 351.8, e.g., economic support of 
transportation 35 1 .8750045 

.875 01 -.875 09 Standard subdivisions of railroad transportation 

As modified in table under 351.8 e.g., chartering railroads 
351.875046 

.875 1-.875 7 Railroad transportation 

Add to base number 351.875 the numbers following 385 in 
385.1-385.7, e.g., railroad rates 351.87512 

.876 *Inland waterway and ferry transportation 

Add to base number 351.876 the numbers following 386 in 386.1-386.8, 
e.g., carriage of freight 351.876244 

.877 * Water, air, space transportation 

Add to base number 351.877 the numbers following 387 in 387.1-387.8, 
e.g., ports 351.8771 

For inland waterway and ferry transportation, see 351.876 

.878 *Ground transportation 

For highways and related public works, see 351.864; railroad 
transportation, 351.875 

.878 3 Vehicular transportation 

Including transportation by means of air-cushion vehicles 

.878 31 Traffic control 

Examples: lighting, signs, signals, use by specific types of 
vehicles, vehicle weight 

Including police patrols 

.878 32 Vehicular services 

Class here regulation and control of vehicle operations, of driver 
qualifications 

Add to base number 35 1 .87832 the numbers following 388.32 in 
388.321-388.324, e.g., bus services 351.878322 



c Add as instructed under 351.8 



495 



35 1 Dewey Decimal Classification 35 1 

.878 34 Vehicles 

Ownership, registration, condition, licenses 

Class vehicles belonging to governments and their agencies in 
351.7134 

.878 4 Urban transportation 

Class here urban mass transit 

Add to base number 351.8784 the numbers following 388.4 in 
388.41-388.47, e.g., urban bus systems 351.87841322; however, 
class administration of urban roads and streets in 35 1 .8642 

See also 352. 9184 for local government administration of urban 
transportation 

.88 Justice 

Including administration of land claims 

Class administration of courts in 347.013, police administration in 351.74, 
civil rights administration in 351.81 1, correctional administration in 351.849 

.89 Foreign affairs 

Including propaganda and information 

Class foreign affairs departments in 351.01, cultural exchanges in 351.85 

.892 Embassies and legations 

Diplomatic lists relocated to 327.2025 

.896 Voluntary service agencies 

Class unofficial voluntary service groups with the subject, e.g., peace 
movements 327.172 

.898 Passports and visas 

.9 Malfunctioning of administration 

Class malfunctioning of a specific agency with the agency, e.g., police abuses 
351.74 

See also 342. 06 for administrative law, 364. 13 for aspects of 
malfunctioning considered as crime 

.91 Grievances and claims against the state 

Including interdisciplinary works on ombudsmen 

Class legislators as ombudsmen in 328.3452 
.99 Specific aspects of malfunctioning 

.99 1 Abuse of powers 

For denial of political, civil, human rights, see 351. 996 
.992 Public inquiries and investigations 

.993 Impeachment 



496 






35 1 Public administration and military science 35 1 

.994 Corruption and venality 

.995 Conflict of interest 

Class corruption and venality in 35 1 .994 
.996 Denial of political, civil, human rights 

352 Administration of local governments 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
local cooperation in police administration 352.2 (not 352.0095) 

Local administration of specific fields 352.2- .9 

Government service 352.005 
Financial and property management and related topics 352.1 
Administration of kinds and levels of local 

government 352.007 

Local intergovernmental cooperation 352.0095 

Fundamentals of administration 352.00047 

Municipal executives 352.008 
Special districts and authorities 

(except 352.0095) 352.009 

Malfunctioning of administration 352.002 

Note exceptions to the foregoing table of precedence explained in Manual at 
352.03-352.09 vs. 352.002-352.009 

Class interdisciplinary works on local government in 320.8, local politics in 320 

See Manual at 352 

SUMMARY 

352.000 1-.000 9 [Standard subdivisions and fundamentals of administration] 

.002- .009 General topics of local administration 

.03- .09 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities 

.1 Financial and property management and related topics 

.2 Police 

.3 Fire protection and accident prevention 

.4 Safeguarding public health 

.5 Regulation and control of public buildings 

.6 Environmental sanitation and related activities 

.7 Public works and housing 

.8 Licensing 

.9 Miscellaneous fields 

.000 1 Philosophy and theory 

Including relation of public administration to social and political 
factors 

[.000 11] Systems 

Do not use; class in 352.000473 
.000 2 Miscellany 

.000 25 Directories of persons and organizations 

Class directories of officials and employees in 352.0052 



497 



352 Dewey Decimal Classification 352 

.000 3 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

.000 4 Special topics 

.000 47 Fundamentals of administration 

Class here executive management 

Add to base number 352.00047 the numbers following 351.007 in 
351.0072-351.0078, e.g., reorganization 352.000473 

.000 5 Serial publications 

Class serial administrative reports in 352.0006 

.000 6 Administrative reports 

Class administrative reports of specific agencies in 352.1-352.9, 
administrative reports on a specific subject with the subject in public 
administration, e.g., reports on government reorganization 
352.000473 

See Manual at 351.0006 

.000 7- .000 8 Standard subdivisions 

.000 9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
352.03-352.09 (not 352.00093-352.00099) 



352.002-352.009 General topics of local administration 

Class comprehensive works in 352, general topics relating to specific local 
governments in 352.03-352.09 

See Manual at 352. 03-352. 09 vs. 352. 002-352. 009 

.002 Malfunctioning of administration 

Including denial of political, civil, human rights; grievances and claims 
against the government, ombudsmen, public inquiries and investigations 

Class malfunctioning of a specific agency with the agency, e.g., police 
abuses 352.2 

See also 342. 06 for administrative law, 364. 13 for aspects of 
malfunctioning considered as crime 

.003 Municipal incorporation 

Class interdisciplinary works in 320.85, legal aspects in 342.02 

.005 Government service 

Add to base number 352.005 the numbers following 351 in 351.1-351.6, 
e.g., personnel management 352.0051, lists of officials and employees 
352.0052 

Class management of executive personnel in 352.000474, programs for 
working persons outside the government work force in 352.943 



498 



352 Public administration and military science 352 

.006 Annexation 

Class interdisciplinary works in 320.859, legal aspects in 342.0413 

.007 Administration of kinds and levels of local government 

Class interdisciplinary works on forms, structure, and function of local 
government in 320.8 

.007 2 Municipalities 

Class here urban municipalities 

.007 22 Rural municipalities 

.007 23 Towns and incorporated villages 

.007 24 Cities 

Class metropolitan areas (conurbations) in 352.0094 

.007 3 Intermediate levels 

Examples: counties, districts, departments, arrondissements, 
Landkreise; provinces in certain jurisdictions, e.g., Costa Rica 

See Manual at 350-354: State and provincial administration 

.008 Municipal executives 

Examples: mayors, city managers, commissioners, chiefs of departments 

Including executive councils and departments 

Class here forms of municipal government 

Class interdisciplinary works on forms of municipal government in 
320.8; chiefs of a specific department with the subject in public 
administration, e.g., water commissioners 352.61 

.008 2 Mayor-council administration with weak mayor 

.008 3 Mayor-council administration with strong mayor 

.008 4 Council-manager administration 

.008 5 Commission administration 

.009 Special districts and authorities; local intergovernmental cooperation 

Including commissions, corporations 

Class school boards and districts in 379.153; other special districts and 
authorities controlling a specific field of activity with the activity in 
public administration, e.g., local transit authorities 352.9184 

.009 2 Regulatory agencies and autonomous authorities 

Class here regulation, control, inspection of activities outside of 
government 

.009 3 Service districts and authorities 

Urban and rural 

.009 4 Metropolitan areas (Conurbations) 



499 



352 Dewey Decimal Classification 352 

.009 5 Local intergovernmental cooperation 

Including intermunicipal authorities 

Class cooperation in a specific field of activity with the activity, e.g., 
police cooperation 352.2 

.03-. 09 Treatment by specific continents, countries, localities 

Class here general topics relating to specific local governments 

Add to base number 352.0 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., local 
governments in Illinois 352.0773, government of Chicago 352.07731 1 

Class general topics relating to local government in specific continents, 
countries, states, local areas (but not to specific local governments) in 
352.002-352.009, e.g., government service in municipalities of Illinois 
352.00509773, but government service in Chicago 352.07731 1 

Class specific administrative activities, administration of specific fields of 
activity by specific continents, countries, states, local areas (including 
specific local areas) in 352.1-352.9, e.g., local transportation in 
municipalities of Illinois 352.918409773, in Chicago 352.9184097731 1 

See Manual at 352. 03-352. 09 vs. 352. 002-352. 009 
.1 Financial and property management and related topics 

Examples: public debt management, administration of economic assistance 

Class financial and property management and related topics applied to specific 
fields in 352.2-352.9 

See also 352.5 for regulation and control of public buildings 



352.12-352.14 Financial management 

Class comprehensive works in 352.1, accounting and auditing in 352.17 

. 1 2 Budgets and budgeting 

Add to base number 352.12 the numbers following 351.722 in 
351.7222-351.7225, e.g., budget estimates 352.1225 



.13 


Tax administration 


.134 


Special assessments 


.135 


Specific kinds of taxes 




Including sales taxes, income taxes 


.135 2 


Property taxes 


.135 21 


Assessment 


.135 23 


Collection 



500 






352 Public administration and military science 352 

. 1 4 Revenue administration 

Examples: administration of revenue from government commercial 
undertakings, from fees and charges for government services, from lotteries 

Class fiscal relations between local governmental units and higher levels in 
351.725 

For tax administration, see 352. 13 

. 1 6 Property management and related topics 

Add to base number 352.16 the numbers following 351.71 in 
351.711-351.714, e.g., rental of equipment 352.1624 

Class purchase and rental of land for public works other than government 
buildings in 352.7, utilization of government property for a specific purpose 
with the purpose, e.g., use of computers in government accounting 
352.1710285 

. 1 7 Accounting and auditing 

Planning, administration, use 

Class accounting and auditing procedures in 657.835 

.171 Accounting and accounts 

Including financial statements, reports 

. 1 72 Auditing and audits 

Including disclosure of fraud 

Class use of audits to evaluate efficiency or utility of programs in 
352.000476, evaluation of specific activities with the activity, e.g., of 
revenue administration 352.14 



352.2-352.9 Local administration of specific fields 

Class comprehensive works in 352 
See Manual at 352. 2-352. 9 



352.2-352.4 Police, fire and accident protection, safeguarding public 
health 

Class comprehensive works in 352.935 
.2 Police 

Class traffic control in 352.91831 

.3 Fire protection and accident prevention 

Class administration of accident prevention measures in a specific field of 
activity with the activity in local public administration, using notation 0289 
from Table 1, e.g., safety in construction of public buildings 352.50289 



501 



352 Dewey Decimal Classification 352 

.4 Safeguarding public health 

Including medical screening, control of diseases and product hazards 

Class comprehensive works on administration of health services in 352.9441 

For environmental sanitation and related activities, see 352. 6 

.5 Regulation and control of public buildings 

Construction, maintenance, use, disposal 

Class procurement of government buildings in 352.1623 

.6 Environmental sanitation and related activities 

.61 Water supply 

Including saline water conversion, purification of water 

Class hydroelectric power in 352.9122, water pollution in 352.942325 

.62 Sewage disposal 

.63 Waste and refuse collection and disposal 

.7 Public works and housing 

Construction, maintenance, use 

Class urban development in 352.9418, architecture in 352.9454, historic 
preservation in 352.9459 

For regulation and control of public buildings, see 352.5; environmental 
sanitation and related activities, 352. 6 

.72 Cemeteries 

.73 Parks and recreational facilities 

.732 Parks 

Class recreational facilities in parks in 352.735 
.735 Recreational facilities 

Class public administration of recreation in 352.9458 

.74 Streets, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels 

.75 Housing 

.8 Licensing 

Class here certification, chartering, registration 

Class licensing of a specific activity with the activity, e.g., licensing of hospitals 
352.9441 

.9 Miscellaneous fields 

Limited to fields provided for below 



502 



352 Public administration and military science 352 





SUMMARY 


352.91 


Public utilities and transportation 


.92 


Construction 


.93 


Public health and related fields 


.94 


Economic, welfare, cultural activities 


.96 


Planning and zoning 


.98 


Justice 



.91 Public utilities and transportation 

Add to base number 352.91 the numbers following 351.87 in 
351.872-351.878, e.g., urban transportation 352.9184 

Class procurement of government vehicles in 352.1624; management of 
government vehicles in 352.1634; environmental impact of utilities, 
conservation of energy-producing resources in 352.94232 

For water supply, see 352. 61 

.92 Construction 

Class here administration of permits, codes, inspections, standards 

Class construction of a specific facility with the facility in public 
administration, e.g., housing 352.75 

.922 Building construction 

.923 Electrical installations 

.926 Plumbing 

.93 Public safety and related fields 

.935 Public safety 

Including censorship; control of information, of public gatherings, of 
explosives and firearms 

For police, see 352. 2; fire protection and accident prevention, 
352.3; safeguarding public health, 352.4 

See also 323.445 for the right to information, 352. 002 for denial of 
the right to information in local administration 

.935 4 Disaster and emergency planning and relief 

For civil defense, see 352. 9355 
.935 5 Civil defense 

.936 Factors affecting public morals 

Including gambling, prostitution 
.936 1 Alcoholic beverages 

See also 352. 94429 for services to alcoholics 
.936 5 Drugs 

See also 352. 94429 for services to narcotics addicts 



503 



352 Dewey Decimal Classification 352 

.94 Economic, welfare, cultural activities 

.941 Human relations, information, related programs 

Add to base number 352.941 the numbers following 351.81 in 
351.811-351.819, e.g., urban development 352.9418 

.942 Production, commerce, consumption 

Including consumer protection 

Class here economic development, promotion of productivity 

.942 1 Standards 

Example: weights and measures 

.942 3 Primary industries and natural resources 

Add to base number 352.9423 the numbers following 351.823 in 
351.8232-351.8238, e.g., natural resources 352.94232, control of 
water pollution 352.942325 

Class public utilities, e.g., organizations supplying gas, electricity, in 
352.91 

.942 4 Secondary industries 

Class solid waste control in 352.63, public utilities in 352.91 

.942 42 Manufacturing and construction 

Class public works in 352.7, regulation of construction in 352.92 
.942 43 Service and professional 

Including occupational licensing and registration 

Class licensing and registration of occupations in a specific field 
with the field in local administration, e.g., of a manufacturing 
occupation 352.94242 

.942 6 Trade and commerce 

Including trade in agricultural products 

.943- .945 Labor, social welfare and corrections, culture and religion 

Add to base number 352.94 the numbers following 351.8 in 
351.83-351.85, e.g., services to workers 352.943, sports and recreational 
services 352.9458 

Class relations of governments with their own employees in 352.0051, 
recreational facilities in 352.735, control of betting and gambling on 
sporting events in 352.936 

.96 Planning and zoning 

.961 Zoning 

.962 Land subdivision 

.98 Justice 

Class police administration in 352.2, administration of courts in 347.013 



504 



353 Public administration and military science 353 

353 Administration of United States federal and state 
governments 

(Option: This number may be used to give local emphasis and shorter notation to 
central governments of a specific country other than United States; in that case, 
class central governments of United States in 354.73-354.79, 354.969) 

Class administration of Confederate States of America in 354.75, of any 
jurisdiction before it became part of United States in 354, e.g., Texas Republic 
354.764 

See Manual at 353-354 

SUMMARY 

353.000 1-.000 9 Standard subdivisions 

.001-. 009 Government service, property and financial management and 

related topics, administration of specific fields, malfunctioning of 
administration 
.01- .09 Federal bureaucracy, presidents and vice-presidents, the cabinet, 

fundamentals of administration, special agencies 
.1 Department of State 

.2 Department of the Treasury 

.3 Department of the Interior 

.4 Post Office Department (1829-1971) 

.5 Department of Justice 

.6 Department of Defense 

.7 Department of the Navy 

.8 Other departments 

.9 State governments 

.000 1-.000 8 Standard subdivisions 

As modified under 351, e.g., administrative reports 353.0006 
.000 9 Historical and persons treatment 

Class treatment of state governments in 353.9 

.001 -.008 Government service, property and financial management and related 

topics, administration of specific fields 

Add to base number 353.00 the numbers following 351 in 351.1-351.8, 
e.g., tax administration 353.00724 

Class application of specific concepts covered here to specific federal 
departments of cabinet rank in 353.1-353.8 

.009 Malfunctioning of administration 

Add to base number 353.009 the numbers following 351.9 in 
351.91-353.99, e.g., conflict of interest 353.00995 

Class malfunctioning of a specific aspect of administration with the 
aspect, e.g., conflict of interest in tax administration in 353.00724 

.01 Bureaucracy 

Class a specific aspect of bureaucracy with the aspect, e.g., malfunctioning 
353.009 



505 



353 Dewey Decimal Classification 353 

.03- .09 Presidents and vice-presidents, the cabinet, fundamentals of 
administration, special agencies 

Add to base number 353.0 the numbers following 351.00 in 
351.003-351.009, e.g., the cabinet 353.04, presidents 353.0313; however, 
method of selection of president relocated from 353.034 to 321.80420973 

Class application of concepts provided for here to government service, 
property and financial management and related topics, administration of 
specific fields in 353.001-353.008; to specific federal departments of 
cabinet rank in 353.1-353.8; to administrative relations between federal and 
state government in 353.9292 



353.1-353.8 Specific federal departments of cabinet rank 

Class comprehensive works in 353.04 
.1 Department of State 

.2 Department of the Treasury 

.3 Department of the Interior 

.4 Post Office Department (1829-1971) 

Class United States Postal Service in 353.00873 
.5 Department of Justice 

.6 Department of Defense 

Class administration of armed forces in 355.6 

For Department of the Navy, see 353. 7 

.62 Department of the Army 

.63 Department of the Air Force 

.7 Department of the Navy 

.8 Other departments 

.8 1 Department of Agriculture 

.82 Department of Commerce 

.83 Department of Labor 

.84 Department of Health and Human Services, and Department of 

Education 

Class here the former Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 

.842 Department of Health and Human Services 

.844 Department of Education 

.85 Department of Housing and Urban Development 

.86 Department of Transportation 



506 



353 Public administration and military science 353 

.87 Department of Energy 

.9 State governments 

.909 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class specific state governments in 353.97-353.99 (not 
353.9097-353.9099) 



353.91-353.93 State governments in general 

Class complex subjects with aspects in two or more subdivisions of this 
schedule according to the order of precedence that governs 351, e.g., 
reorganization of revenue agencies 353.93724 (corresponding to 351.724), not 
353.9173 (corresponding to 351.0073) 

Class comprehensive works in 353.9, governments of specific states in 
353.97-353.99 

.91 Bureaucracy, chief executives, cabinets and councils of state, 

fundamentals of administration, special agencies 

Add to base number 353.91 the numbers following 351.00 in 
351.001-351.009, e.g., governors 353.91313; however, methods of selection 
of governors relocated from 353.9134 to 321.80420973 

Class specific executive departments at the council-of-state level in 
353.921-353.928; special agencies concerned with specific activities with 
the subject in 353.92-353.93, e.g., taxation review boards 353.93724 

.92 Specific departments at council-of-state level and intergovernmental 

administration 

.921-. 928 Specific executive departments at the council of state level 

Add to base number 353.92 the numbers following 351.0 in 
351.01-351.08, e.g., departments of labor 353.9283 

.929 Intergovernmental administration 

.929 1 Between states 

Examples: interstate agreements, cooperation, disputes 

.929 2 Between states and federal government 

.929 3 Between states and local governments 

.93 Government service, property and financial management and related 

topics, administration of specific fields, malfunctioning of 
administration 

Add to base number 353.93 the numbers following 351 in 351.1-351.9, e.g., 
tax administration 353.93724 



507 



353 Dewey Decimal Classification 353 

.97-. 99 Specific states 

Add to base number 353.9 notation 7-9 from Table 2, e.g., administration of 
government of Hawaii 353.9969; then add further as follows: 
0001-0009 Standard subdivisions 

As modified under 351, e.g., administrative reports 
0006 
001-008 Government service, property and financial management 
and related topics, administration of specific fields 

Add to base number 00 the numbers following 35 1 in 
351.1-351.8, e.g., tax administration 00724 
Class application of specific concepts covered here to 
specific departments at council-of-state level in 1-8 
009 Malfunctioning of administration 

Add to base number 009 the numbers following 35 1 .9 in 
351.91-351.99, e.g., conflict of interest 00995 
Class malfunctioning of a specific aspect of 
administration with the aspect, e.g., conflict of interest in 
tax administration 00724 
01 Bureaucracy 

Class a specific aspect of bureaucracy with the aspect, e.g., 
malfunctioning 009 
03-09 Chief executives, cabinets and councils of state, fundamentals 
of administration, special agencies 

Add to base number the numbers following 351.00 in 
351.003-351.009, e.g., council of state 04, the governor 
0313; however, methods of selection of governors relocated 
from 034 to 321.8042097-321.8042099 
Class application of concepts covered here to government 
service, property and financial management and related 
topics, administration of specific fields in 001-008; to a 
specific department at council-of-state level in 1-8; to 
intergovernmental administration in 9 
1-8 Specific departments at council-of-state level 

Add to base number for the state the numbers following 351.0 
in 35 1 .01-35 1 .08, e.g., department of labor 83 
Class comprehensive works in 04 
9 Intergovernmental administration 

Class intergovernmental administration of government service, 
property and financial management and related topics, 
administration of specific fields in 001-008; of specific cabinet 
departments in 1—8 

91 Between the state and other states 

Examples: interstate agreements, cooperation, disputes 

92 Between the state and the federal government 

93 Between the state and local governments 

Class administration of the District of Columbia in 352.0753 

354 Administration of specific central governments; 
international administration 

For administration of United States federal and state governments, see 353 
See Manual at 353-354 



508 



354 Public administration and military science 354 

.1 International administration 

Administration of public international agencies and organizations 

Use 354.1001-354.1009 for standard subdivisions 

.103 United Nations 

Including the Secretariat 

Class specific subordinate bodies and affiliated organizations dealing 
with specific subjects in 354,1 1-354.19 

.104 Regional associations and organizations 

Add to base number 354.104 the numbers following 341.24 in 
341.242-341.249, e.g., Organization of American States 354.1045 

Class specific subordinate bodies and affiliated organizations dealing 
with specific subjects in 354.1 1-354.19 

. 1 1-. 19 International personnel service, property and financial management and 
related topics, administration of specific fields, malfunctioning of 
administration 

Add to base number 354.1 the numbers following 351 in 351.1-351.9, e.g., 
World Health Organization 354.177 

.3- .9 Specific central governments other than those of United States 

(Option: To give local emphasis and shorter notation to central governments of 
a specific country other than United States, class central governments of the 
country in 353; in that case, class central governments of United States in 
354.73-354.79, 354.969) 

Add to base number 354 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., administration of 
government of Germany 354.43; then add further as follows: 
0001-0009 Standard subdivisions 

As modified under 351, e.g., administrative reports 0006 
001-008 Government service, property and financial management and 
related topics, administration of specific fields 

Add to 00 the numbers following 351 in 351.1-351.8, e.g., 
tax administration 00724 

Class application of specific concepts covered here to 
specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank in 06 
009 Malfunctioning of administration 

Add to base number 009 the numbers following 35 1 .9 in 
351.91-351.99, e.g., conflict of interest 00995 
Class malfunctioning of a specific aspect of administration 
with the aspect, e.g., conflict of interest in tax 
administration 00724 
01 Bureaucracy 

Class a specific aspect of bureaucracy with the aspect, e.g., 
malfunctioning 009 
03-04 Chief executives; cabinets and councils of state 

Add to the numbers following 351.00 in 351.003-351.004, 

e.g., chief executives 03 

Class specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank in 06 

(continued) 



509 



354 Dewey Decimal Classification 354 

.3- .9 Specific central governments other than those of United States 
(continued) 

06 Specific departments and ministries of cabinet rank 

Add to 06 the numbers following 351.0 in 351.01-351.08, e.g., 
a ministry of foreign affairs 061 
Class comprehensive works in 04 
>07-09 Fundamentals of administration, intergovernmental administration, 
special agencies 

Class comprehensive works in base number for country; 
application of specific concepts covered here to government 
service, property and financial management and related topics, 
administration of specific fields in 001-008, to specific 
departments and ministries of cabinet rank in 06 

07 Fundamentals of administration 

Add to 07 the numbers following 351.007 in 
351.0072-351.0078, e.g., reorganization 073 

08 Intergovernmental administration 

Add to 08 the numbers following 351.09 in 351.091-351.093, 
e.g., relation between national and state governments 082 

09 Special agencies 

Examples: independent agencies, quasi-administrative bodies, 
special commissions 

Add to 09 the numbers following 351.009 in 
351.0091-351.0093, e.g., regulatory agencies 091 

355 Military science 

Class here armed forces and services, ground forces and services 

For specific kinds of military forces and warfare, see 356-359 

See also 306.27 for sociological aspects of military institutions, 322.5 for 
relation of the state to military organizations, 343. 01 for military, defense, 
and veterans' law 

See Manual at 355 vs. 623 

SUMMARY 

355.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.02- .07 Basic considerations 

.1 Military life and customs 

.2 Military resources 

.3 Organization and personnel of military forces 

.4 Military operations 

.5 Military training 

.6 Military administration 

.7 Military installations and land reservations 

.8 Military equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

.002 Miscellany 

[.002 8] Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, materials 

Relocated to 355.8 



510 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.003- .005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations 

[.006 8] Management 

Do not use; class in 355.6 

.007 Education, research, related topics 

Class reserve training in 355.2232, in-service training in 355.5 

.007 1 1 Military colleges and universities 

See Manual at 355. 00711 

.007 2 Research 

Class research and development of military equipment and supplies in 
355.07 

.008 History and description with respect to kinds of persons 

.009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class historical and geographical treatment of military situation and 
policy in 355.033, of specific military establishments in 355.309; military 
aspects of the history of specific wars in 900 

See Manual at 355. 009 vs. 930-990 






355.02-355.07 Basic considerations 

Class comprehensive works in 355 

.02 War and warfare 

Class here conventional warfare, total war, warfare between states 

See also 341 .6 for law of war 

See Manual at 355. 02 vs. 355. 4 

.021 General topics 

.021 3 Militarism 

Class here antimilitarism, interdisciplinary works on the 
military-industrial complex 

Class the relation of military organizations to the state in 322.5, 
promotion of peace in 327.172, economic aspects of the 
military-industrial complex in 338.47355 

.021 5 Limited war 

Use of this number for total war discontinued; class in 355.02 



511 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.0217 Nuclear warfare 

Including comprehensive works on nuclear forces [formerly 358.39], 
issues of deterrence 

Use of this number for conventional warfare discontinued; class in 
355.02 

Class specific nuclear forces and their warfare with the forces, e.g., 
nuclear missile forces and warfare 358.17 

See also 327. 174 for nuclear disarmament, 355.825119 for 
problems of verifying nuclear arms control treaty provisions 

.021 8 Insurgent, revolutionary, resistance warfare 

Class here civil war, guerrilla warfare 

Use of this number for scope of war discontinued; class in 355.02 

Class guerrilla tactics in 355.425 

[.021 82] Warfare between and among states 

Number discontinued; class in 355.02 

[.021 84] Insurgent, revolutionary, resistance warfare 

Number discontinued; class in 355.0218 

[.022] Sociological factors affecting warfare 

Number discontinued; class in 355.02 

[.023] Economic factors affecting warfare 

Number discontinued; class in 355.02 

.027 Causes of war 

Class causes of specific wars in 930-990 

.027 2 Political and diplomatic causes 

.027 3 Economic causes 

.027 4 Social causes 

See also 303. 66 for sociology of war 

.027 5 Psychological causes 

.028 Aftermath of war 

Examples: occupation, dislocation, reconstruction 

Class aftermath of specific wars in 930-990 

Class government of occupied territories in 355.49 



512 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.03 Military situation and policy 

Including disarmament 

Class interdisciplinary works on disarmament in 327.174; disarmament 
problems of specific kinds of weapons common to two or more forces in 
355.82, of a force dedicated to use of a specific kind of weapon with the 
force, e.g., Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty verification problems 
358.17182 

[.030 9] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class historical and geographical treatment in 355.033, 
persons treatment in 355.0092 






355.031-355.032 Specific elements 

Class comprehensive works in 355.03 

.03 1 Mutual security pacts 

Class here military alliances 

.032 Military missions and assistance 

Class here military attaches 

.032 09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class military missions and assistance to specific continents, 
countries, localities in 355.0323-355.0329 

.032 3- .032 9 Military missions and assistance to specific continents, countries, 

localities 

Add to base number 355.032 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., military 
assistance to Vietnam 355.032597 

Class comprehensive works on military assistance by specific regions 
and countries in 355.03209 

.033 General history and description 

Class general history and description of specific elements in 
355.031-355.032 

.033 001-.033 09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Add to base number 355.0330 notation 01-9 from Table 2, 
e.g., military situation and policy in the 1930s 355.0330043, 
military situation of Brazil 355.033081 

.033 01 -.033 09 Geographical treatment 

Add to base number 355.0330 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
military situation and policy in Brazil 355.033081 



575 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.033 2 Military capability 

Class here combat readiness 

Add to base number 355.0332 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
military capability of Sweden 355.0332485 

Use of this number for military situation discontinued; class in 355.03 

Class combat readiness of specific units in 355.3 

.033 5 Military policy 

Add to base number 355.0335 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
military policy of Italy 355.033545 

.07 Military research and development of equipment and supplies 

See Manual at 355. 07 and 355. 8 

.1 Military life and customs 

[.100 1-. 100 9] Standard subdivisions of military life and postmilitary benefits 

Numbers discontinued because no longer needed after the narrowing 
of the subject 

. 1 1 Service periods; promotion and demotion 

.111 Length of service 

.112 Promotion and demotion 

.113 Inactive periods 

Examples: leaves, furloughs, reserve status, status during captivity or 
internment 

.114 Termination of service 

Examples: resignation, retirement 

Including reinstatement 

[.115] Veterans ' rights and benefits 

Relocated to 362.86 

[.1151] Veterans' pensions 

Relocated to 331.25291355 

.12 Living conditions 

Class here living conditions of dependents, comprehensive works on 
military housing 

Class administration of military housing in 355.67, quarters for personnel at 
military installations in 355.71 

. 1 23 Morale and motivation 



514 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.129 Living conditions in specific situations 

Class morale in specific situations in 355.123, life in military prisons and 
prison camps in 365.48 

. 1 29 2 In regular quarters 

Including quarters during basic training 

.129 3 During maneuvers, aboard ship, in transit 

. 1 29 4 In combat zones 

. 1 29 6 In prisoners-of- war camps 

. 1 3 Conduct and rewards 

Class here discipline 

See also 343. 014 for law of discipline and conduct 

.133 Regulation of conduct 

Class rewards in 355.134 

.1332 Enforcement and punishments 

Class offenses in 355.1334 

.133 23 Enforcement 

Example: criminal investigation 

Including military police [formerly also 355.34] 

.133 25 Punishments 

Class military prisons in 365.48 

.133 4 Offenses against military discipline 

Including mutinies 

Class interdisciplinary works on mutinies in 364.131 

See also 364. 138 for war crimes 

.133 6 Etiquette 

Class dress regulations, etiquette of uniforms in 355.14 

.134 Rewards 

Including citations, special privileges 

See Manual at 355. 134092 

. 1 34 2 Honorary insignia 

Examples: badges, decorations, medals 

Class here comprehensive works on insignia 

Class comprehensive works on insignia and uniforms in 355.14 

For insignia of rank, see 355. 14 



515 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

. 1 34 9 Gifts and gun salutes 

Use of this number for other rewards discontinued; class in 355.134 

.14 Uniforms 

Including accessories, insignia of rank and service 

Class here etiquette of uniforms, comprehensive works on insignia and 
uniforms 

Class issue and use of uniforms in 355.81 

For comprehensive works on insignia, honorary insignia, see 355. 1342 

See Manual at 355. 14 vs. 355. 81; 355. 1409 

.15 Colors and standards 

. 1 6 Celebrations and commemorations 

.17 Ceremonies 

Class ceremonies for a specific occasion with the occasion, e.g., gun salutes 
355.1349 

.2 Military resources 

.21 Preparation, evaluation, preservation 

Class preparation, evaluation, preservation of specific resources in 

355.22-355.27 



355.22-355.27 Specific resources 

Class comprehensive works in 355.2 

.22 Human resources 

For civilian personnel, see 355. 23 

.223 Procurement and reserve training 

Class here enlistment, recruitment 

.223 2 Reserve training 

Pre- and post service 

.223 207 1 1 Schools and courses in higher education 

Class here training in academic settings, e.g., Reserve 
Officers' Training Corps 

.223 4 Qualifications for service 

.223 6 Specific methods and procedures of procurement 

Including registration, classification, examination, commissioning 
Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 355.22301-355.22309 



516 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.223 62 Voluntary enlistment 

Class here the all-volunteer army 

.223 63 Draft (Conscription) 

For universal training and service, see 355. 225 

.224 Conscientious objectors 

Class here draft resistance 

Class ethics of conscientious objection in 172.1, techniques for evading 
the draft in 355.22363 

.225 Universal training and service 

.23 Civilian personnel 

.24 Raw materials 

Class here comprehensive works on nonhuman resources 

For industrial resources, see 355.26; transportation and 
communication facilities, 355. 27 

.242 Metals 

.243 Nonmetallic minerals 

.245 Agricultural products 

.26 Industrial resources 

Including manufacturing war materiel [formerly 358.3] 
.27 Transportation and communication facilities 

.28 Mobilization 

Examples: requisition, commandeering 

Class mobilization of specific resources in 355.22-355.27 
.29 Demobilization 

Class demobilization of specific resources in 355.22-355.27 

.3 Organization and personnel of military forces 

Class here combat readiness of specific units 

Class comprehensive works on combat readiness in 355.0332 

.309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here military establishments of specific countries 

.3 1 Kinds of military units 

Examples: armies, divisions, brigades, regiments, companies; military 
districts 

Class kinds of units limited to a specific service with the service, e.g., 
reserve units 355.37, armored units 358.183 



517 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.33 Personnel and their hierarchy 

Class persons treatment of soldiers in 355.0092, promotion and demotion in 
355.112 

.330 4 Line and staff functions 

.330 41 Line functions 

Including leadership 

.330 42 Staff functions 

Class here general staffs, joint chiefs of staff 

Class line functions of chiefs of staff in 355.33041 

.331 General and flag officers 

Above the rank of colonel (naval rank of captain) 

.332 Commissioned and warrant officers 

Use 355 for officers' manuals 

For general and flag officers, see 355.331 

.338 Enlisted personnel 

Including noncommissioned officers 

See also 331.8811355 for military unions 

.34 Noncombat services 

Including social and financial services for soldiers, services for dependents, 
interdisciplinary works on civil activities of armed forces, propaganda 

Class here operations of noncombat services 

Military police relocated to 355.13323 

Class a specific noncombat service not provided for here with the subject, 
e.g., personnel administration 355.61; a specific civil activity of armed 
forces with the activity, e.g., public works of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
363.0973 

.341 Supply issuing and related services 

Examples: canteens, post exchanges [both formerly also 355.71], army 
catering units, mess services 

Administrative services relocated to 355.6 

Class officers' and noncommissioned officers' clubs in 355.346 

.342 Public information services 

.343 Unconventional warfare services 

Class interdisciplinary works on espionage and subversion in 327.12 



518 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.343 2 Intelligence 

Examples: cryptanalysis, mapping, weather services 

Class here military espionage 

Class counterintelligence in 355.3433 

.343 3 Counterintelligence 

Including security classification services 

.343 4 Psychological warfare 

Use of this number for propaganda discontinued; class in 355.34 

.343 7 Subversion and sabotage 

.345 Health services 

Example: ambulance services 

Including sanitary, veterinary services 

Class here medical services 

.346 Recreational services 

Examples: library services, officers' and noncommissioned officers' 
(NCO) clubs 

.347 Religious and counseling services 

Standard subdivisions are added regardless of religion 

.348 Women's units 

Class women in armed forces in 355.0082; women as a military resource 
in 355.22082; a specific service performed by women with the service, 
using notation 082 from Table 1, e.g., women in intelligence services 
355.3432082 

.35 Combat units according to field of service 

Including mercenary troops, soldiers of fortune 

.351 Units serving wholly within their own frontiers 

Class here frontier troops, active units called home guards 
Class reserve units called home guards in 355.37 

.352 Expeditionary forces 

Class here expeditionary forces of colonies, forces of mother countries 
dedicated to service in colonies 

.356 Allied and coalition forces 

.357 International forces 

Troops serving under the command of international bodies 
Class interdisciplinary works on peaceful resolution of conflict in 327.17 
See also 341.58 for legal aspects of international forces 



519 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.359 Foreign legions 

Units of national armies consisting primarily of foreign recruits 

Class here auxiliaries (troops of foreign countries serving with a state's 
armies) 

.37 Reserves 

Class here home guards, home reserves, militia, national guards, military 
departments devoted to reserve or national guard affairs 

Class training of reserves in 355.2232, active units called home guards in 
355.351; reserve units of a specific kind of military force with the force, e.g., 
army engineer reserves 358.223 

.4 Military operations 

Class here attack and defense operations, strategy 

See Manual at 355. 02 vs. 355. 4 

.409 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 355.47 

.41 Support operations 

Examples: camouflage, deception, handling prisoners of war 

Class support operations in a specific situation with the situation, e.g., 
logistics of siege warfare 355.44 

.411 Logistics 

Including troop movements 

For troop support, see 355. 415 
All Encampment 

.413 Reconnaissance 

Class here patrolling 
.415 Troop support 

Operations for providing immediate necessities for the maintenance of 
troops 

Use of this number for prisoner handling discontinued; class in 355.41 

Class comprehensive works on operations for provisioning troops in 
355.41 1; a specific aspect of troop support with the aspect, e.g., medical 
service 355.345 



520 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.42 Tactics 

Nuclear tactics relocated to 355.43 

Class tactics of siege warfare in 355.44, of defense of home territory in 
355.45 

.422 Specific tactics 

Examples: antiaircraft defenses, attacks and counterattacks, debarkation 
and landing, retreats, skirmishing; mobile (blitz), commando 
(hit-and-run), infiltration tactics 

Class specific tactics in specific conditions in 355.423-355.426 



355.423-355.426 Tactics in specific conditions 

Class comprehensive works in 355.42 

.423 Tactics in various kinds of terrain, climate, weather 

.424 Use of animals 

.425 Guerrilla tactics 

Class here tribal fighting 

Class guerrilla warfare in 355.0218 

.426 Tactics in cities 

Examples: street fighting, house-to-house fighting 

Quelling riots relocated to 363.32 

.43 Nuclear operations 

Nuclear tactics [formerly 355.42] and strategy 

Use 355.43001-355.43009 for standard subdivisions 

Use of this number for nonnuclear strategy discontinued; class in 355.4 

Class nuclear warfare in 355.0217 

See Manual at 355. 02 vs. 355. 4 

[.430 5] Strategy of limited and total war 

Number discontinued; class in 355.4 

[.430 7] Strategy of nuclear and conventional warfare 

Number discontinued; class conventional strategy in 355.4, nuclear 
strategy in 355.43 

.44 Siege and trench warfare, blockades 

Class naval blockades in 359.44 
.45 Defense of home territory 

Class a specific defensive fort or installation in 355.709 



521 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.46 Combined operations 

Coordination of two or more kinds of military forces 

Examples: amphibious operations 

Class amphibious operations in which marines are main land component in 
359.9646 

.47 Military geography 

Class here geographical treatment of military pperations 

Add to base number 355.47 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., military 
geography of Russia 355.4747 

.48 Technical analyses of military events 

Including real and imaginary wars, campaigns, battles 

Class here war gaming 

See also 793. 92 for recreational war games 

.49 Occupation of conquered territory 

Including military government 

Class occupation as an aftermath of war in 355.028 

.5 Military training 

Of individuals and units 

Use notation 09 from Table 1 for training in specific countries, e.g., military 
training in Switzerland 355.509494 (not 355.5070494) 

For reserve training, see 355.2232; universal military training, 355.225 
.52 Maneuvers 

For maneuvers involving civil population, see 355.58 
.54 Basic training 

Including drills, survival training, tactical exercises 

.544 Encampment and field training 

Examples: setting up and dismantling camps, constructing temporary 
fortifications, running obstacle courses 

.547 Small arms and bayonet practice 

Class here manual of arms 

If emphasis is on use by the infantry, class in 356.184 
.548 Self-defense 

Unarmed combat and combat with knife 

If emphasis is on use by the infantry, class in 356.184 



522 



355 Public administration and military science 355 

.55 Training of officers 

Class here mid-career training that is an integral part of an officer's career 
development, even if conducted at armed forces schools with full academic 
accreditation 

Class university type service academies in 355.0071 1, training through war 
games in 355.48 

.56 Technical training 

.58 Maneuvers involving civil population 

.6 Military administration 

Including military consultants 

Class here administrative services {formerly also 355.341] 

Class administration of functions not provided for here with the subject, e.g., 
administration of training 355.5 

For organization of military forces, see 355.3 

.61 Personnel administration 

Civilian and military personnel 

Class personnel and their hierarchy in 355.33 

For wage and salary administration, see 355. 64 

.62 Supply and financial administration 

.621 Supply administration 

Class here comprehensive works on supply services 

Class inspection in 355.63, administration of specific kinds of supplies in 
355.8 

For supply issuing and related services, see 355. 341; supply depots 
and installations 355. 75 

.621 1 Contracts and contracting 

Class here comprehensive works on military contracts and contracting 

Class contracts and contracting for nonsupply items with the item, 
e.g., for housing 355.67 

.621 2 Procurement 

Class contracts and contracting in 355.621 1 
.621 3 Utilization and disposal 

.622 Financial administration 

Class here military budgets and budgeting 

For wage and salary administration, see 355. 64 
.63 Inspection 



523 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.64 Wage and salary administration 

.67 Housing administration 

Class administration of housing at military installations in 355.71, 
comprehensive works on military housing in 355.12 

.69 Military mail; graves registration and burial services 

Use of this number for other administrative services discontinued; class in 
355.6 

.693 Military mail 

.699 Graves registration and burial services 

.7 Military installations and land reservations 

Class here military bases, forts, permanent camps, posts 

.709 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here specific forts or systems of fortifications, installations having 
two or more functions 

Use notation for area of installation, not country maintaining it, e.g., 
United States bases in Panama Canal Zone 355.70972875 

.7 1 Quarters for personnel 

Housing at military installations 

Example: barracks 

Including prisoner-of-war camps 

Canteens, post exchanges relocated to 355.341 

Class comprehensive works on military housing in 355.12, on administration 
of housing in 355.67 

.72 Medical installations 

Class medical supply depots in 355.75, veterans' hospitals in 362.1 1, 
comprehensive works on medical services in 355.345 

.73 Artillery installations 

Class army artillery installations in 358.127 
.74 Engineering installations 

Class army engineering installations in 358.227 
.75 Supply depots and installations 

Class comprehensive works on supply services in 355.621 
.79 Land 



524 






355 Public administration and military science 355 

.8 Military equipment [formerly also 355.0028] and supplies (Materiel) 

General aspects: development, procurement, issue, operation, use, packing, 
shipping 

Including auxiliary techniques and procedures [formerly also 355.0028] 

Class here apparatus [formerly also 355.0028], research and development, 
administration of specific kinds of supplies and equipment 

Class comprehensive works on research and development of equipment and 
supplies in 355.07, on supply administration in 355.621; mobilization of 
military resources in 355.28 

See Manual at 355. 07 and 355. 8 

[.807 2] Research 

Do not use; class in 355.07 

.81 Clothing, food, camp equipment, office supplies 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on equipment other than 
ordnance discontinued; class in 355.8 

See Manual at 355. 14 vs. 355. 81 

.82 Ordnance 

Class here problems of arms limitation and of verifying arms-control treaty 
provisions for specific kinds of weapons common to two or more forces 

For combat vehicles, see 355. 83 

See also 327.174 for negotiations directed towards arms control, 
341. 733 for legal aspects of arms control 

See Manual at 355 vs. 623; 355. 82 

.821 Artillery 

Class land artillery in 358.1282 

For specific pieces of artillery, see 355. 822; artillery projectiles, 
355.82513 

.822 Specific pieces of artillery 

Class specific pieces of land artillery in 358.1282 

.823-. 826 Other specific kinds of weapons 

Add to base number 355.82 the numbers following 623.4 in 
623.43-623.46, e.g., nuclear weapons 355.825119, artillery projectiles 
355.82513; however, class ordnance of forces dedicated to specific kinds 
of weapons in 356-359, e.g., of guided missile forces 358.17182 



525 



355 Dewey Decimal Classification 355 

.83 Transportation equipment and supplies 

Examples: fuel, support vehicles, trains 

Including aircraft used outside air forces, ships used outside naval forces 

Class here combat vehicles 

Class comprehensive works on aircraft in 358.4183, on ships in 359.83 
.85 Communication equipment 

Class army communication equipment in 358.248 
.88 Medical supplies 

Class ambulances in 355.83 



356-359 Specific kinds of military forces and warfare 

Class here the history of specific military forces not limited to any one war, 
services and units dedicated to specific forces, countermeasures against specific 
forces 

Aside from additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to notation for each term identified by * as follows: 
01-09 Standard subdivisions 

Notation from Table 1 as modified under 355.001-355.009, 
e.g., management 6 (not 068), management of artillery forces 
358.126 (not 358.12068) 
1 Military life and customs 

14 Uniforms 

3 Organization and personnel 

Class here units 
309 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here units of specific countries regardless of size of 
unit 

4 Operations 

Class here tactics 

5 Training 

6 Administration 

7 Installations 

8 Equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

82 Weapons other than combat vehicles 

83 Combat vehicles 

Class comprehensive works in 355, a specific countermeasure with the force 
wielding it, e.g., coast artillery 358.16 (not 359) 

See Manual at 355 vs. 623; 356-359 



356-357 Land forces and warfare 

Class comprehensive works in 355 

For artillery, missile, armored forces and warfare, see 358. 1; chemical, 
biological, radiological forces and warfare, 358.3 



526 



356 Public administration and military science 356 

356 Foot forces and warfare 
.1 Infantry 



> 356.1 1-356.16 Specific kinds of infantry 

Class comprehensive works in 356. 1 

. 1 1 *Motorized infantry 

Use of this number for regular troops discontinued; class in 356. 1 

. 1 5 * Irregular troops 

Examples: self-organized infantry, guerrillas, brigand troops 

.16 Troops having special combat functions 

.162 Troops specializing in specific weapons 

Examples: bazookamen, grenadiers, machine gunners, sharpshooters 
(snipers) 

.164 *Mountain and ski troops 

.166 ^Paratroops 

.167 *Commandos and *rangers 

. 1 8 General topics of infantry 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 356.101-356.109 
Class general topics of specific kinds of infantry in 356.1 1-356.16 
.181 Life and customs 

.1814 Uniforms 

.183 Operations 

Class here tactics 
.184 Training 

. 1 86 Equipment and supplies 

.187 Installations 

. 1 89 Organization and personnel 

Class here units 
. 1 89 09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here units of specific countries regardless of size of unit 
*Add as instructed under 356-359 



527 



357 Dewey Decimal Classification 357 

357 Mounted forces and warfare 

.04 *General topics 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 357.01-03, 357.05-357.09 

.043 Organization and personnel 

Class here comprehensive works on units that served as horse cavalry 
and mechanized or armored cavalry, e.g., the U.S. Third Cavalry 
Division 357.0430973 

Class a specific period of service of a unit which changed kinds of 
mounts with the kind of mount, e.g., the U.S. Third Cavalry Division as a 
horse unit 357.1830973 

.1 Horse cavalry 

Class here dragoons, lancers 

For remount and training services, see 357. 2 

See also 358. 12 for horse artillery 
.18 *General topics 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 357.101-357.109 
.2 Remount and training services 

.5 Mechanized cavalry 



> 357.52-357.54 Specific kinds 

Class comprehensive works in 357.5, armored cavalry in 358.18 
.52 *Bicycle 

.53 *Motorcycle 

.54 Large motor vehicle 

Examples: jeep and truck cavalry 
.58 *General topics of mechanized cavalry 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 357.501-357.509 

Class generalities of specific kinds of mechanized cavalry in 357.52-357.54 

358 Air and other specialized forces and warfare; engineering 
and related services 

SUMMARY 

358.1 Missile forces and warfare; army artillery and armored forces and warfare 

.2 Army engineering and related services 

.3 Chemical, biological, radiological forces and warfare 

.4 Air forces and warfare 

.8 Space forces and warfare 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 

528 



358 Public administration and military science 358 

.1 Missile forces and warfare; army artillery and armored forces and 

warfare 

.12 * Army artillery 

Example: antitank artillery 

Class here field artillery 

For antiaircraft artillery, see 358. 13; coast artillery, 358. 16 

. 1 3 * Antiaircraft artillery 

.16 *Coast artillery 

. 17 Guided missile forces and warfare 

Class here strategic missile forces and warfare, nuclear missile forces and 
warfare 

Class naval guided missile forces in 359.9817 

For air guided missile forces, see 358.42 
.171 *General topics 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 358.1701-358.1709 

. 1 74 * Antimissile defense 

Class here Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, star wars), surface-to-air 
missile forces 

Class a specific defense other than surface-to-air missiles with the 
defense, e.g., beam weapon forces 358.39, air-to-air missile forces 
358.43 

. 175 Specific surface-to-surface missile forces 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on surface-to-surface 
missile forces discontinued; class in 358.17 

.1752 *Short range 

Class here tactical missile forces 

. 1 75 3 intermediate range 

.1754 *Long range 

Class here strategic land missile forces 

. 1 76 *Surface-to-underwater missile forces 

. 1 8 * Armored forces and warfare 

Class here tank forces and warfare, armored cavalry 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 



529 



358 Dewey Decimal Classification 358 

.2 Army engineering and related services 

.22 *Engineering services 

Examples: construction of buildings and camouflage [both formerly 358.3], 
property maintenance 

Class here construction engineer services 

Class communications services in 358.24, transportation services in 358.25, 
civil works of army engineering services in 363 

.23 *Demolition services 

Including bomb disposal units 
.24 Communications (Signals and signaling) forces 

Including military cryptography services 

.25 Transportation services 

.3 Chemical, biological, radiological forces and warfare 

Regardless of service or force to which assigned 

Use of this number for other specialized forces and warfare discontinued; class 
in 358 

Manufacturing war materiel relocated to 355.26, construction of buildings and 
camouflage to 358.22 

.34 *Chemical warfare 

.38 *Biological warfare 

.39 *Radiation and beam warfare 

Class here passive defense against nuclear radiation 

Nuclear forces relocated to 355.0217 

.4 Air forces and warfare 

Naval air forces and warfare relocated to 359.94 

.400 1-.400 9 Standard subdivisions 

As modified under 355.001-355.009, e.g., air forces management 
358.416 {not 358.40068) 

.403 Situation and policy 

Standard subdivisions may be used for situation, for policy 

.407 Research and development of equipment and supplies 

.41 General topics 

Do not use standard subdivisions; class in 358.4001-358.4009 

Class general topics of specific forces in 358.42-358.47 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 



530 



358 Public administration and military science 358 

.41 1— .413 Military life and customs, resources, organization and personnel 

Add to base number 358.41 the numbers following 355 in 355.1-355.3, 
e.g., air force uniforms 358.41 14 

.414 Air operations 

Including camouflage, deception, prisoner handling 

Class here attack and defense, strategy 

For bombing operations, see 358. 42; pursuit and fighter operations, 
358.43; reconnaissance operations, 358.45 

.414 09 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 358.4147 
.414 1 Logistics 

For transportation, see 358.44; communication, 358.46 

.414 12 Encampment 

.414 15 Troop support 

Use of this number for prisoner handling discontinued; class in 
358.414 

Class a specific aspect of troop support with the aspect, e.g., 
medical service 358.41345 





.414 2 


Tactics 

Including close air support of combat 






Class tactics of defense of home territory in 358.4145 


[.414 3] 


Strategy 






Number discontinued; class in 358.414 


.414 5 


Defense of home territory 




.414 7 


Air operations geography 



Add to base number 358.4147 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., air 
operations geography of Canada 358.414771 

.414 8 Technical analyses of air war events 

Examples: analyses of real and imaginary air wars, campaigns, battles 

.4 1 5- .4 1 8 Training, administration, installations, equipment and supplies 

Add to base number 358.41 the numbers following 355 in 355.5-355.8, 
e.g., aircraft 358.4183; however, class a specific kind of aircraft with the 
force dedicated to its use in 358.42-358.47 

See Manual at 358. 4 J 83 

.418 2 Air ordnance 



531 



358 Dewey Decimal Classification 358 



> 358.42-358.47 Specific forces 

Class comprehensive works in 358.4; chemical, biological, radiological forces 
in 358.3 

.42 *Bombing forces and operations 

Including air-to-underwater guided missile forces 

Class here strategic missions of air forces; air-to-surface guided missile 
forces; comprehensive works on air guided missile forces, on air nuclear 
forces 

For air-to-air guided missile forces, air-to-air nuclear forces, see 
358.43 

43 *Pursuit and fighter forces and operations 

Including air-to-air guided missile forces, air-to-air nuclear forces, air 
artillery 

Class here tactical missions of air forces 

44 *Transportation services 

.45 *Reconnaissance forces and operations 

Example: antisubmarine reconnaissance 

.46 Communications (Signals and signaling) services 

.47 *Engineering services 

.8 *Space forces and warfare 

See also 358. 17 for missile forces when either launch or target is from or 
to the earth or its atmosphere 

359 Sea (Naval) forces and warfare 

SUMMARY 

359.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

.03- .07 [Situation and policy, research and development of equipment and 

supplies] 
.1-.2 Naval life and resources 

.3 Organization and personnel of naval forces 

.4-. 7 Naval operations, training, administration, installations 

.8 Naval equipment and supplies (Naval materiel) 

.9 Specialized combat forces; engineering and related services 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

.002 Miscellany 

[.002 8] Auxiliary techniques and equipment; apparatus, equipment, materials 

Relocated to 359.8 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 



532 



359 Public administration and military science 359 

.003- .009 Standard subdivisions 

As modified under 355.001-355.009, e.g., naval management 359.6 (not 
359.0068) 

.03 Situation and policy 

Standard subdivisions may be used for situation, for policy 

.07 Research and development of equipment and supplies 

.1-.2 Naval life and resources 

Add to base number 359 the numbers following 355 in 355.1-355.2, e.g., 
uniforms 359.14 

.3 Organization and personnel of naval forces 

.31 Naval units 

Examples: fleets, squadrons, flotillas, divisions 

Crews of ships relocated to 359.32 

Class noncombat services in 359.34, reserves in 359.37 

For ships as naval units, see 359. 32 

.32 Ships as naval units 

Class here crews of ships {formerly also 359.31] 

See also 358. 83 for ships as naval equipment 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.322 Wind-driven ships as units 

Class here wind-driven ships of war 

.325-. 326 Specific kinds of powered ships as naval units 

Add to base number 359.32 the numbers following 623.82 in 
623.825-623.826, e.g., cruisers 359.3253; however, aircraft carriers 
relocated from 359.3255 to 359.9435, submarines from 359.3257 to 
359.933, military transport ships from 359.3264 to 359.9853, military 
supply ships from 359.3265 to 359.9853 

.33-. 37 Personnel, noncombat services, fields of combat service, reserves 

Add to base number 359.3 the numbers following 355.3 in 355.33-355.37, 
e.g., noncombat services 359.34 

.4-. 7 Naval operations, training, administration, installations 

Add to base number 359 the numbers following 355 in 355.4-355.7, e.g., naval 
installations 359.7 



533 



359 Dewey Decimal Classification 359 

.8 Naval equipment [formerly also 359.0028] and supplies (Naval 

materiel) 

General aspects: development, procurement, issue, operation, use, packing, 
shipping 

Including auxiliary techniques and procedures [formerly also 359.00285] 

Class here apparatus [formerly also 359.0028]; research and development, 
administration of specific kinds of supplies and equipment 

Class comprehensive works on research and development of equipment and 
supplies in 359.07, on supply administration in 355.621; mobilization of naval 
resources in 359.28 

See Manual at 355. 07 and 355. 8 

[.807 2] Research 

Do not use; class in 359.07 

.81 Clothing, food, camp equipment, office supplies 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on equipment other than 
ordnance discontinued; class in 358.8 

See Manual at 355. 14 vs. 355. 81 

.82 Ordnance 

Class here problems of arms limitation and of verification of arms-control 
treaty provisions 

Add to base number 359.82 the numbers following 623.4 in 623.43-623.46, 
e.g., small arms 359.824; however, class ordnance on specific kinds of ships 
in 359.83, artillery in 359.981282, guided missiles in 359.981782 

Class combat vehicles and craft in 359.83 

.83 Transportation equipment and supplies 

Examples: fuel, support vehicles 

Class here comprehensive works on ships in the armed forces 

Class ships as naval units in 359.32; ships used outside the naval forces with 
the force using them, e.g., coast guard ships 359.9783 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 
.832 Wind-driven ships as equipment 

Class here wind-driven ships of war 

.835-. 836 Specific kinds of power-driven warships as equipment 

Add to base number 359.83 the numbers following 623.82 in 
623.825-623.826, e.g., cruisers 359.8353; however, aircraft carriers 
relocated from 359.8355 to 359.94835, submarines from 359.8357 to 
359.9383, military supply and transport ships from 359.836 to 359.98583 

.85 Communication equipment 

.88 Medical supplies 



534 



359 Public administration and military science 359 

.9 Specialized combat forces; engineering and related services 

Class chemical, biological, radiological forces in 358.3 

.93 *Submarine forces and warfare 

.933 Units 

Class here submarines as units [formerly 359.3257] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.938 Equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

.938 3 Submarines as equipment [formerly 359.8357] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.938 32 Conventionally powered 

.938 34 Nuclear powered 

94 *Naval air forces and warfare {formerly 358.4] 

.943 Units 

.943 4 Aircraft units 

Examples: flights, groups, squadrons, wings 

.943 5 Aircraft carriers as units [formerly 359.3255] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.948 Equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

.948 3 Combat vehicles 

Class combat vehicles as units in 359.943 

.948 34 Aircraft 

.948 35 Aircraft carriers as equipment [formerly 359.8355] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.96 Marine forces 

Add to base number 359.96 the numbers following 355 in 355.1-355.8, e.g., 
training 355.965 

.97 *Coast guard 

See Manual at 359. 97 

.98 Artillery and guided missile forces; engineering and related services 

.981 Artillery and guided missile forces 

.9812 * Artillery services 

Class artillery units aboard specific kinds of ships in 359.32; artillery 
ordnance aboard specific kinds of ships in 359.83 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 



535 



359 Dewey Decimal Classification 359 

.98 1 7 *Guided missile forces 

Class guided missile units aboard specific kinds of ships in 359.32, 
guided missile ordnance aboard specific kinds of ships in 359.83 

.982 *Engineering services 

Military sealift commands relocated to 359.985 

.983 Communications (Signals and signaling) services 

.984 Underwater demolition and reconnaissance services 

Example: frogmen 

.985 Transportation services 

Class here military sealift commands [formerly 359.982] 

.985 3 Units 

Including military transport ships as units [formerly 359.3264] 

Class here military supply ships as units [formerly 359.3265] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

.985 8 Supplies and equipment (Materiel) 

.985 83 Military supply and transport ships as equipment [formerly 359.836] 

See Manual at 359. 32 vs. 359. 83 

360 Social problems and services; association 





SUMMARY 


361 


Social problems and social welfare in general 


362 


Social welfare problems and services 


363 


Other social problems and services 


364 


Criminology 


365 


Penal and related institutions 


366 


Association 


367 


General clubs 


368 


Insurance 


369 


Miscellaneous kinds of associations 



> 361-365 Social problems and services 

Class here work and policy of government agencies that enforce the law in 
matters of social problems and services 

Class comprehensive works in 361, insurance in 368; social services in armed 
forces in 355-359, in specific wars in 900; the internal administration of 
governmental agencies, including their administrative annual reports, in 
350-354; the law itself, draft laws, enforcement by courts in 341-346 

See Manual at 301 vs. 361-365; 361-365; 361-365 vs. 350-354 

*Add as instructed under 356-359 



536 



36 1 Social problems and services; association 36 1 

361 Social problems and social welfare in general 

Social welfare: social assistance, either free or paid for in part or in full by 
recipients, to enable individuals to cope with situations usually beyond their 
individual capacities to overcome 

Class here comprehensive works on socioeconomic planning and development, on 
programs and services encompassing several branches of social sciences, on social 
problems and services 

Class social problems considered purely as social phenomena in 301-307, 
community planning and development in 307, economic planning and development 
in 338.9, specific problems and services in 362-365, description of present or past 
social conditions in 930-990 

See Manual at 361 vs. 362 







SUMMARY 


361.001 


-.00* 


\ Standard subdivisions 


.02- 


.06 


Specific kinds of assistance, counseling 


.1 




Social problems 


.2 




Social action 


.3 




Social work 


.4 




Group work 


.6 




Government action 


.7 




Private action 


.8 




Community action 


.9 




Historical, geographical, persons treatment 


.001-.008 


Standard subdivisions 






[.009] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 361.9 



361.02-361.06 Specific kinds of assistance, counseling 

Class here general discussions covering various problems and client groups, and 
both governmental and private assistance 

Class comprehensive works in 361, governmental assistance in 361.6, private 
assistance in 361.7, assistance with respect to a specific problem with the 
problem, e.g., free assistance to persons in late adulthood 362.6 

.02 Free assistance 

Class specific kinds of free assistance in 361.05-361.06 

.04 Paid assistance 

Assistance for which the recipient pays all or part of cost 
Class specific kinds of paid assistance in 361.05-361.06 

.05 Material assistance 

Examples: financial aid; relief; direct provision of food, clothing, shelter; 
recreational activities and facilities; institutional care 



537 



361 Dewey Decimal Classification 361 

.06 Guidance and related services 

Services directed toward enabling individuals and groups to assist 
themselves 

Example: citizens advice bureaus 

Class social work in 361.3 

.1 Social problems 

History, description, appraisal of areas and kinds of social breakdown, of 
problems endemic to human society 

Class specific problems in 362 

See Manual at 361. 1 vs. 362. 042, 301 

.2 Social action 

Organization, role, description, history 

Class here methods of social action {formerly also 362.0425] 

Class change as a social phenomenon in 303.4 

.23 Protest and dissent 

See Manual at 361.23-361.24 vs. 322. 44 

.24 Reform movements 

See Manual at 361.23-361.24 vs. 322. 44 

.25 Action within established social framework 

Class here policy, planning, programs, proposals; citizen participation; 
comprehensive works on governmental and private action 

Class governmental action in 361.6, private action in 361.7 

For international action, see 361.26; social work, 361.3 

.26 International action 

Class public international action in 361.6, private international action in 
361.77 

See Manual at 361 . 6 and 361 . 7, 361 . 8 
.3 Social work 

.301 Philosophy and theory 

Including policy 
.32 Practice of social work 

Class here casework 

For group work, see 361 .4 
.320 8 Casework with respect to kinds of persons [formerly also 361.38] 

.322 Interviewing 



538 



36 1 Social problems and services; association 36 1 

.323 Counseling 

Example: telephone counseling, e.g., hot lines 

.37 Volunteer social work 

Class a specific aspect of volunteer social work with the subject, e.g., 
interviewing 361.322 

[.38] Casework with respect to kinds of persons 

Relocated to 361.3208 

.4 Group work 

Class counseling in group work in 361.323 

.6 Governmental action 

Class here intergovernmental assistance and planning, governmental 
international action, interdisciplinary works on government-sponsored 
socioeconomic planning and development 

Class public social work in 361.3, combined public and private community 
action in 361.8, management of public agencies regulating social welfare 
services in 351.84 

See Manual at 361.6 and 361. 7, 361.8 

.61 Social policy 

Class welfare reform in 361.68 

.612 Goals, values, priorities 

.613 Politics and social action 

Relation of proposed actions to political structures and values 

Class effect of social action on political structures and values in 320 

.614 Welfare and human rights 

Including use of compulsory remedial action 

Class interdisciplinary works on human rights in 323 

See Manual at 323. 46 vs. 361.614 

.615 Relation of government and private sectors 

Class welfare state in 361.65 

.65 Welfare state 

Class economics of welfare state in 330.126 

.68 Welfare reform 

.7 Private action 

Class private social work in 361.3, relation of government and private sectors in 
361.615, combined governmental and private community action in 361.8 

See Manual at 361.6 and 361. 7, 361.8 



539 



361 Dewey Decimal Classification 361 

.706 81 Organization and financial management 

Class here fund raising 

.74 By individual philanthropists 

Class an organization that controls the use of the money donated by a 
philanthropist with the organization, e.g., Rockefeller Foundation 361.7632 

.75 By religious organizations 

.76 By private organizations 

Class religious organizations in 361.75, private international organizations in 
361.77 

.763 By nonprofit organizations 

Including CARE {formerly 361.77] 

.763 2 Foundations and charitable trusts 

.763 4 Red cross national societies 

Class here affiliated societies, e.g., Red Crescent 
Class comprehensive works on the Red Cross in 361.77 

.765 By business organizations 

Class ways that management can deal with charitable donations in 
658.153, programs of employers for employees in 658.38 

.766 By labor unions 

.77 By private international organizations 

Organizations whose membership is international 

Example: International Red Cross 

Including comprehensive works on the Red Cross and affiliated societies 
such as the Red Crescent 

Class Red Cross and affiliated societies of a specific nation in 361.7634 

CARE relocated to 361.763 

See also 361 . 76 for local organizations providing services worldwide 

.8 Community action 

Coordination of governmental and private action to promote the welfare of 
individuals in the community 

Examples: community chests, united givers funds 

Class community development in 307.14, governmental community action in 
361.6, private community action in 361.7 

See also 307. 12 for planning for the community as a whole 

See Manual at 361.6 and 361. 7, 361.8 



540 



361 Social problems and services; association 361 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 361.9 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., welfare work in 
Arizona 361.9791 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of specific kinds of social 
action in 361.2-361.8 






362-363 Specific social problems and services 

Except for additions, changes, deletions, exceptions shown under specific 
entries, add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 

01 Philosophy and theory 

02 Miscellany 
[0218] Standards 

Do not use; class in 62 
[0289] Safety measures 

Do not use; class in 363.1 
03-05 Standard subdivisions 
06 Organizations and management 

0681 Organization and financial management 

Including managerial cost control 
Class social measures to hold down costs in 5 
07-09 Standard subdivisions 
>l-3 Characteristics of problem 

Class comprehensive works in 362-363, without adding from this 
table 

1 Social causes 

2 Incidence, extent, severity 

3 Problems as they appear within or affect groups 

Example: co-workers 
Class here families {formerly 362.82] 

Use of this subdivision for comprehensive works on social effects 
discontinued; class in 362-363, without adding from this table 
Class family problems in 362.82 
5 Social action 

Class here social measures to hold down costs 

Add to 5 the numbers following 361 in 361.2-361.8, e.g., 

international action 526, rationing 56; however, class counseling 

in 86 

Class specific forms of action in 6-8; governmental administration 

of rationing programs in 351.829 

(continued) 



541 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 



362-363 Specific social problems and services (continued) 

>6-8 Specific forms of action 

Class comprehensive works in 5 

Works containing topics from any two of these subdivisions are 

classed in 5 

6 Control 

Elimination and reduction of hazards, of sources and causes of 

difficulty 

Class measures to protect against and to limit effects of problems 

in 7 

62 Standards 

63 Monitoring, surveillance, reporting 

64 Inspection and testing 

65 Investigation of specific incidents 

66 Certification 

7 Measures to prevent, protect against, limit effects of problems 

Class here preparedness 

Class measures that both control and prevent problems in 6 
72 Protective measures 

Examples: design of environments, warning and guidance 
systems 
[75] Safety measures 

Relocated to 363.1 

8 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

Measures applicable primarily to individuals, even if in large 

groups 

Class remedial measures directed toward altering a social function, 

e.g., cost control, in 5; social work in 53 
809 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class here the area receiving assistance, e.g., relief to Italy 
provide by the United States 80945 
Class the area providing assistance in 8, without adding 
from Table 1, e.g., relief provided by the United States to 
many countries 8, not 80973 

8 1 Rescue operations 

82 Financial assistance 

Class social insurance in 368.4 

83 Provision of food, shelter, household assistance, clothing, 
recreation 

84 Employment services 

Including vocational rehabilitation, sheltered employment 

85 Residential care 

Care within institutions existing for the purpose 

86 Counseling and guidance 

Example: legal aid 

Class comprehensive works in 361, discrimination in 305 
For criminology, see 364 
See Manual at 362-363; 364. 1 vs. 362-363; 614.5 vs. 362-363 



542 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

362 Social welfare problems and services 

Class here social security 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
mentally ill women veterans 362.2 (not 362.86 or 362.83) 



Physical illness 


362.1 


Mental and emotional illnesses and disturbances 


362.2 


Mental retardation 


362.3 


Problems of and services to people with physical 




disabilities 


362.4 


Victims of political oppression 


362.87 


Victims of crimes 


362.88 


Veterans 


362.86 


Problems of and services to persons in late adulthood 


362.6 


Problems of and services to young people 


362.7 


Laboring classes 


362.85 


Women 


362.83 


Members of racial, ethnic, national groups 


362.84 


Problems of and services to the poor 


362.5 


Families 


362.82 



To indicate the relation of a specific kind of problem to a specific kind of person, 
add notation 08 from Table 1 to the number for the problem, e.g., narcotic 
addiction among young adults 362.2930835 

For social security as a form of social insurance, see 368.4 

See Manual at 361 vs. 362; 364. 1 vs. 362-363; 368.4 vs. 362 

SUMMARY 

362.04 Special topics 

.1 Physical illness 

.2 Mental and emotional illnesses and disturbances 

.3 Mental retardation 

.4 Problems of and services to people with physical disabilities 

.5 Problems of and services to the poor 

.6 Problems of and services to persons in late adulthood 

.7 Problems of and services to young people 

.8 Problems of and services to other groups 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Social problems 

See Manual at 361. 1 vs. 362. 042, 301 
.042 2 Incidence, extent, severity 

Including social effects 
.042 3 Social causes 

.042 4 Prevention 



543 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

.042 5 Social action 

Including remedial measures 
Methods of social action relocated to 361.2 
Class prevention in 362.0424 
[.08] Social welfare problems and services with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class in 362.1-362.8 
[.09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 362.9 



362.1-362.4 Problems of and services to sick and disabled people 

Class comprehensive works in 362. 1 ; incidence of and public measures to 
prevent physical diseases in 614.4-614.5 

See Manual at 362. 1-362. 4 vs. 610; 614. 4-614. 5 vs. 362. 1-362. 4 

.1 Physical illness 

Class here interdisciplinary works on illness and disability, on medical care and 
treatment, on medical missions, on public health 

Class problems of and services to persons with a specific physical disability 
regardless of cause in 362.4; technology of medicine in 610; religious aspects of 
medical missions in 266; sociology of medicine, of health, of illness in 306.461 

For mental and emotional illness, see 362. 2; mental retardation, 362.3 

.102 3 Services to physically ill persons as a profession, occupation, hobby 

Class here comprehensive works on health occupations peripheral to 
the medical and paramedical professions 

Class specific peripheral professions with the subject, e.g., medical 
social workers 362.10425, hospital secretaries 651.3741; works 
covering both the medical and peripheral occupations in 610 

.104 Special topics 

.1042 Social aspects 

Class preventive measures in 614.4-614.5 

See Manual at 368.382 vs. 362. 1042 
.104 22 Social effects 

Class incidence in 614.4 

. 1 04 25 Forms of assistance 

Including services to indigent patients [formerly 362.19], medical 
social work, services of health maintenance organizations 
(HMOs), rural health services 

Class accident and health insurance in 368.38, 
government-sponsored accident and health insurance in 368.42 



544 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

. 1 04 252 Financial assistance 

.104 256 Counseling and guidance 

.1068 Management 

Class here peer reviews 

Class the results of peer reviews with the subject, e.g., the results of 
the evaluation of New York City hospitals 362.1 1097471 

.108 Services to specific kinds of physically ill persons 

Class services rendered by groups of persons to the physically ill in 
362.1, physical illness among groups of persons in 616.008 

.108 3 Services to young people 

Class services to infants and children up to puberty in 362.19892 

[.108 46] Services to persons in late adulthood 

Do not use; class 362.19897 



362.1 1-362.19 Medical services 
Free and paid 
Class comprehensive works in 362.1, medical treatment in 616 



362.1 1-362.16 Services of specific kinds of institutions 

Class comprehensive works in 362.1, services of health maintenance 
organizations in 362.10425, specific kinds of services provided by a specific 
institution in 362.17, services by a specific institution to patients with specific 
conditions in 362.19 

. 1 1 Services of hospitals and related institutions 

For clinics and related institutions, see 362. 12; extended care facilities, 
362. 16 

. 1 2 Services of clinics and related institutions 

Examples: health centers, dispensaries, outpatient departments of general 
hospitals 

Class here ambulatory services, community health services 

. 1 4 Professional home care 

Including visiting nurses' services, services of health visitors 

See also 649. 8 for home care by family members 



545 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

. 1 6 Services of extended care facilities 

Services of institutions rendering medical care for patients requiring 
long-term or convalescent care 

Example: services of convalescent homes 

Including sanitoriums for persons suffering from chronic diseases 

Class here life care communities, nursing and rest homes, services of 
extended care facilities for persons in late adulthood 

[.160 846] Services of extended care facilities for persons in late adulthood 

Do not use; class in 362.16 

.17 Specific services 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in 
two or more subdivisions of this number in the number coming last, e.g., 
diagnostic services by doctors 362.177 (not 362.172) 

Class forms of assistance in 362.10425, emergency services in 362.18, 
specific kinds of services to patients with specific conditions in 362.19, 
technology of the services in 610, group practice in 610.65, preventive 
services in 614.44 

See Manual at 362. 17 vs. 610 
. 1 72 Services of doctors 

Including referral and consulting services 
. 1 73 Services of nurses 

Class visiting nurses' services in 362.14 
. 1 73 068 Management of services of nurses 

Class here nonmedical aspects of ward management 
.174 Intensive care 

.175 Terminal care 

Including hospices 

Class here services to terminal patients [formerly 362.19] 
.176 Nutritional services 

Class here feeding of sick, comprehensive works on the provision of 
special diets for various classes of sick people 

Class nutritional services applied to malnutrition disorders in 362.19639, 
nutritional programs for the population at large in 363.8 

.177 Diagnostic and screening services 

Example: radiology services 



546 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

.178 Therapeutic services 

.1782 Pharmaceutical services 

Class nutritional services in 362.176 
.178 3 Tissue and organ banks 

Example: eye banks 

For blood and blood plasma banks, see 362. 1784 

.1784 Blood and blood plasma banks 

.1786 Rehabilitation services 

. 1 8 Emergency services 

.188 Ambulance services 

.19 Services to patients with specific conditions 

Class here living with a physical disease 

Add to base number 362.19 the numbers following 61 in 616-618, e.g., 
maternity hospitals 362.1982, children's wards 362.19892, dental care 
362.1976; however, class services to the mentally ill in 362.2. In adding to 
362.19, the tables under 616.1-616.9, 617, or 618.1-618.8 are used only for 
the addition of notation from Table 1, e.g., periodicals on dental care 
362.1976005, services to patients with congenital dental disorders 362.1976 
(not 362.1976043) 

Services to indigent patients relocated to 362.10425, terminal patients to 
362.175 

Class incidence of disease in 614.4, of specific diseases in 614.5 

.2 Mental and emotional illnesses and disturbances 

Class here mental handicaps that consist of mental retardation combined with 
mental illness 

Class mental retardation in 362.3, life with a psychiatric disorder in 616.890092 

See Manual at 614 vs. 362. 1, 362. 2 

.204 Special topics 

.204 2 Social aspects 

.204 22 Incidence, extent, severity 

Including social effects 

.204 25 Prevention and forms of assistance 

Class here psychiatric social work 

.204 251 Emergency and rescue operations 

Class here comprehensive works on emergency services 
[formerly 362.28], hot lines 

.204 252 Financial assistance 

.204 256 Counseling and guidance 

547 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 



362.21-362.24 Medical services 

Class comprehensive works in 362.2, medical treatment in 616.8, care for 
specific problems in 362.25-362.29 

.21 Services of psychiatric hospitals and related institutions 

For services of psychiatric clinics, see 362.22; of sanitoriums and 
nursing homes, 362.23 

.22 Community mental health services 

Class here services of psychiatric clinics 

.223 Group homes 

.23 Services of sanitoriums and nursing homes 

.24 Professional home care 



> 362.25-362.29 Specific problems 

Class comprehensive works in 362.2 

.25 Neuroses 

Examples: anorexia nervosa, compulsive gambling, depression 

.26 Psychoses 

Example: schizophrenia 

.27 Disorders of personality and character 

Example: kleptomania 

For suicide, see 362. 28; substance abuse, 362. 29 

.28 *Suicide 

Class here suicidal compulsions 

Comprehensive works on emergency services relocated to 362.204251 

.288 1 Emergency and rescue services 

Class here hot lines 

.29 Substance abuse 

Class here drug abuse; interdisciplinary works on substance abuse, 
addiction, habituation, intoxication 

Class subculture of substance abusers in 306.1, drug traffic in 363.45, drug 
use as a custom in 394.1, medical aspects of substance abuse in 616.86; 
abuse of substances associated with systems other than the nervous system 
in 362.19, e.g., food addiction 362.19639808 

Works on "drug abuse" in the sense of only narcotic abuse are classed in 
362.293 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 

548 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

.291 Specific aspects of substance abuse 

Add to base number 362.291 notation 1-8 from table under 362-363, 
e.g., prevention of substance abuse 362.2917; however, class control of 
drug traffic in 363.45 

Notation from 362-363 is added for both specific aspects of two or more 
of the substances provided for in 362.292-362.298 and for a combination 
of substances provided for in 362.292-362.298 and in 362.299, e.g., 
counseling for alcohol and cocaine abuse, for narcotics and stimulant 
abuse 362.29186 

Class specific aspects of a specific substance in 362.292-362.299 

.292 *Alcohol 

Class here interdisciplinary works on alcoholism 

Class a specific aspect of alcoholism with the aspect, e.g., medical 
aspects 616.861 

[.292 6] Control of sale of alcoholic beverages 

Do not use; class in 363.41 

.292 7 Measures to prevent alcohol abuse and limit its effects {formerly 

362.29286] 

.292 8 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

.292 86 Counseling and guidance 

Class here services of Alcoholics Anonymous 

Measures to prevent alcohol abuse and limit its effects relocated to 
362.2927 

.293 *Narcotics 

Opium and its derivatives and synthetic equivalents 

Class here specific narcotics, e.g, heroin, morphine 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on drug abuse 
discontinued; class in 362.29 

Cocaine relocated to 362.298 

.293 7 Measures to prevent narcotic abuse and limit its effects [formerly 

362.29386] 

.293 8 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

.293 86 Counseling and guidance 

Measures to prevent narcotic abuse and limit its effects relocated 
to 362.2937 

.294 *Hallucinogens and *psychedelics 

Class here specific hallucinogens and psychedelics, e.g., LSD, mescaline, 
PCP 

Class cannabis in 362.295 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 

549 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

.295 *Cannabis 

Class here specific kinds of cannabis, e.g., hashish, marijuana 
.296 Tobacco 

.298 *Cocaine [formerly 362.293] 

Class here specific forms of cocaine, e.g., crack 
.299 Other substances 

Examples: analgesics, depressants, inhalants, sedatives, stimulants 

Class here designer drugs (synthetic drugs of abuse), prescription drugs 

Class alcohol in 362.292, designer hallucinogens in 362.294, cocaine in 
362.298 

.299 1 Specific aspects of more than one substance 

Add to base number 362.2991 notation 1-8 from table under 
362-363, e.g., prevention of abuse of uppers and downers 362.29717 

.3 *Mental retardation 

Class comprehensive works on treatment of mental retardation and mental 
illness in 362.2, on problems of and services to developmentally disabled 
people (those who have neurological diseases combined with mental retardation 
and whose problems exhibit themselves before age 18) in 362.1968 

.36 Control of mental retardation 

Including eugenic measures to reduce mental retardation 

.4 Problems of and services to people with physical disabilities 

Regardless of cause 

Class here comprehensive works on problems of and services to people with 
disabilities, to people with mental and physical disabilities 

Class problems of and services to people with mental disabilities in 362.3, 
comprehensive medical works in 617 

.404 Special topics 

Add to base number 362.404 notation 1-8 from table under 362-363, 
e.g., social work with people with physical disabilities 362.40453 

.41 ^Persons with impaired vision 

Class here blind persons, blind-deaf persons 
For deaf persons , see 362.42 
.42 *Persons with impaired hearing 

Class here deaf persons 

Class comprehensive works on persons with linguistic and communication 
disabilities in 362.196855, blind-deaf persons in 362.41 

See also 371.912 for teaching of the deaf 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 

550 






362 Social problems and services; association 362 

.428 3 Direct relief 

Including provision of hearing aids [formerly also 362.63] 

43 *Persons with mobility impairment 

Subdivisions are added for services to persons with specific mobility 
impairments, e.g., residential care for paraplegics 362.4385 

.5 *Problems of and services to the poor 

Class here services to homeless people 
.5 1 Social causes 

Class economic causes in 339.46 
.53 Social effects 

Class economic effects in 339.46 

.57 Measures to prevent and limit effects of poverty 

Class economic measures to prevent poverty in 339, eugenic measures in 
363.98 

.58 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

Class food stamp programs in 363.882, birth control as a remedy for poverty 
in 363.96, assistance to the poor under social security in 368.4 

.582 Financial assistance 

Including guaranteed minimum income, negative income tax 
Class here supplementary social security for low income people 
Class aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) in 362.713 

.583 Direct relief 

Class housing in 363.5, food programs in 363.8 

.6 Problems of and services to persons in late adulthood 

Class here social gerontology 

[.604] Special topics 

Number and its subdivision for social gerontology discontinued; class in 
362.6 

.61 Residential (Institutional) care 

Class here services of homes, institutions providing complete care 

Class institutions providing residential care to medical patients in 362.16, 
housing in 363.5946 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



551 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

.63 Direct relief 

Including provision of financial aid, food, shelter, household assistance, 
clothing, recreation 

Provision of hearing aids relocated to 362.4283 

For residential care, see 362. 61, employment services, 362. 64 

.64 Employment services 

Including sheltered employment, vocational rehabilitation 

.66 Counseling and guidance 

.7 Problems of and services to young people 

Through age 17 

Class here children 

[.704] Special topics 

Number and its subdivision for social aspects discontinued; class in 
362.7 

[.704 4] Socially and economically handicapped, illegitimate, abandoned, abused 

and neglected children; orphans 

Socially and economically handicapped children relocated to 
362.7086; illegitimate children to 362.7086945; abandoned children, 
orphans to 362.73; abused and neglected children to 362.76 

.708 3 Young people 

Class here young men [formerly 362.792] and young women 
{formerly 362.793] 

.708 6 Persons by social and economic characteristics 

Class here socially and economically handicapped children {formerly 
also 362.7044] 

[.708 692] Maladjusted young people 

Do not use; class in 362.74 

.708 694 5 Illegitimate children {formerly 362.7044] 

Class abandoned children, orphans in 362.73; abused and 
neglected children in 362.76 

[.708 9] Racial, ethnic, national groups 

Do not use; class in 362.797 



362.71-362.73 Specific kinds of services to young people 

Class comprehensive works in 362.7, services to specific kinds of young people 
in 362.74-362.79 



552 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

.71 Direct relief 

Including recreational services 

Protection for abused and neglected children relocated to 362.768 

.712 Day care services 

.713 Aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) 

.73 Institutional and related services 

Class here abandoned children, orphans [both formerly 362.7044] 

.732 Institutional care 

Examples: services of children's homes 

Including houseparents 

.733 Foster home care 

Class here comprehensive works on foster home care and adoption 

For adoption, see 362. 734 

.734 Adoption 

Including confidentiality of adoption records 

Class comprehensive works on the activities of adopted persons seeking 
their natural parents in 362.8298 



362.74-362.79 Specific kinds of young people 

Class comprehensive works in 362.7; abandoned children, orphans in 362.73 

.74 Maladjusted young people 

Including predelinquents, runaways 

Class here specific services to maladjusted young people, halfway houses for 
young people who have not committed any crimes 

Class mentally and emotionally ill young people in 362.2083, juvenile 
delinquents in 364.36, halfway houses for the transition from reform school 
to society in 365.42, families with missing children in 362.8297 

.76 *Abused and neglected children {formerly 362.7044] 

.768 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

Including protection for abused and neglected children [formerly 362.71] 

.79 Classes of young people 

Limited to classes listed below 

Class maladjusted young people regardless of other characteristics in 
362.74, specific services to specific classes of young people in 
362.71-362.73 

e Add as instructed under 362-363 



553 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

[.792] Young men 

Relocated to 362.7083 
[.793] Young women 

Relocated to 362.7083 
[.795] Children 

Use of this number discontinued; class in 362.7 
.796 Young adults 

Ages 12 to 17 

Class city, rural, immigrant young adults in 362.799 

.797 Young people of racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 362.797 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., young 
Afro-Americans 362.79796073 

Class city and rural young people, immigrants of racial, ethnic, national 
groups in 362.799; young adults of racial, ethnic, national groups in 
362.796 

.799 City and rural youth, immigrants 

Use of this number for miscellaneous classes discontinued; class in 362.7 

.8 Problems of and services to other groups 

.82 *Families 

Specific problems not provided for here relocated to the specific problem, 
using 3 from table under 362-363, e.g., families with alcoholic members 
362.2923 

Family welfare when synonymous with general welfare is classed in 362 

.828 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

Class services and forms of assistance for specific problems in 362.829, 
family planning programs in 363.96 

.828 2 Financial assistance 

Class aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) in 362.713 
.828 3 Direct relief 

Example: visiting housekeepers 

Class day care in 362.712 
.828 6 Counseling and guidance 

Examples: premarital and marriage counseling 
.829 Specific problems 

Not provided for elsewhere 
*Add as instructed under 362-363 



554 



362 Social problems and services; association 362 

.829 2 *Abuse within the family 

Class here parent, spouse abuse 

Class abused children in 362.76, abuse as a crime in 364.1555 
.829 4 *Single-parent family 

Class here divorce 
.829 5 *Parents in prison 

.829 7 *Missing children 

Class here parental kidnapping 

Class runaway children in 362.74 

.829 8 * Adoptees and biological parents 

Class adoption in 362.734; a specific aspect of children seeking their 
biological parents with the aspect, e.g., confidentiality of adoption 
records 362.734, genealogical searching 929.1 

.83 *Women 

Class wife abuse in 362.8292, rape in 362.883 

.839 Specific classes of women 

.839 2 *Unmarried mothers 

.84 Members of racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 362.84 notation 03-99 from Table 5, e.g., social 
services to Italians in the United States 362.8451073 

.85 *Laboring classes 

Including migrant workers 

.86 * Veterans 

Class here veterans' rights and benefits [formerly also 355.1 15] 

.868 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

.868 2 Financial assistance 

Including financial assistance for education 

Class veterans' pensions in 331.2529 

.87 *Victims of political oppression 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



555 



362 Dewey Decimal Classification 362 

.88 Victims of crimes 

Including crime prevention for the individual 

Class here victimology 

Class services to abused and neglected children in 362.76, services to abused 
family members in 362.8292, crime prevention for society as a whole in 
364.4 

.883 Rape 

Including rape prevention for individuals 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 362.9 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., social welfare in 
France 362.944 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of specific social problems in 
362.1-362.8 

363 Other social problems and services 

Class here public works 

Class communication facilities in 384, transportation facilities in 388 

Standard subdivisions are added for comprehensive treatment of environmental and 
safety problems of society, e.g., assuring a safe and secure environment for Japan 
363.0952 

See Manual at 363: 363 vs. 340, 350-354; 364. 1 vs. 362-363 





SUMMARY 


363.1 


Public safety programs 


.2 


Police services 


.3 


Other aspects of public safety 


.4 


Controversies related to public morals and customs 


.5 


Housing 


.6 


Public utilities and related services 


.7 


Environmental problems and services 


.8 


Food supply 


.9 


Population problems 



556 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.1 Public safety programs 

Class here safety measures {formerly also with the specific topic, using 75 from 
table under 362-363], interdisciplinary works on safety 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, 
e.g., use of hazardous materials in health care facilities 363.17 {not 363.15) 

Hazardous materials 363.17 

Hazards in sports and recreation 363.14 

Transportation hazards 363. 1 2 

Hazardous machinery 363. 1 8 

Product hazards 363 . 1 9 

Domestic hazards 363.13 

Hazards in health care facilities 363. 15 

Occupational and industrial hazards 363. 1 1 

Class police services in 363.2, aspects of public safety not provided for here in 
363.3; managerial response to safety requirements in 658.408, safety 
management in a specific industry with the industry, using notation 0684 from 
Table 1, e.g., safety management in petroleum industry 665.50684; a specific 
kind of remedial measure other than rescue operations with the measure, e.g., 
medical care for the injured 362.1; safety technology of a specific subject with 
the subject, using notation 0289 from Table 1, e.g., safety technology in 
hydraulic engineering 627.0289; comprehensive works on safety management 
in 658.408 

See Manual at 363. 1 

SUMMARY 

363.100 1— .105 Standard subdivisions and general topics 

.11 Occupational and industrial hazards 

.12 Transportation hazards 

.13 Domestic hazards 

.14 Hazards in sports and recreation 

.15 Hazards in health care facilities 

.17 Hazardous materials 

.18 Hazardous machinery 

.19 Product hazards 

.100 1— .105 Standard subdivisions and general topics 

Add to base number 363.10 notation 01-5 from table under 362-363, 
e.g., public action to promote safety 363.1056 

. 1 06 Public control of safety 

.1062 Standards 

.106 3 Monitoring, surveillance, reporting 

. 1 06 4 Inspection and testing 



557 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

. 1 06 5 Investigation of specific incidents 

Class here comprehensive works on safety investigation 

Class technical or engineering aspects in 600, e.g., wreckage studies 
of automobile accidents 629.2826; accounts of specific incidents that 
affected general social life and history in 900, e.g., San Francisco 
earthquake 979.461051 

See Manual at 363. 1065; 363. 34 

.1066 Certification 

. 1 07-. 108 Prevention; remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 

Add to base number 363.10 notation 7-8 from table under 362-363, e.g., 
alarm and warning systems 363.1072 [formerly also 384.7], counseling 
363.1086 

. 1 1 Occupational and industrial hazards 

.119 Occupational and industrial hazards in specific industries and 

occupations 

Add to base number 363.1 19 notation 001-999, e.g., hazards in coal 
mining 363.1 19622334; however, class hazards to transportation workers 
in 363.12, to domestic workers in 363.13, to professional athletes in 
363.14, to workers in health care facilities in 363.15 

. 1 2 Transportation hazards 

Class here accidents, fires resulting from accidents 

Class transportation fires (e.g., fires caused by deficient electrical wiring in a 
railroad car) in 363.379 

. 1 20 1 - . 1 20 8 Standard subdivisions and general topics 

Add to base number 363.120 notation 01-8 from table under 
362-363, e.g., accident prevention 363.1207 



.122 


*Rail transportation 


.123 


* Water transportation 




Class here water safety 




Class safety in water sports in 363.14 


.124 


*Air and space transportation 


.124 1 


Causes of air and space accidents 


.124 12 


Natural factors 




Examples: birds, clear-air turbulence (CAT) 


.124 14 


Operator failures 


.124 16 


Vehicle failures 


.124 18 


Failures of traffic control 




Class traffic control as a preventive measure in 363.12472 


*Add as instructed under 362-363 




558 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

. 1 24 65 Investigation of specific air and space accidents 

Class here general investigations of aircraft accidents 

Class wreckage studies in 629.13255 
.124 9 Specific types of accidents and accidents in specific types of services 

. 1 24 92 Specific types of accidents 

Examples: midair collisions, takeoff accidents 
.124 93 Accidents in specific types of services 

Examples: air-taxi services, helicopter services 

Class specific types of accidents in specific types of services in 
363.12492 

. 1 25 *Highway and urban vehicular transportation 

.1251 Causes of accidents 

Examples: operator failures and disabilities, use of drugs, vehicle 
failures, highway and street conditions, weather conditions 

.125 65 Investigation of specific vehicular and highway accidents 

Class here general investigations of automobile accidents 
Class wreckage studies in 629.2826 

.125 9 Hazards in use of specific types of vehicles other than automobiles 

Examples: bicycles, motorcycles, trucks 

.13 * Domestic hazards 

.14 Hazards in * sports and *recreation 

. 1 5 *Hazards in health care facilities 

.17 *Hazardous materials 

Manufacture, transportation, use 

Class here interdisciplinary works on hazardous materials, works on the 
control of such materials in their ordinary commercial setting (manufacture, 
sale, commercial and industrial use, disposal) 

Class hazardous materials as components of articles that become hazardous 
products in 363.19, as impurities in the water supply 363.61, as hazardous 
wastes in 363.728, as environmental pollutants in 363.738 

See Manual at 363. 17; 363. 176 vs. 604. 7 

.176 3 Monitoring, surveillance, reporting 

Class here studies on the applicability of both social and technical 
findings of environmental chemistry and additive toxicology to the 
monitoring of hazardous materials 

: Add as instructed under 362-363 



559 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

. 1 79 Specific hazardous materials 

Example: corrosive materials 

.1791 Toxic chemicals 

Examples: asbestos, lead 

Class toxic agricultural chemicals in 363.1792 

.1792 * Agricultural chemicals 

Class here pesticides 

.179 8 Explosives, fuels, related products 

Class here safety considerations with respect to especially flammable 
materials, control of explosives as ordinary hazardous materials 

Class control of use of explosives by potentially reckless or malign 
users in 363.33 

See also 363. 19 for products (e.g., sweaters, mattresses) that 
might constitute unsuspected fire hazards, 363.377 for measures 
to control accumulation of ordinary combustible materials 

. 1 79 9 *Radioactive materials 

Class here nuclear accidents [formerly also 363.3497] 

.18 *Hazardous machinery 

. 1 89 Specific kinds of hazardous machinery 

Examples: electrical, x-ray equipment 

.19 Product hazards 

Adulteration, contamination, safety, adequacy, effectiveness of products 
offered for human consumption and use 

Including household appliances, textiles, toys 

Class here hazards due to containers and applicators that accompany 
products 

.192 *Foods 

.1929 Specific foods 

Examples: beverages, canned goods, dairy products, meats 

. 1 94 *Drugs and medicines 

.196 *Cosmetics 

.2 Police services 

Class social service functions of police in 362, e.g., counseling of rape victims 
362.883; police services in control of factors affecting public morals in 363.4 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



560 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 



SUMMARY 

363.22 Personnel 

.23 Police functions 

.24 Auxiliary services 

.25 Detection of crime (Criminal investigation) 

.28 Services of special kinds of security and law enforcement agencies 

.206 8] Management 

Do not use; class in 35 1 .74 

.22 Personnel 

Duties, functions, activities 

Class specific duties, functions, activities in 363.23-363.25 



363.23-363.25 Specific aspects of police services 

Class comprehensive works in 363.2, specific aspects of services of special 
kinds of security and law enforcement agencies in 363.28 

.23 Police functions 

Class here prevention of crime by police {formerly also 364.46], law 
enforcement 

For detection of crime, see 363. 25; control of violence and terrorism, 
363.32 

.232 Patrol and surveillance 

Including pursuit and apprehension of lawbreakers, use of deadly force, 
undercover work 

For highway patrol, see 363. 2332 

.233 Enforcement of civil laws 

Example: enforcement of building codes, licensing laws and ordinances, 
sanitation laws 

.233 2 Traffic control 

Including highway patrol 

Class comprehensive works on traffic control in 363.1256, 
investigation of traffic offenses in 363.25, wreckage studies in 
629.2826 

.233 6 Location of missing persons 

.24 Auxiliary services 

Examples: communication services, photograph and fingerprint files, police 
records 



561 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.25 Detection of crime (Criminal investigation) 

Class here forensic science (criminalistics); evidence, circumstantial 
evidence 

For forensic medicine, see 614.1 

See also 364. 1 for criminal offenses 



363.252-363.258 Specific techniques and kinds of evidence 

Class comprehensive works in 363.25; comprehensive works on detection of a 
specific kind of offense in 362.259; detection of a specific offense in 364.1, e.g., 
detection of a murder in New York City 364.1523097471 



363.252-363.256 Procurement and analysis of evidence 

Class comprehensive works in 363.25, evidence used in identification of 
criminals not listed here in 363.258 

.252 Procurement of evidence 

Examples: electronic surveillance, search and seizure, use of informers 
and secret agents 

For interrogation of witnesses, see 363. 254 

.254 Interrogation of witnesses 

Including use of polygraph (lie detector) 

.256 Analysis of evidence 

Class here laboratories 

Class files resulting from criminal investigations in 363.24 

.256 2 Physical evidence 

Examples: analysis of blood and hair, use of ballistics 

.256 5 Documentary evidence 

Including analysis of handwriting and typewriting 

.258 Identification of criminals 

Examples: artists' sketches, fingerprints, lineups, photographs, voice 
prints 

Class files resulting from criminal investigations in 363.24 

.259 Detection of specific types of offenses 

Add to base number 363.259 the numbers following 364.1 in 
364.13-364.18, e.g., investigation of murder 363.259523 

Class specific techniques of investigation of specific types of offenses in 
363.252-363.258; detection of a specific crime in 364.1, e.g., detection 
of a murder in New York City 364.1523097471 



562 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.28 Services of special kinds of security and law enforcement agencies 

Example: park police 

Class agencies to carry out specific police functions in 363.23, to investigate 
specific kinds of crime in 363.259, postal inspectors in 383.46 

.282 Sheriffs and marshals 

.283 Secret police 

[.284] Narcotics agents 

Relocated to 363.45 

.285 Border patrols 

.286 Coast guards and harbor patrols 

.287 Transportation security services 

Class automobile traffic control in 363.2332 

For harbor patrols , see 363. 286 

See also 363 . 379 for transportation fire hazards 

.287 2 River security services 

.287 4 Railway security services 

.287 6 Air transportation security services 

Examples: airport police, sky marshals 

.289 Private detective and police services 

Examples: body guards, campus police, store detectives 

.3 Other aspects of public safety 

See Manual at 363. 1 

.3 1 Censorship and control of information 

Class here censorship and control of information as routine governmental 
functions 

Class civil rights aspects in 323.445, legal aspects in 342.0853; censorship 
as an illicit governmental activity in 35 1 .996 

See Manual at 303. 376 vs. 363. 31, 791.4 

.32 Control of violence and terrorism 

Including quelling riots [formerly also 355.426], crowd control 

.33 Control of explosives and firearms 

Class here control of use by potentially reckless or malign users, 
comprehensive works on gun control 

Class gun control as a civil rights issue in 323.43, control of explosives as 
ordinary hazardous materials in 363.1798 



563 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.34 *Disasters 

Class a specific kind of remedial measure other than those applied 
immediately at the time and site of the disaster with the subject, e.g., 
medical care for the injured 362.1; disasters treated as historical events in 
900 

.348 Rescue and salvage operations 

Forms of assistance applied immediately at the time and site of the 
disaster 

Class here comprehensive works on disaster relief, rescue and salvage 
operations for disasters in general 

Class a specific form of disaster relief not provided for here with the 
relief, e.g., long-range planning to replace housing lost due to a volcanic 
eruption 363.58; disaster relief, rescue and salvage operations for specific 
types of disasters with the type, using subdivision 8 1 from the table 
under 362-363, e.g., rescue operations for flood victims 363.349381; 
raising funds for mounting and carrying out the disaster relief in 
363.34570681 

.349 Specific kinds of disasters 

Class epidemics, pandemics in 362.1; fires in 363.37 

Specific kinds of disasters resulting from one of the hazards listed in 
363.1 are classed with the hazard, e.g., shipwrecks 363.123, 
transportation accidents in 363.12, nuclear accidents 363.1799 

.349 2 Disasters caused by weather conditions 

Examples: hurricanes, snowstorms, tornadoes 

For floods, see 363.3493 

.349 3 *Floods 

.349 36 Control of floods 

Class technology of flood control in 627.4 

.349 5 Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 

.349 7 Disasters induced by human activity 

Examples: civil disorders, explosions, riots 

Nuclear accidents relocated to 363.1799 

For transportation accidents, see 363. 119; war, 363.3498 

.349 8 *War 

For civil defense, see 363. 35 

See also 303. 66 for sociology of war 

[.349 87] Measures to prevent, protect against, limit effects of war 

Do not use; class in 327.17 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



564 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.349 88 War relief 

Class problems of war refugees when not treated directly in the 
context of the war in 362.87; war relief during a specific war with 
the war, e.g., relief work of Germany during World War I 
940.477843 

.35 Civil defense 

Measures to defend civilian populations only against war 
.37 *Fire hazards 

Class fire fighting and fire safety technology in 628.92 

.377 Fire prevention 

Class here measures to control accumulation of ordinary combustible 
materials 

Class safety considerations with respect to especially flammable 
materials in 363.1798, safety of products (e.g., sweaters, mattresses) that 
might constitute unsuspected fire hazards in 363.19 

.378 Fire extinction and related services 

.378 1 Rescue operations 

.379 Fire hazards in specific situations 

Examples: in transportation, in schools, in high-rise buildings 

Including forest fires 

.4 Controversies related to public morals and customs 

Treated as social problems 

Class censorship and control of information in 363.31; a controversy treated 
other than as a social issue with the aspect of the controversy, e.g., ethics of 
gambling 174.6 (not 363.42) 

.41 Sale of alcoholic beverages 

Class problems of and services to alcoholics in 362.292, sale of alcoholic 
beverages as an offense against revenue in 364.133, public drunkenness as 
an offense in 364.173 

.42 Gambling 

Class compulsive gambling in 362.25, gambling as a crime in 364.172 
.44 Prostitution 

Class prostitution as a crime in 364.1534 
*Add as instructed under 362-363 



565 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.45 Drug traffic 

Class here narcotics agents [formerly also 363.284] 

Class problems of and services to drug addicts in 362.29, illegal sale, 
possession, use of drugs in 364. 1 77 

See also 363.41 for sale of alcoholic beverages 

.46 Abortion 

Class abortion as a crime in 364.185 

.47 Obscenity and pornography 

Class obscenity and pornography as crimes in 364.174 

.48 Pre- and extramarital relations 

Class pre- and extramarital relations as crimes in 364.153 

For prostitution, see 363.44 

.49 Homosexuality 

Class interdisciplinary works in 306.766, homosexuality as a crime in 
364.1536 

.5 *Housing 

Class here interdisciplinary works on housing, housing as a social problem 

Class a specific aspect of housing with the subject, e.g., sociological aspects 
307.336, economic aspects 333.338, provision of temporary housing (shelter) 
361.05 

See Manual at 307. 336 vs. 307. 34, 363. 5; 363. 5, 363. 6, 363. 8 vs. 338; 
643.1 vs. 363.5 

[.508] Housing of specific kinds of persons 

Do not use; class in 363.59 

.5 1 Housing conditions 

Including discrimination in housing 

Class housing allocation to relieve discrimination in 363.55 

[.52] Incidence, extent, severity of housing problems 

Do not use; class in 363.51 

.55 Social action with respect to housing 

Class here housing allocation to relieve discrimination 

.58 Programs and services 

Do not use subdivisions of 8 from the table under 362-363 

.582 Financial assistance 

Class here housing allowances, rental subsidies, subsidized housing 

'Add as instructed under 362-363 

566 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.583 Programs and services for specific objectives 

Examples: home ownership, payment of energy bills, rehabilitation, 
resettlement, urban homesteading, weatherization 

.585 Public operated housing 

Class here council housing 

.59 Housing of specific classes of people 

Add to base number 363.59 the numbers following —08 in notation 
081-089 from Table 1, e.g., housing for persons in late adulthood 363.5946; 
however, class extended medical care for older adults in 362.16, 
comprehensive works on homelessness in 362.5, institutional care for 
healthy older adults in 362.61, specific aspects of housing the poor or 
low-income housing in 363.51-363.58 

[.590 8] Housing of specific kinds of persons 

Do not use; class in 363.59 

.6 Public utilities and related services 

Class here problems of allocation among end users, measures to assure 
abundance of immediately available supplies and services 

Class communication in 384, transportation in 388 

See Manual at 363. 5, 363. 6, 363. 8 vs. 338; 363. 6 vs. 333. 7 

.61 Water supply 

Class here comprehensive works on water supply, on water-related public 
works, e.g., a study covering waterworks, treatment plants, canals, flood 
control, hydroelectric generation 

Class a specific topic with the subject, e.g., flood control 363.34936 

See Manual at 363. 61 



[.62] 


Electrical utilities 




Relocated to 333.7932 


.63 


Gas 



.68 Park and recreation services 



Class here services maintained or proposed after land has been designated 
for parks, establishment and operation of recreational centers primarily 
serving the general public 

Class park policy and park development in 333.783; recreational centers in 
790.068; a specific cultural institution maintained by park and recreation 
services with the institution, e.g., museums 069, theaters 792 



567 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.69 Historic preservation 

Including identification and designation of historic buildings and areas 

Class here public policies to protect and restore historic buildings and areas 
and to promote appreciation of them 

Class technology of building restoration and preservation in 721.0288 

.7 Environmental problems and services 

Class here environmental protection; impact of wastes, of pollution, of actions 
to control waste and pollution 

Class comprehensive works on the environment in 333.7; impacts on specific 
environments or resources with the impact, e.g., economic impact on Rome of a 
major new waste treatment facility 330.945632, impact of the same treatment 
plant on the waters of the Tiber River 333.916214094562; projected impacts 
with the program or development that is being studied, e.g., projected impact of 
proposed standards for water pollution 363.739462 

See Manual at 363. 7 vs. 333. 72, 304. 28 

SUMMARY 

363.700 1-.707 2 Standard subdivisions and general topics 

.72 Sanitation problems and services 

.73 Pollution 

.74 Noise 

.75 Disposal of the dead 

.78 Pest control 

.700 1-.707 2 Standard subdivisions and general topics 

Add to base number 363.70 notation 01-72 from table under 
362-363, e.g., international action to protect the environment 
363.70526 

.72 *Sanitation problems and services 

Use of subdivisions 1-7 from table under 362-363 for specific wastes 
discontinued; class in 363.72 

.728 Waste disposal 

Class here industrial, municipal wastes; waste management 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects 
in two or more subdivisions of 363.728 in the one coming last, e.g., 
recycling scrap metal 363.7288 (not 363.7282) 

Class dangerous wastes still in hands of processors or users in 363.17, 
pollution by waste disposal in 363.73, dangerous wastes which have 
escaped both safety and sanitary controls in 363.738 

.728 2 Recycling 

See Manual at 363. 61 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



568 






363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.728 4 *Liquid wastes 

Examples: combined sewage, sewage sludge, urban water runoff 
Including dredging spoil, waste-water irrigation, water reuse planning 
Class here waste-water management 
See Manual at 363. 61 

.728 5 *Solid wastes 

.728 7 *Hazardous wastes 

.728 8 Specific kinds of wastes 

Examples: agricultural wastes, automobiles, beverage containers, 
garbage, household wastes, papers, pesticides, plastics, scrap metal 

For radioactive wastes, see 363. 7289 

See Manual at 628.44042 vs. 363. 7388, 628.445 

.728 9 *Radioactive wastes 

.729 Sanitation in specific environments 

.729 1 Streets 

.729 2 Recreational areas 

Example: swimming pools 
.729 3 Public carriers 

.729 4 Public toilets 

.729 5 In work places 

.729 6 In food service establishments 

.729 7 In health facilities 

Including ambulances 
.729 8 In residential buildings 

Other than private family dwellings 

.729 9 In barbershops, beauty shops, laundries 

.73 *Pollution 

Class sanitation in 363.72, noise in 363.74, technology of pollution 
prevention in 628.5, management responsibilities and measures with respect 
to protection and preservation of the environment in 658.408 

Works that discuss waste and sanitation problems as well as subdivisions of 
363.73 are classed in 363.7 

See Manual at 574. 5222 vs. 574. 24, 363. 73 

♦Add as instructed under 362-363 



569 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.73 1 Sources of pollution 

Examples: agriculture, industry, transportation, domestic and recreational 
activities 

Class specific pollutants from specific sources in 363.738 

.732 Incidence, extent, severity 

Class incidence, extent, severity of pollution from specific sources in 
363.731 

.735 Social action 

Class here remedial measures 
.737 Measures to prevent, protect against, limit effects of pollution 

Class waste disposal as a method of pollution prevention in 363.728 

.738 Pollutants 

Class here specific pollutants in specific environments [formerly 
363.739], chemical pollutants 

Do not use for remedial measures; class in 363.735 

.738 2 Oil 

.738 4 Toxic chemicals 

Including lead emissions, pesticides 

Use of this number for comprehensive works on chemical pollutants 
discontinued; class in 363.738 

.738 6 *Acid precipitation 

.738 7 Smoke, gas, fumes 

Class lead emissions in 363.7384 

.739 Pollution of specific environments 

Specific pollutants in specific environments relocated to 363.738 

.739 2 *Air pollution 

.739 4 *Water pollution 

Class here comprehensive works on water pollution 

Class assurance of clean water supply in 363.61 

See Manual at 363. 61; 628. 168 vs. 363. 7394 

.739 46 Control 

Class here abatement programs [formerly also 628.1688] 

.739 6 *Soil pollution 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 



570 



363 Social problems and services; association 363 

.74 *Noise 

.741 Sources of noise 

Examples: forms of transportation, e.g., aircraft, automobile traffic; 
construction equipment, industry 

Class effects of specific sources of noise in 363.742 

.742 Incidence, extent, severity 

Class incidence, extent, severity of noise from specific sources in 
363.741 

.75 Disposal of the dead 

Social aspects and services 

Class death customs in 393, technology of disposal of the dead in 614.6 

.78 Pest control 

Including dog pounds, removal of animal carcasses, rat and mosquito 
abatement programs 

Class here interdisciplinary works on pest control 

Class comprehensive works on the technology of pest control in 628.96, 
control of disease-carrying pests in 614.43, of agricultural pests in 632.9, of 
household pests in 648.7 

.8 *Food supply 

Class here hunger, famine; interdisciplinary works on food supply, on nutrition 

Class economics of food supply in 338.19 

Food stamp programs are classed in 363.882, food relief in 363.883 

See also 362. 19639 for problems of malnutrition, 614.5939 for prevention 
of malnutrition 

See Manual at 363. 5, 363. 6, 363. 8 vs. 338; 363. 8 vs. 338. 19; 613. 2 vs. 
641.3, 363.8; 614.5939 vs. 363.82 

.856 Public action on food supply 

Class here food rationing 

.9 Population problems 

Class here interdisciplinary works on population problems 

Class interdisciplinary works on population in 304.6; works on specific 
manifestations of a population problem with the manifestation, e.g., pressure on 
food supply leading to famine 363.8, population growth as a cause of poverty 
362.51 

See Manual at 301 vs. 361-365; 304. 66 vs. 363. 9 

.91 Population quantity [formerly also 304.664] 

Overpopulation [formerly also 304.65] and underpopulation 

Class remedial measures for overpopulation in 363.96 

*Add as instructed under 362-363 

571 



363 Dewey Decimal Classification 363 

.92 Population quality [formerly also 304.662] 

Class here interdisciplinary works on eugenics 

Class eugenic measures to control population in 363.98, to reduce crime in 
364.4; application of eugenics to a specific social problem with the problem 
using subdivision 6 from table under 362-363, e.g., eugenic measures to 
reduce mental retardation 362.36; other specific aspects of eugenics with the 
aspect, e.g., civil rights 323.4 

See also 61 3 . 94 for family planning techniques 

.96 Birth control 

Class here interdisciplinary works on birth control, on family planning 
programs 

Class abortion in 363.46, family planning techniques in 613.94 

For sterilization, see 363. 97 

See Manual at 304. 66 vs. 363. 9 

.97 Sterilization 

Including eugenic and involuntary sterilization 

Class here voluntary sterilization 

.98 Eugenic measures to control population 

Class sterilization in 363.97 

364 Criminology 

Crime and its alleviation 

Class here comprehensive works on criminology and criminal law, on criminal 
justice that includes criminology, police services, and criminal law 

Class social services to victims of crimes and self-protection from criminals in 
362.88 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
punishment of specific types of offenders 364.6 (not 364.3) 

Penology 364.6 

Discharged offenders 364.8 

Offenders 364.3 

Prevention of crime and delinquency 364.4 

Causes of crime and delinquency 364.2 

Criminal offenses 364. 1 
Historical, geographical, persons treatment of crime 

and its alleviation 364.9 

For criminal law, see 345 



572 



364 Social problems and services; association 364 





SUMMARY 


364.01- .09 


Standard subdivisions 


.1 


Criminal offenses 


.2 


Causes of crime and delinquency 


.3 


Offenders 


.4 


Prevention of crime and delinquency 


.6 


Penology 


.8 


Discharged offenders 


.9 


Historical, geographical, persons treatment of crime and its alleviation 



.019 Psychological principles 

Class criminal psychology of offenders in generalin 364.3, of specific 
offenses in 364.1 

.04 Special topics 

.042 Extent and incidence of crime 

Class criminal offenses in 364.1, offenders in 364.3 

Criminal offenses and offenders 

[.08] Treatment with respect to kinds of persons 

Do not use; class victimology in 362.88, victims of specific crimes in 364.1, 
offenders in 364.3 

.09 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of criminology as a 

discipline 

Class historical, geographical, persons treatment of crime and its alleviation 
in 364.9 

.1 Criminal offenses 

Class here conspiracy to and incitement to commit an offense, individuals 
identified with a specific offense or type of offense, investigation of specific 
crimes, crimes without victims, terrorism as a crime 

Class sociology of terrorism in 303.625, investigation of specific types of 
offenses in 363.259, crime as an event in history in 900 

See Manual at 364. 1 vs. 362-363 

SUMMARY 

364.101-.109 [Standard subdivisions, organized crimel 

.13 Political and related offenses 

.14 Offenses against public health, safety, order 

.15 Offenses against persons 

.16 Offenses against property 

.17 Offenses against public morals 

.18 Miscellaneous offenses 



573 



364 Dewey Decimal Classification 364 

. 1 06 Organized crime 

Class here Mafia 

Class organizations dealing with criminal offenses in 364.06 

[. 1 06 092] Persons treatment 

Do not use; class organized crime figures not associated with a 
specific offense in 364.1092, those associated with a specific 
offense with the offense, e.g., hired killers 364.15230922 

.1066 Gangsterism 

Engagement of organized groups in piracy, robbery, theft, hijacking 
Class interdisciplinary works on and sociology of gangs in 302.34 

.1067 Racketeering 

Engagement of organized groups in extortion from legitimate or 
illegitimate enterprises through intimidation and force 

Including union racketeering 

. 1 06 8 Syndicated crime 

Engagement of organized groups in furnishing illegal goods or 
services 

.1092 Persons treatment 

Criminals are classed with the crime for which they are most noted 
unless they are discussed with relationship to a specific crime, e.g., a 
general biography of Jesse James, a bank robber, is classed in 
364.1552092, but a study of Jesse James' killings is classed in 
364.1523092 

Class comprehensive works on offenders in 364.3 

. 1 3 Political and related offenses 

.131 Political offenses 

Examples: espionage, rebellion, seditious libel, subversion, treason 

Sabotage relocated to 364. 1 64 

Class genocide in 364.151, assassination of heads of state and 
government in 364.1524, industrial sabotage in 364.164 

For war crimes, see 364. 138 
. 1 32 Offenses against proper government 

For offenses against administration of justice, see 364. 134 
.1322 Violation and denial of civil rights 

.1323 Corruption 

Examples: graft, bribery of officials 

.1324 Electoral offenses 

Examples: bribery of voters, fraudulent reporting of votes, illegal 
voting, violations of campaign finance laws 

574 



364 Social problems and services; association 364 

. 1 33 Offenses against revenue 

Examples: bootlegging, counterfeiting, illicit distilling, smuggling, tax 
evasion 

See also 363.41 for sale of alcoholic beverages 

. 1 34 Offenses against administration of justice 

Examples: collusion, contempt of court, lynching, perjury, subornation of 
perjury 

. 1 35 International offenses 

Class a specific type of international offense with the subject, e.g., piracy 
364.164 

. 1 36 Offenses against postal laws 

.138 War crimes 

Class specific kinds of war crimes with the kind, e.g., genocide 364.151 

See also 341.69 for war crime trials 

.14 Offenses against public health, safety, order 

Use 364.14001-364.14009 for standard subdivisions 

.142 Against public health and safety 

Examples: adulteration of food and drugs, violations of product and 
building safety laws 

. 1 43 Against public order 

Examples: carrying concealed weapons, disorderly conduct, rioting, 
unlawful assembly 

. 147 Traffic offenses and misuse of communications facilities 

Class offenses against postal laws in 364.136 

.148 Vagrancy 

. 1 5 Offenses against persons 

.151 Genocide 

.152 Homicide 

For lynching, see 364. 134; genocide, 364. 151 
.1522 Suicide 

Class assisting suicide in 364.1523 
.1523 Murder 

Including assisting suicide 

For assassination, see 364. 1524 
.1524 Assassination 



575 



364 Dewey Decimal Classification 364 

.1525 Manslaughter 

.153 Sex offenses 

Examples: adultery, indecent exposure, seduction, statutory rape 

Class rape in 364.1532, bigamy in 364.183 

.1532 Rape 

Class social services aspects of rape in 362.883 

See also 364. 153 for statutory rape 

.1534 Prostitution 

See also 363.44 for prostitution as a public morals issue 

.153 6 Sexual deviations 

Examples: incest, sodomy 

. 1 54 Kidnapping, abduction, taking and holding of hostages 

Class parental kidnapping in 362.8297 

. 1 55 Other violent offenses against persons 

.155 2 Robbery 

Thefts including threat of violence or bodily harm, or actual 
occurrence of violence 

Class here comprehensive works on hijacking 

Class a specific type of hijacking with the type, e.g., taking hostages 
364.154 

.1555 Assault and battery 

.155 53 Spouse abuse 

Class social services to battered wives, spouse abuse as a social 
problem in 362.8292 

.155 54 Child abuse 

Class child abuse as a social problem in 362.76 

. 1 56 Offenses against reputation and honor 

Examples: defamation, libel, slander, invasion of privacy 

Class seditious libel in 364.131 
. 1 6 Offenses against property 

.162 Larceny (Theft) 

Examples: burglary, embezzlement 

Including fencing 

Class robbery in 364.1552, fraud in 364.163 



576 



364 Social problems and services; association 364 

.163 Fraud 

Including forgery, imposture, e.g., literary forgery; welfare fraud, e.g., 
Medicare fraud 

. 1 64 Violent offenses against property 

Examples: sabotage [formerly also 364.131], arson, piracy, vandalism 
Class robbery, comprehensive works on hijacking in 364.1552 

. 1 65 Extortion and blackmail 

. 1 68 Business, financial, professional offenses 

Examples: criminal usury, unfair trade practices; violation of antitrust 
laws, of laws respecting securities and their exchange 

Class here computer, white-collar crime 

Class a specific type of computer crime not provided for here with the 
subject, e.g., tax evasion 364.133 

For embezzlement, see 364. 162; fraud, 364. 163 
. 1 7 Offenses against public morals 

For sex offenses, see 364. 153 
All Gambling 

See also 363. 42 for gambling as a public morals question 
.173 Public drunkenness 

See also 363.41 for sale of alcoholic beverages 

. 1 74 Obscenity and pornography 

See also 363. 47 for obscenity and pornography as a public morals 
question 

All Illegal sale, possession, use of drugs 

See also 363.45 for drug traffic 

.18 Other offenses 

Example: illegal adoption 

.183 Bigamy 

. 1 85 Criminal abortion 

Class abortion as a public morals question in 363.46 
. 1 87 Cruelty to animals 

. 1 88 Offenses against religion 

Offenses defined and penalized by the state 

Examples: blasphemy, heresy, sacrilege, witchcraft 

Class offenses against church law in 262.9 



577 



364 Dewey Decimal Classification 364 

.2 Causes of crime and delinquency 

Class here criminal anthropology 

Class victimology in 362.88 

.22 Influence of physical environment 

Examples: climate, seasons, weather 

.24 Influence of personal factors 

Contains biological factors, e.g., effects of heredity, genetic defects, physical 
typology; psychological factors 

.25 Influence of social factors 

Including leisure and recreation 

.253 Influence of family and peer groups 

.254 Influence of communications media 

Examples: books, motion pictures, radio, television 

.256 Influence of social conflicts 

Examples: class, race, religion, socioeconomic conditions 

.3 Offenders 

Class here criminal psychology 

Class individuals chiefly identified with a specific offense or type of offense in 
364. 1; a specific aspect of the justice system for specific types of offenders with 
the aspect, e.g., determination of sentences for juvenile offenders 364.650835, 
offenders as prisoners in 365.6 

[.308 1] Men 

Do not use; class in 364.373 
[.308 2] Women 

Do not use; class in 364.374 
[.308 3] Young people 

Do not use; class in 364.36 
[.308 75] Mentally ill and mentally handicapped persons 

Do not use; class in 364.38 
[.308 9] Members of specific racial, ethnic, national groups 

Do not use; class in 364.34 



578 



364 Social problems and services; association 364 

.34 Members of specific racial, ethnic, national groups 

Add to base number 364.34 notation 03-9 from Table 5, e.g., Germans as 
offenders 364.343 1 

Class juvenile delinquents of specific racial, ethnic, national groups in 
364.36, women in 364.374, mentally ill and mentally handicapped offenders 
in 364.38 

.36 Juvenile delinquents 

Including status offenders (juveniles who have broken laws pertaining only 
to their age group, e.g., curfew laws, drinking below legal age) 

Class here comprehensive works on juvenile delinquency, juvenile 
delinquents, juvenile justice system 

.37 Adult offenders 

Class mentally ill and mentally handicapped adult offenders in 364.38 

.373 Men 

Works specifically emphasizing male sex 

.374 Women 

.38 Mentally ill and mentally handicapped offenders 

Class mentally ill and mentally handicapped juvenile offenders in 364.36 

.4 Prevention of crime and delinquency 

What society does to prevent crime 

Examples: curfew, eugenic measures 

Class law enforcement in 363.23; penalties as a deterrent in 364.601; a specific 
aspect of prevention by a potential victim with the aspect, e.g., what the 
individual can do 362.88, household security 643.16, business intelligence and 
security 658.47 

.404 Special topics 

.404 5 Social action 

Add to base number 364.4045 the numbers following 361 in 
361.2-361.8, e.g., social policy 364.404561 

.4 1 Identification of potential offenders 

Including genetic screening 
.43 Citizen participation 

Class individual action in 362.88 



579 



364 Dewey Decimal Classification 364 

.44 Welfare services 

Examples: financial assistance, foster home care; recreational services, e.g., 
camps, playgrounds 

Class preventive police work in 363.23 

For counseling and guidance, see 364. 48 

[.46] Prevention of crime by police 

Relocated to 363.23 

.48 Counseling and guidance 

.49 Environmental design 

.6 Penology 

Treatment and punishment of offenders 

Class here welfare services to offenders, reform of penal system 

Class welfare services to prisoners in 365.66, reform of penal institutions in 
365.7 

For institutions for correction of offenders, see 365; discharged offenders, 
364.8 

.601 Philosophy and theory 

Class here punishment as retribution, deterrent, protection to society, 
reformation of offenders 

.62 Parole and indeterminate sentence 

Standard subdivisions are added for parole and indeterminate sentence, for 
parole alone 

Class services to prisoners to prepare them for parole in 365.66 

.63 Probation and suspended sentence 

Standard subdivisions are added for probation and suspended sentence, for 
probation and parole, for probation alone 

Including reprieve 

Class here comprehensive works on probation and parole 

For parole, see 364. 62 

.65 Determination of sentence 

Including commutation of sentence, pardon, amnesty 

Class a specific punishment with the subject, e.g., imprisonment 365, 
probation 364.63 

.66 Capital punishment 

.67 Corporal punishment 



580 



364 Social problems and services; association 364 

.68 Noninstitutional penalties 

Examples: community service, deportation, fines, loss of citizenship, loss of 
vote 

For capital punishment, see 364. 66; corporal punishment, 364. 67 

.8 Discharged offenders 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of crime and its 

alleviation 

Add to base number 364.9 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., persons associated 
with crime and its alleviation 364.92 

Class victims in 362.88, police in 363.2, criminologists in 364.092, offenders 
associated with specific kinds of crime in 364.1, comprehensive works on 
offenders in 364.3, penologists in 364.6 

365 Penal and related institutions 

Institutions for correction of offenders and for incarceration of other groups 
considered socially undesirable 

Class here imprisonment and detention 

Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or 
more subdivisions of this schedule in the number coming last in the schedule, e.g., 
maximum security prisons for women 365.43 (not 365.33) 

Class parole and indeterminate sentence in 364.62, probation and suspended 
sentence in 364.63 





SUMMARY 


365.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 


Kinds of penal institutions 

Institutions for specific classes of inmates 

Prison plant 

Inmates 


.7 
.9 


Reform of penal institutions 

Historical, geographical, persons treatment 



[.068 2] Plant management 

Do not use; class in 365.5 
[.09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 365.9 
.3 Kinds of penal institutions 

Class specific institutions in 365.93-365.99 
.32 By level of government 

National, state or provincial, local 
.33 By degree of security 

Maximum, medium, minimum 



581 



365 Dewey Decimal Classification 365 

.34 By purpose or type of program 

Examples: jails, penitentiaries, penal colonies, prerelease guidance centers, 
prison farms, reformatories, work camps 

Concentration camps relocated to 365.45 

Class penal colonies as a part of history of a place in 930-990, e.g., penal 
colony of Botany Bay as founding settlement of New South Wales 994.402 

.4 Institutions for specific classes of inmates 

Example: debtors' prisons 

Class here personal narratives of inmates 

Class comprehensive works on inmates in 365.6, specific institutions in 
365.93-365.99 

.42 For juveniles 

Examples: borstals, reformatories; industrial, reform, training schools; 
halfway houses for the transition from reform school to society 

.43 For adult women 

.44 For adult men 

Works specifically emphasizing inmates of the male sex 

Class institutions in general, specific kinds of institutions for men in 365.3 

.45 For political prisoners and related classes of persons 

Class here concentration camps [formerly 365.34] 

Class concentration camps associated with a specific war with the war, e.g., 
World War II concentration camps 940.5317 

.46 For the criminally insane 

.48 Military prisons and prison camps 

Institutions whose inmates are military personnel 

Class institutions for prisoners of war in 355.1296, military institutions for 
the insane in 365.46 

.5 Prison plant 

Grounds, buildings, equipment 
Class prison architecture in 725.6 



582 



365 Social problems and services; association 365 

.6 Inmates 

Former heading: Prison economy 

Handling and treatment 

Including reception and classification 

Class here offenders as inmates; community-based corrections; social aspects of 
prison life, e.g., conjugal rights, drug abuse 

Class institutions for specific classes of inmates, personal narratives of inmates 
in 365.4 

.602 1 Tabulated and related materials 

Class statistics of inmates when used to indicate general statistics of 
offenders in 364.3021 

.609 2 Persons 

Class personal narratives of inmates in 365.4, using notation 092 from 
Table 1 

.64 Security, discipline, daily routine 

Class here treatment of inmates 

.641 Security 

Including escapes, riots, disturbances 
.643 Discipline 

Rules, rights, privileges 

Including furloughs 

Class work furloughs in 365.65 
For punishments, see 365. 644 
.644 Punishments for infractions of prison discipline 

.646 Daily routine 

Including hours, meals 

Recreational services relocated to 365.66 

For labor, see 365. 65; services to prisoners, 365. 66 

.647 Release and discharge 

Class work release in 365.65, services to prepare prisoners for release in 
365.66 



.65 Labor 



Examples: chain gangs, contract system, lease system, work furloughs, work 
release 



583 



365 Dewey Decimal Classification 365 

.66 Services to prisoners 

Examples: recreational services [formerly also 365.646], counseling, 
education, group therapy, health services, prerelease programs, 
rehabilitation, religious services 

Class prerelease institutions in 365.34 

.7 Reform of penal institutions 

Class reform of penal system, reform to eliminate prisons as form of 
punishment for certain types of crimes in 364.6 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 365.9 notation 01-9 from Table 2, e.g., prison 
administrators 365.92; however, class inmates in 365.4092 

Class specific aspects of penal institutions in specific times and places, of 
specific kinds of institutions in 365.3-365.7 

366 Association 

Organizations formed for fraternizing or for mutual assistance 

Use 366.001-366.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class associations dealing with a specific subject with the subject, using notation 
06 from Table 1, e.g., mathematical associations 510.6 

For general clubs, see 367; miscellaneous kinds of associations, 369 

See also 200 for religious associations, 368.363 for fraternal insurance 

.01 -.09 Standard subdivisions of esoteric associations and societies 



366.1-366.5 Esoteric (Secret and semisecret) associations and 
societies 

Class comprehensive works in 366 

For orders of knighthood, see 929. 71 
.1 Freemasonry 

.12 Rituals 

. 1 6 Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners) 

. 1 7 Order of DeMolay 

.18 Women in Freemasonry 

Including Order of the Eastern Star, Job's Daughters, Order of the Rainbow 
.2 Knights of Pythias 

.3 Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

.38 International Association of Rebekah Assemblies 

Former heading: Daughters of Rebekah 



584 



366 Social problems and services; association 366 

.5 Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks 

367 General clubs 

Examples: social clubs, study clubs 

Class here social clubs for specific types of people, e.g., social clubs for actors 

Class clubs dealing with a specific subject with the subject, using notation 06 from 
Table 1, e.g., pinochle clubs 795.41606 

[.09] Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Do not use; class in 367.9 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Add to base number 367.9 notation 01-99 from Table 2, e.g., The Lamb (social 
club in New York City composed chiefly of actors, musicians, and playwrights) 
367.97471 

368 Insurance 

Class here production economics of insurance industry [formerly 338]; 
comprehensive works on insurance industry, on risk 

Class credit and loan functions of insurance companies in 332.38, risk management 
in 658.155 

See also 658. 153 for managerial decisions on choosing insurance 

SUMMARY 

368.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01-. 09 [Finance, specific forms of risk, sales groupings] 

.1 Insurance against damage to and loss of property 

.2 Insurance against damage to and loss of property in transit (Marine 

insurance, Transportation insurance) 
.3 Insurance against death, old age, illness, injury 

.4 Government-sponsored insurance 

.5 Liability insurance 

.6 Glass insurance 

.7 Insurance against industrial casualties (accidents) 

.8 Other casualty insurance 

.9 Insurance by specific continents, countries, localities in modern world 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

[.00151] Mathematical principles 

Relocated to 368.01 

.002-. 005 Standard subdivisions 

.006 Organizations and management 



585 



368 Dewey Decimal Classification 368 

.006 5 Insurance companies 

Class here interdisciplinary works on insurance companies 

Add to base number 368.0065 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., 
insurance companies of Texas 368.0065764 

Class credit and loan functions of insurance companies in 332.38 

.007-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in modern 
world in 368.9 

.01 Finance 

Expenses, profitability, reserves 

Class here mathematical principles [formerly 368.00151], actuarial science 

Class investments by insurance companies in 332.67154 

.011 Rates and rate making 

.012 Underwriting 

Risk selection and estimation 

.012 2 Reinsurance 

.014 Claims 

Including adjustment of claims, settlement of losses, fraudulent claims 

Class fraudulent claims, insurance fraud as crimes in 364.163 

[.015] Finance 

Number discontinued; class in 368.01 

.016 Lapsation, persistence, termination 

.019 Government policies with respect to insurance, insurance industry 



368.06-368.08 Specific forms of risk 

Class comprehensive works in 368 

.06 Property risks 

Risk of loss from impairment or destruction of property 

Class risk of consequential loss in 368.08 

.062 Risks to tangible property 

.063 Risks to intangible property 

.07 Personal risks 

Risk of loss of income or augmented expenditure due to hazards to the 
person 

586 



368 Social problems and services; association 368 

.08 Other risks 

Examples: liability risks, risk of consequential loss, risks due to the failure 
of others, statutory liability risks 

.09 Conventional comprehensive sales groupings 

Combinations of different lines of insurance, e.g., property-casualty, 
property-casualty-life and health 

Class here all-risk, multiple-line coverage 

Class one line of insurance with the line, e.g., homeowner's liability 
insurance 368.56 

.092 Automobile insurance 

.093 Aviation insurance 

See also 368. 24 for air transportation insurance as a branch of 
inland marine insurance 

.096 Multi-peril real property insurance 

Coverage of perils associated with land and whatever is growing on or 
affixed to it 

Class here homeowner's insurance 



> 368.1-368.8 Specific kinds of insurance 

Add to the notation for each term identified by * as follows: 
001-005 Standard subdivisions 
006 Organizations and management 

0065 Insurance companies 

Add to 0065 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g. insurance 
companies in Great Britain 06541 
007-009 Standard subdivisions 
01 General principles 

Add to 01 the numbers following 368.01 in 368.01 1-368.019, 
e.g., underwriting 012 

Class comprehensive works in 368 

.1 ^Insurance against damage to and loss of property 

Class property damage (liability) insurance with the specific type of liability 
insurance, e.g., property damage insurance as part of public liability 368.56 

For transportation insurance, see 368.2; casualty insurance, 368.5-368.8 

. 1 1 *Fire insurance 

For extended coverage endorsement, see 368. 129 

See also 368. 12 for allied fire insurance lines 

*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



587 



368 Dewey Decimal Classification 368 

.12 * Allied fire insurance lines and extended coverage endorsement 

Perils and losses traditionally associated with fire insurance 

Including crop insurance 

See Manual at 368. 12 

. 1 22 *Disaster insurance 

Against damage and loss from floods, earthquakes, storms 

. 1 25 *Riot and civil commotion insurance 

. 1 29 *Extended coverage endorsement 

14 *War risk insurance 

Class ocean marine war risk insurance in 368.22, war risk life insurance in 
368.364 

.2 "Insurance against damage to and loss of property in transit (Marine 

insurance, Transportation insurance) 

Including postal insurance 

Class here insurance against damage to and loss of instrumentalities of 
transportation 

Class a combination of transportation property insurance and transportation 
liability insurance in 368.09 

.22 *Ocean marine insurance 

Over-the-sea transportation insurance 

Including ocean marine war risk insurance 
.23 *Inland marine insurance 

Land or over-the-land (including over inland waterways) transportation 
insurance 

For air transportation insurance, see 368. 24 

.232 * Automobile insurance 

Including bus, truck insurance 

Class comprehensive works on all types of automobile insurance in 
368.092 

.233 *Railroad insurance 

.24 *Air transportation insurance 

Class comprehensive works on all types of air transportation and aviation 
insurance in 368.093 

*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



588 



368 Social problems and services; association 368 

.3 "Insurance against death, old age, illness, injury 

Class here comprehensive works on insurance for the aged, group insurance, 
industrial insurance, survivors' insurance 

Class comprehensive works on insurance as a fringe benefit in 331.255, 
personnel administration of insurance in 658.3254 

For government-sponsored insurance, see 368. 4 

.32 *Life insurance 

Class here endowment insurance 

For special fields of life insurance, see 368.36 
.36 Special fields of life insurance 

.362 industrial life insurance 

.363 *Fraternal insurance 

.364 *Life insurance for members of armed services 

Examples: National Service Life Insurance, war risk life insurance 

Including veterans' life insurance 

.37 *Annuities 

Class comprehensive works on pensions in 331.252, pensions as an element 
of personnel administration in 658.3253 

.375 * Variable annuities 

.38 *Accident and health insurance 

.382 *Health insurance 

Examples: Blue Cross, Blue Shield, health maintenance organizations 
(HMOs), reimbursement health insurance (insurance in which the insured 
first pays the bills) 

Class here prepaid health insurance (insurance in which the insurer first 
pays the bills) 

Class government-sponsored accident and health insurance in 368.42 

See Manual at 368. 382 vs. 362. 1042 

.382 2 *Medical and surgical 

.382 3 *Dental 

.382 7 *Hospital 

.384 * Accident insurance 

.386 *Disability income insurance 

See also 368. 382 for disability insurance 

*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



589 



368 Dewey Decimal Classification 368 

.4 *Government-sponsored insurance 

Class here social insurance, social security as a form of social insurance 

Class government-sponsored bank deposit insurance in 368.854 

See Manual at 336.249 vs. 368.401, 368.4011; 368.4 vs. 362 

.400 68 Management 

Class personnel management of insurance for government 
employees in 351.1234 

[.400 973] Social security in the United States 

Do not use; class in 368.4300973 

.41 *Workers' (Workmen's) compensation insurance 

Protection against losses incurred through disablements caused on the job 

Class here comprehensive works on workers' (workmen's) compensation 
insurance 

Class workers' (workmen's) compensation (employer liability insurance) in 
368.56 

.42 * Accident and health insurance 

For workers' (workmen's) compensation insurance, see 368.41 

See also 362. 1042520973 for United States' Medicaid financial 
benefits, 362. 10973 for United States' Medicaid health services, 
368. 382 for comprehensive works on health insurance 

.424 *Maternity insurance 

.426 *Accident and health insurance for the aged 

Class comprehensive works on accident and health insurance for the aged 
in 368.38200846 

.43 *01d-age and survivors' insurance 

Class here social security (United States) 

Class supplementary social security for low income people in 362.582, 
comprehensive works on insurance for the aged in 368.300846 

For accident and health insurance for the aged, see 368.426 

See Manual at 336. 249 vs. 368. 401, 368. 4011 
.44 Unemployment insurance 

.48 insurance against crimes of violence 

Class comprehensive works on crime insurance in 368.82 



> 368.5-368.8 Against casualties (Casualty insurance) 

Class comprehensive works in 368.5 
*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 

590 



368 Social problems and services; association 368 

.5 ^Liability insurance 

Class here comprehensive works on casualty insurance 

For glass insurance, see 368. 6; insurance against industrial casualties, 
368. 7; other casualty insurance, 368. 8 

.56 Miscellaneous lines 

Examples: contractual, elevator, employers', landlords', owners', tenants'; 
livestock liability; personal liability 

Class here public liability insurance 

.562 *Product liability insurance 

.564 *Professional (Errors and omissions, Malpractice) liability insurance 

.57 instrumentalities of transportation 

.572 *Automobile 

.576 *Aviation 

.6 *Glass insurance 

Examples: coverage on plate glass, windows, neon and fluorescent signs and 
lamps 

.7 ^Insurance against industrial casualties (accidents) 

Examples: boiler and machinery, power plant, nuclear energy, power 
interruption insurance 

.8 Other casualty insurance 

.81 *Business insurance 

.815 *Business interruption insurance 

Including strike insurance 
.82 *Burglary, robbery, theft insurance 

Including extortion, kidnap and ransom insurance 

Class here comprehensive works on crime insurance 
.83 ^Fidelity bonds 

Guarantee against loss to employers because of dishonesty of employees 

Class here comprehensive works on bonds 

For surety bonds, see 368. 84 

.84 *Surety bonds 

Guarantee against loss due to failure to perform an obligation or fulfill a 
contract 

*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



591 



368 Dewey Decimal Classification 368 

.85 Guarantees 

Class a specific guarantee not provided for here with the guarantee, e.g., 
surety bonds 368.84 

.852 *Mortgage insurance 

.853 investment guarantees 

.854 *Bank deposit insurance 

Class here government-sponsored bank deposit insurance 

.87 * Credit insurance 

Insurance of creditor against loss due to debtor's insolvency 

.88 Title insurance 

.9 Insurance by specific continents, countries, localities in modern world 

Add to base number 368.9 notation 4-9 from Table 2, e.g., insurance in South 
America 368.98 

369 Miscellaneous kinds of associations 

.1 Hereditary, military, patriotic societies of United States 

Including state and local societies 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to hereditary, military, 
patriotic societies of a specific country, class them in this number; in that case, 
class hereditary, military, patriotic societies of United States in 369.273) 

. 1 1 General societies 

Examples: military and naval orders, Medal of Honor Legion, Military 
Order of Foreign Wars of the United States, Veterans of Foreign Wars 

.12 Colonial America societies 

Examples: General Society of Colonial Wars, General Society of Mayflower 
Descendants, National Society of the Colonial Dames of America 

. 1 3 Revolutionary War societies 

Examples: Society of the Cincinnati, Sons of the American Revolution 

.135 Daughters of the American Revolution 

. 1 4 Societies commemorating events of 1 789- 1 86 1 

. 1 5 Union Civil War societies 

Example: Grand Army of the Republic 
Including auxiliary Union societies [formerly 369.16] 
Class here comprehensive works on societies of Civil War 
For Confederate Civil War societies, see 369. 1 7 
*Add as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



592 



369 Social problems and services; association 369 

[.16] Auxiliary Union societies of Civil War 

Relocated to 369.15 

. 1 7 Confederate Civil War societies 

Examples: United Confederate Veterans, United Daughters of the 
Confederacy 

. 1 8 Societies commemorating wars from 1 898 to present 

.181 Spanish- American War, 1 898 

. 1 86 World Wars I and II and later wars 

.1861 American Legion 

. 1 86 2 American Veterans of World War II, Korea, and Vietnam (AMVETS) 

.1863 Disabled American Veterans 

.2 Hereditary, military, patriotic societies 

Class here nationality clubs 

(Option: To give local emphasis and a shorter number to hereditary, military, 
patriotic societies of a specific country, use one of the following: 

(Option A: Place them first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., 
hereditary, military, patriotic societies of France 369.F [preceding 369.1] 

(Option B: Class them in 369.1; in that case, class hereditary, military, 
patriotic societies of United States in 369.273) 

.209 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

Class treatment by specific continents, countries, localities in 
369.23-369.29 

.21 International 

.23-. 29 Specific continents, countries, localities 

Add to base number 369.2 notation 3-9 from Table 2, e.g., patriotic 
societies of Italy 369.245; however, class hereditary, military, patriotic 
societies of United States in 369. 1 

Notation 09 from Table 1 is added to indicate nationality clubs not located 
with the nation of interest, e.g., Order Sons of Italy in America 
369.23450973 

Class clubs of ethnic groups not defined by specific country or locality in 
369.3 

.3 Racial and ethnic clubs 

Add to base number 369.3 notation 03-9 from Table 5, e.g., B'nai B'rith 
369.3924 

Class clubs of ethnic groups defined by specific country or locality in 
369.23-369.29 



593 



369 Dewey Decimal Classification 369 

.4 Young people's societies 

Class a specific aspect of young people's societies with the aspect, e.g., Boy 
Scout camps 796.5422 

.42 Boys' 

For Boy Scouts, see 369. 43 

.43 Boy Scouts 

Including Cub Scouts, Explorers 

.46 Girls' 

For Camp Fire, inc., see 369.47; Explorers, 369.43 

.463 Girl Scouts and Girl Guides 

.47 Camp Fire, inc. 

Former name: Camp Fire Girls 

.5 Service clubs 

Examples: Kiwanis International, Lions International, Rotary International, 
Zonta International 

370 Education 

Class education in a specific subject at the elementary level in 372.3-372.8, in 
special education in 371.9; at higher levels with the subject, using notation 07 from 
Table 1, e.g., the study of comparative religion 291.07 

Unless other instructions are given, observe the following table of precedence, e.g., 
curriculums for women's colleges 376.8, (not 375.00082) 



Special education 


371.9 


Education of women 


376 


Levels of education 


372-374 


Higher education 


378 


School organization and management 


371 


(except 371.9) 




Government regulation, control, support of education 


379 


Curriculums 


375 


Schools and religion 


377 



See Manual at 370 



594 



370 Education 370 

SUMMARY 

370. 1-. 9 Standard subdivisions 

371 School organization and management; special education 
.001 -.009 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .04 [Public, private, community, experimental schools and school systems] 

.1 Teaching and teaching personnel 

.2 School administration and management 

.3 Methods of instruction and study 

.4 Guidance and counseling 

.5 School discipline 

.6 Physical plant 

.7 School health and safety 

.8 The student 

.9 Special education 

372 Elementary education 

.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Organization and management of elementary education; curriculums 

.2 Levels of elementary education 

.3 Science, technology, health 

.4 Reading 

.5 Creative and manual arts 

.6 Language and literature 

.7 Mathematics 

.8 Other studies 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment of elementary education 

373 Secondary education 

.01-. 09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Organization and management of secondary education; curriculum 

.2 Types and levels of secondary education 

.3- .9 Secondary education and schools by specific continents, countries, localities 

374 Adult education 

.001-. 008 Standard subdivisions 

.01 Adult education for specific objectives 

.1 General topics 

.2 Group education 

.4 Correspondence schools and instruction 

.8 Schools 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

375 Curriculums 

.000 1-.000 9 Standard subdivisions 

.001- .009 [General topics of curriculums] 

.01-. 99 Curriculums and courses of study in specific subjects 

376 Education of women 
.5 Convent education 

.6 Education of women by level 

.8 Colleges for women 

.9 Historical, geographical, persons treatment 

377 Schools and religion 

.1 Religion and secular education 

.3 Monastic schools 

.6 Mission schools 

.8 Schools supported by Christian groups 

.9 Schools supported by other groups 

595 



370 Dewey Decimal Classification 370 

378 Higher education 

.001- .009 Standard subdivisions 

.01- .05 [General topics of higher education] 

.02 Financial management 

.03 Alternative (Nontraditional) higher education 

.04 Private colleges and universities 

.05 Public colleges and universities 

.1 Organization and management of institutions of higher education; 

curriculums 
.2 Academic degrees 

.3 Student finances 

.4- .9 Higher education and institutions by specific continents, countries, localities 

in the modern world 

379 Government regulation, control, support of education 
.01- .09 Standard subdivisions 

.1 Finance, supervision, control of public education 

.2 Public education and the state 

.3 Private education and the state 

.4- .9 Government regulation, control, support of public education by specific 

continents, countries, localities in the modern world 

.1 Philosophy, theories, general aspects 

SUMMARY 

370.11 Education for specific objectives 

.12 Classification and other philosophical foundations 

.15 Educational psychology 

.19 Social aspects of education 

. 1 1 Education for specific objectives 

Including basic education, basic skills education 

Class here the value of education 

Do not use for systems; class in 370.1 

.112 Humanistic education (Liberal education) 

.113 Vocational education (Career education) 

Class vocational secondary schools in 373.246, adult vocational 
education in 374.013; schools for a specific subject with the subject, 
using notation 07 from Table 1, e.g., medical schools 610.71 1 

See also 331.25922 for training undertaken by industry, 331. 702 for 
choice of vocation, 371.425 for counseling in schools 



114 Moral, ethical, character education 



Class education for social responsibility in 370.1 15; the moral, ethical, 
and character training of children in the home in 649.7 



115 Education for social responsibility 



Including education for international understanding, democracy, social 
education 



596 






370 Education 370 

.116 Education for effective use of leisure 

Including education for individual fulfillment 
.118 Education for creativity 

. 1 2 Classification and other philosophical foundations 

Examples: idealism, realism, pragmatism 
[.13] Scientific principles 

Number discontinued; class in 370. 1 
. 1 5 Educational psychology 

Including the principles of behavior modification 

Do not use for scientific principles; class in 370. 1 

Class behavior modification for classroom discipline in 371.1024, the 
psychology of a specific topic in education with the topic, using notation 019 
from Table 1, e.g., the psychology of adult education 374.0019 

See also 153 for intellectual and mental processes in general 
psychology 

See Manual at 153. 15 vs. 370. 15 

.151 Differential psychology 

Educational psychology of specific ages and sexes 

Class the specific aspects of the psychology of specific ages and specific 
sexes in 370.152-370.158 



.152 


Cognition 




Class here intelligence 




Class creativity in 370.157 


.152 2 


Memory 


.152 3 


Learning 


.152 4 


Reason 


.153 


Emotion and behavior 






Relation of behavior patterns, feelings, emotions to learning, to the 
classroom situation 

Including unconscious and subconscious processes, emotional 
disturbances, extroversion-introversion, personality 

For motivation to learn, see 370.154 

. 1 54 Motivation to learn 

. 1 55 Psychomotor and sensory processes in learning 

Including perception, motor skills, left-handedness 



597 



370 Dewey Decimal Classification 370 

. 1 56 Psychology of learning specific subjects 

Add to base number 370.156 notation 001-999, e.g., the psychology of 
learning mathematics 370.15651 

Class the psychology of learning specific subjects at a specific level with 
the level at which the subject is taught, using notation 019 from Table 1, 
e.g., the psychology of learning to read at the elementary level 372.4019 

. 1 57 Imagination and creativity 

See also 370. 152 for cognitive creativity 

.158 Psychological effects of education 

Example: effect of the school situation on students 

. 1 9 Social aspects of education 

Class here educational sociology, educational anthropology, sociology 
applied to the solution of large-scale social problems in education 

Do not use for psychological principles; class in 370.15 

Class education for social responsibility in 370.1 15; the functional planning 
carried out by superintendents and principals in connection with the 
operations of a given school system in 371.207; governmental policy, 
planning, and control in 379 

. 1 92 Cultural foundations of education 

.193 School and society relations 

.1931 Community-school relations 

.193 12 Parent-teacher associations 

.19316 Industry-school relations 

.193 4 Sociocultural factors affecting education 

Class here comprehensive works on equal educational opportunity, on 
the sociology of the student 

Class students in the school in 371.8; students' attitudes and behavior 
in 371.81; effects of a specific factor on a specific aspect of education 
with the subject, e.g., effect on school finance 379.1 1-379.13 

.193 41 Economic and cultural situation of students 

Including socioeconomic status, family background 

Class here multicultural education, school attendance 

Class the education of socially and culturally disadvantaged 
students in 371.967 



598 



370 Education 370 

.193 42 Racial and ethnic factors 

Including integration, busing of students to achieve integration 
Class here affirmative action in education 
Class affirmative action with respect to teachers in 331.133 
For segregation of racial and ethnic groups, see 370. 19344 
See also 370. 89 for the education of ethnic groups 
.193 44 Segregation of racial and ethnic groups 

.193 45 Sex of students 

Including sexism in education 

See also 376 for the education of women 



370.193 46-370.193 49 Political and locale factors 

Class comprehensive works in 370.1934 

. 1 93 46 Rural environments 

. 1 93 48 Urban environments 

.193 49 Political factors 

. 1 94 Fundamental education 

Preparation of educationally disadvantaged children and adults for 
participation in community life 

Class here community education 

See also 371.967 for compensatory education, 374. 012 for adult 
basic education 

. 1 95 Comparative education 

See Manual at 370. 195 vs. 370. 9 

. 1 96 Intercultural education 

Programs to promote mutual understanding among nations and cultures 
through the exchange of instructional materials, techniques, students, 
teachers, technicians 

Class education within a country for international understanding in 
370.1 15; international law of educational and cultural exchanges in 
341.767, domestic law of educational and cultural exchanges in 344.08; 
public administration of exchange programs in 35 1 .85 

See also 370. 19341 for multicultural education 

. 1 96 2 Exchange of students 

. 1 96 3 Exchange of teachers 



599 



370 Dewey Decimal Classification 370 

.1965 Educational aid 

Including the establishment of schools in other countries 

Recipients of the aid are indicated by notation 09 from Table 1 
followed by the area number of the recipient, e.g., German aid to 
North American schools 370.1965097 

[.287] Testing and measurement 

Do not use; class in 37 1 .26 

[.68] Management 

Do not use; class in 371.2 

.7 Education, research, related topics 

.7 1 Professional education of teachers 

Including training classes 

Class here the study of how to teach, the teaching of teachers 

Teachers' and faculty meetings relocated to 371.146 

Do not use for schools and courses; class in 370.73 

Class in-service training in 371.146 

[.711] Colleges and universities 

Do not use; class in 370.73 

.712 For specific grades or levels 

.712 2 Kindergarten and primary 

Including preschool education 

.712 3 Secondary 

.712 4 Tertiary (Higher) 

.72 Teachers' centers, conferences, institutes, workshops 

Do not use for research; class in 370.78 

.73 Institutions of higher education 

Class here teachers' colleges, education departments of universities 

.732 Courses and programs 

.732 6 For specific grades or levels 

.732 62 Kindergarten and primary level 

Including preschool education 

.732 63 Secondary level 

.732 64 Tertiary (Higher) level 



600 



370 Education 370 

.733 Practice teaching 

Class here comprehensive works on practice teaching 

Class practice teaching at the elementary level in 372.07, in a specific 
subject at the elementary level with the subject in 372.3-372.8, using 
notation 044 from the table under 372.3-372.8, e.g., practice teaching in 
arithmetic 372.72044; practice teaching in a specific subject at secondary 
and higher levels with the subject, using notation 071 1—0715 from 
Table 1, e.g., practice teaching in United States history at the secondary 
level 973.0712 

[.75] Collecting objects 

Do not use; class in 370.775 

.76 Professional education of administrators 

Do not use for review and exercise; class in 370.776 

See also 658. 007 for the study and teaching of general management 

.11 Other aspects of education for education 

Do not use for programmed texts; class in 370.777 

.775 Collecting objects 

Class museums, collections, exhibits in 370.74 

.776 Review and exercise 

.777 Programmed texts 

.778 Use of apparatus and equipment 

Class the use of apparatus and equipment in teaching in 371.3078 

.78 Educational research 

Add to base number 370.78 the numbers following —072 in notation 
07201-0724 from Table 1, e.g., surveys 370.783 

Do not use for apparatus and equipment; class in 370.778 

[.82] History and description with respect to women 

Do not use; class in 376 

371 School organization and management; special education 

Class here schools and school systems, school policy 

Class government regulation, control, support of education in 379; schools of 
specific levels in 372-374, 378 

See also 370. 19 for the social aspects of education 

See Manual at 371.2 vs. 379 



601 



371 Dewey Decimal Classification 371 





SUMMARY 


371.001 


-.009 Standard subdivisions 


.01- 
.1 
.2 
.3 


.04 [Public, private, community, experimental schools and school systems] 
Teaching and teaching personnel 
School administration and management 
Methods of instruction and study 


.4 

.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 


Guidance and counseling 
School discipline 
Physical plant 
School health and safety 
The student 


.9 


Special education 


.001-.005 


Standard subdivisions 


.006 


Organizations and management 


[.006 8] 


Management 




Do not use; class in 371.2 


.007- .009 


Standard subdivisions 



.01 Public schools and school systems 

Class public community schools in 371.03; public experimental schools in 
371.04; public education and the state in 379.2; a specific kind or level of 
public school with the subject, e.g., public elementary schools 372.10421 

.02 Private schools and school systems 

Class here publicly supported private schools, schools not under the control 
of the government 

Class private community schools in 371.03; private experimental schools in 
371.04; private education and the state in 379.3; a specific kind or level of 
private school with the subject, e.g., private secondary schools 373.222 

.03 Community schools 

.04 Experimental schools 

Including alternative education, free schools 



371.1-371.8 Organization and management 

Class comprehensive works in 371; organization and management of special 
education in 371.9; at specific levels in 372-374, 378; government regulation, 
control, and supervision of schools in 379 

For type of school, see 371.01-371.04 

.1 Teaching and teaching personnel 

Class here teaching personnel management 

Use 371.1001-371.1009 for standard subdivisions 



602 



371 Education 371 

.102 Teaching 

Class the evaluation of teachers in 371.144 

For methods of instruction, see 371.3 

.1022 Communication in teaching 

.1023 Teacher-student relations 

. 1 02 4 Classroom management 

Class here classroom discipline 

[.102 8] Open classroom approach to learning 

Number discontinued; class in 371.102 

. 1 03 Teacher-parent relations 

Class parent-teacher associations in 370.19312 

. 1 04 Relation of teachers to society 

Example: public status of teachers 

Class here comprehensive works on teacher relations, on academic 
freedom 

For teacher-student relations, see 371 . 1023; teacher-parent 
relations, 371.103; relation of teachers to school administration and 
staff, 371. 106 

.106 Relation of teachers to school administration and staff 

. 1 1 Personal characteristics and qualifications of teachers 

Class here discrimination because of sex, race, marital status 

. 1 2 Professional qualifications of teachers 

The training and educational requirements of teachers in general and those 
for teachers of specific subjects are classed here, but the techniques and 
methods of teaching a specific subject are classed with the subject at the 
secondary and higher levels, using notation 071 from Table 1 for secondary 
and higher levels, and in 372.3-372.8 at the elementary level 

Class legal aspects of the certification of teachers in 344.078, educational 
aspects of certification in 379.157 

See also 370. 71 for the professional education of teachers 

.122 Training 

Educational requirements, standards, criteria 

Class schools and colleges, courses of study in 370.7, in-service training 
in 371.146, practice teaching in 370.733 

.123 Participation in professional organizations and activities 



603 



371 Dewey Decimal Classification 371 

.14 Organization of the teaching force in the school 

Including tenure 

Class performance contracting in 371.15 

See also 331 .2596 for the economic aspects of tenure 

.141 Duties and responsibilities 

.141 2 Staffing 

Former heading: Teaching load 

For team teaching, see 371. 148 

.14122 Substitute teaching 

.14123 Differentiated staffing 

Class the use of teachers' assistants (aides) in 371.14124 

.141 24 Use of teachers' assistants (aides) 

Including paraprofessionals, volunteers 

.141 4 Nonteaching activities 

. 1 44 Evaluation of teachers 

Class here accountability, probation 

See also 371 . 15 for performance contracting, 379. 154 for 
educational accountability 

.146 In-service training 

Including teachers' and faculty meetings [formerly also 370.71], staff 
handbooks 

.148 Team teaching 

. 1 5 Performance contracting 

See also 371 . 144 for teacher accountability 

.2 School administration and management 

For plant management, see 371.6 
See Manual at 371.2 vs. 379 

SUMMARY 

371.200 1.200 9 Standard subdivisions 

.201-. 209 [General topics] 

.21 Matriculation (Admission) 

.22 Scholarships 

.23 School year 

.24 School day and week 

.25 Grouping of students for instruction 

.26 Educational tests and measurements 

.27 School and classroom evaluation of student progress 

.28 Promotion and failure 

.29 Other topics 

604 



371 Education 371 

.200 1-.200 5 Standard subdivisions 

.200 6 Organizations and management 

[.200 68] Management of schools 

Do not use; class in 371.2 and its subdivisions 

.200 7 Education, research, related topics 

Class professional education of school administrators in 370.76 

.200 8-. 200 9 Standard subdivisions 

.201 Personnel management 

Class personnel management of the teaching staff in 371.1, of 
nonacademic and staff personnel in 37 1 .202 



371.201 1-371.201 3 Executive personnel and their activities 
Class comprehensive works in 371.201 
.201 1 Superintendents 

.201 2 Principals 

.201 3 Supervisors 

.202 Nonacademic and staff personnel 

.202 2 School guidance counselors and related personnel 

Examples: school psychologists, school social workers 
.202 3 Support personnel 

Examples: school business administrators, school secretaries 

.204 Standards and accreditation of schools 

Class professional qualifications of teachers in 371.12; state regulation, 
control, support of schools in 379 

.206 Financial management 

Including tuition in private schools 

Class the financial administration of public schools in 379. 1 1 

See Manual at 658 and s.s. 068 

.207 Executive management 

Planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, reporting, decision making, 
leadership 

Class here planning as a part of the educational function; planning 
carried out by superintendents, principals, and others in connection with 
the operations of a given school or school system 

Class government planning in 379.154; planning with respect to a 
particular function with the function, e.g., planning for school health and 
safety 371.7 



605 



371 Dewey Decimal Classification 371 

.208 Internal organization of schools 

Including open plan schools 
.209 School materials 

Including purchasing, storage, inventory 
.21 Matriculation (Admission) 

.216 Admission procedures 

For entrance requirements, see 371.217 
.217 Entrance requirements 

Class the use of tests for admission in 371.264 
.218 Articulation 

Class here comprehensive works on credits 

Class credits in relation to promotion and failure in 371.28 

.219 School enrollment 

.219 09 Historical and persons treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 371.2191-371.2199 (not 
371.219091-371.219099) 

.2 1 9 1 - .2 1 9 9 Geographical treatment 

Add to base number 371.219 notation 1-9 from Table 2, e.g., school 
enrollment in Communist countries 371.2191717 

.22 Scholarships 

Including fellowships, grants 

Class here student aid, student loans 

Class tuition in public schools in 379.13, in private schools in 371.206